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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 12 Government

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AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 12th Lesson Government

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is Parliamentary Government and explain its features?
Answer:
Governments are classified into (1) Parliamentary and (2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A Parliamentary system of Government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India.

Definition:
Prof. Garner defined Parliamentary Government as “a system in which the real executive-the cabinet or ministry is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (ii) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

The main features of Parliamentary Government are :
1) Two types of executives :
There are two types of executives in the Parliamentary Government. They are 1) Nominal executive and 2) Real executive. The nominal executive is the head of the State and the real executive is the head of the Government. The King of Britain and the President of India are nominal executives. Both enjoy a position of glory without any real power. In both the countries, the Prime Minister with his council of ministers is the real executive.

2) Membership of the Parliament:
The ministers in this system are the members of legislature (Parliament). Ministers who are not members of the legislature must become its members within a stipulated period. Otherwise they have to leave the cabinet.

3) Political homogeneity :
The ministers in this system belong to the same political party. They have similar political views and ideals. They run the Government as a team. In case if no party gets absolute majority, coalition governments are formed.

4) Collective responsibility:
The council of ministers is collectively held responsible to the lower house of Parliament for its decisions, policies, failures and success. By collective responsibility we mean that if the lower house rejects the decisions of the cabinet, it has to resign. In the same way if the lower house passes ho confidence motion, it has to submit its resignation.

5) Indefinite tenure of the real executive :
The tenure of the council of ministers is not definite in this system. The cabinet remains in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house of Parliament. The council of minister resigns when it loses its confidence.

6) Leadership of the Prime Minister :
The Prime Minister is central to the life and death of the cabinet in this system. The council of ministers works under his leadership. He chooses his ministers, distributes portfolios to them and dismisses them. If he resigns, the whole government resigns.

7) Party discipline :
Party discipline is greatly found in a real Parliamentary Government. Every party in this system imposes discipline on its members by asking them to strictly adhere to its ideology, principles and programmes. Such a policy makes the members both in the party and government to fulfil their respective obligations with honesty, impartiality and sincerity. It ultimately secures political stability in the State.

Question 2.
Explain about the merits and demerits of Presidential Government.
Answer:
Presidential Government is one in which the executive is net responsible to the legislature for its acts. It is also known as single executive government, fixed tenure government and non-responsible government. Under this system a single person, namely, the President exercises all executive powers. The President as well as the legislators assume their office and continue in power for a prescribed tenure as stipulated in the constitution. The President is directly elected by the people who form into an ’electoral college.’ Further the President or the legislators are not responsible to others in exercise of their powers and functions. This system is based on the theory of separation of powers as proposed by Montesquieu. The United States is a classical example of this system.

Definition :
Prof. Garner defined Presidential Government as “one in which the executive is constitutionally independent of legislature in respect of its duration of tenure and political policies”.

Merits of Presidential Government:
The following merits are claimed for the Presidential system over the Parliamentary system.

1) Ensures stable Government:
This system ensures stability because the President is elected for a fixed term. His tenure is not dependent on the support of the legislature.

2) Efficiency in Administration:
Under this system, the President rales with the help of the secretaries and advisers who are experienced and efficient. They are appointed on the basis of their ability and efficiency but not on political considerations. They do not belong to any political party. They do not bother about the problems of their constituencies. They devote their time to administration. This promotes efficiency in administration.

3) Suitable for Emergencies:
This system is more suitable for emergencies. Since all powers are in the hands of the President, he can take any action and face any situation. He administers the country keeping in view the welfare of the people.

4) Suitable for diverse interests :
This system is best suited for countries which are inhabited by different communities with diverse interests. The President can meet the needs of diverse group of people by taking suitable decisions.

5) Consistent Policies:
The president enjoys fixed term of office. He cannot be removed before the end of his term very easily. This enables him to follow continuous and consistent domestic and foreign policies.

Demerits of Presidential Government:
The above merits are counter balanced by the following defects:

1. Scope for Disputes:
This system is based on the theory of separation of powers. Both the legislative and the executive organs are kept apart. Hus leads to frequent deadlocks and disputes between the two organs.

2. No Flexibility :
This system is very rigid. It is difficult to replace the President before the expiry of his term, even though he is weak, corrupt and inefficient.

3. Irresponsible and Autocratic :
This system provides scope for the President to rule irresponsibly and autocratically. It is so because he is independent of the control of the legislature and not accountable it for his actions. He ignores the criticism of the opposition. This makes him to misuse and abuse his powers.

4. Division of Responsibility :
This system leads to division of responsibility which affects the smooth working of government. When the relations between the legislature and the executive are not cordial, each may try to shift the responsibility on the other. This leads to inefficiency and division of responsibility in administration.

5. Public opinion is not reflected:
This system does not promote political consciousness because there is no significance for the legislature. The President and his secretaries are not the members of the legislature. So, they do not participate in its debates and discussions. As a result, the discussions in the legislature become formal and diy. They do not have much significance and reflect public opinion.

Despite the above defects, the Presidential system has been highly successful in the United States of America. It has become very popular with the Americans. In recent years, there has been a debate in India also on its relevance.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 3.
Describe the merits and demerits of Unitary Government. [A.P. Mar. 18. A.P. & T.S. Mar. 15]
Answer:
On the basis of distribution of powers between the Centre and the States, Governments are classified into Unitary and Federal. A Unitary Government is one in which all powers are vested in the Centre. For administrative convenience, the country may be divided into regional units which may be called as States. The units are mere agents of the Centre. They have no autonomy. The Centre transfers some of its powers to the units and they can be withdrawn by the centre at any time. Herman Finer defined Unitaiy Government as “a Government in which all authority and power are lodged in a single centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”. This type of Government exists in Britain, France, China, Japan, Italy etc.

Meaning:
The word ‘Unitaiy1 consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Taiy, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definitions of Unitary Government:
1. A.V. Dicey :
“Unitaiy Government is one in which one central power habitually exercises the supreme legislative authority”.

2. Herman Finer:
“Unitary Government is one in which all powers and authority are lodged with a centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”.

3. Prof. J.W. Gamer :
“Unitary Government is one in which the whole power of the Government is conferred by the Constitution upon a single central organ or organs from which the local governments derive their authority”.

Merits of Unitary Government:
Unitary Government has many merits. Some of them may be identified in the following lines as below.

1. Powerful Government:
Unitary Government brings uniformity in administrative and legislative matters. As there is only one central government having single legislature, executive and judicial wings, the central government will remain most powerful in its working. So this government provides stable and integrated rule.

2. Efficient Rule :
In a unitary set up all the regional or Provincial Governments strictly.follow the instructions of the Central Government. The Central Government tackles all issues efficiently and effectively. This is due to the concentration of governmental powers in the Central Government.

3. Less expensive and time saving:
These will be only one Government in a Unitary, System. Provincial units may or may not exist. As a result, the formation and maintenance of Unitary Government requires less amount of finances. There will be no duplication of institutions. As a result public money and time are saved in Unitary System.

4. Administrative Uniformity :
In unitary system the entire country is placed under the direct rule and control of the Central Government. As a result there will be uniform laws, rules and regulations throughout the country. This secures uniformity in law-making and administrative process.

5. Quick decisions possible:
Unitary system comprises one government for the entire State. That Government takes decisions quickly and promptly. As a result Unitary Government will tackle any unforeseen events in times of emergency.

6. Single citizenship :
The citizens in a unitary state will have single citizenship. So, there will be no discrimination between them within the four corners of the country. Ultimately, single citizenship promotes national unity, integraty and solidarity among the people.

7. Useful for small countries:
Unitary Government is suitable to the small countries having limited population and geographical area. Moreover, it embodies the element of homogeneity in respect of culture, language, race, religion etc.

Demerits of Unitary Government:
Unitary Government has several demerits. They may be listed out as follows.

1. Scope for Despotism :
As all the powers are vested with the Central Government in a Unitary System, the persons at the helm of affairs may adopt despotic policies thereby affecting the freedoms of individuals.

2. More burden on Central Government:
There will be no distribution of powers between the Central and State Governments in this system. Only the Central Government carries on all the functions. As a result, there will be a scope for more burden on Central Government leading to negligence and delay.

3. Growth of inefficiency :
The local or regional governments do nqt have much autonomy and independence in this system. So the former depend upon the Central Government. People too lose their political initiative at local levels. This leads to the growth of inefficiency in administration.

4. Not suitable for large countries :
Unitary Government is not suitable to large countries having extensive population, vast territory, diverse cultures and religions. So unity in diversity is difficult to achieve in large countries.

5. Irresponsibility:
The Central Government is not responsible to anybody in a unitary set up. The units cannot dictate terms to the Central Government. So there is a scope for the Central Government to behave irresponsibly.

Question 4.
What are the functions of Legislature? [A.P. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Legislature is the law-making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :
Functions of Legislature:
1) Legislative functions :
The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Law-making is the most important activity of legislature.

2) Deliberative functions:
The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.

3) Executive functions :
In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessary, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.

4) Financial functions :
The legislature controls the national finances. It passes the annual budget and allots the funds for various departments. It suggests the ways and means of raising the revenue and spending it.’

5) Judicial functions :
The legislature, especially, the upper house, performs some judicial functions. In Britain, the House of Lords functions as the highest Court of Justice. In America and India the legislatures try cases of impeachment against the Presidents and the Justices of Supreme Court and High Courts.

6) Constitutional functions:
The legislature amends the constitution as per the needs of the country which change from time to time.

7) Electoral functions:
In some countries, the legislatures perform electoral functions also. Ex: The elected members of the Indian Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies elect the President of India. In Switzerland, the members of Federal Assembly elect the judges of the Federal Tribunal.

8) Other functions :
Besides the above, the Legislature performs functions like accepting or rejecting the ordinances issued by the Head of the State, electing the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, appointing enquiry committees etc.

Question 5.
Discuss the functions of the Executive.
Answer:
Of the three organs of government, the Executive occupies the most important place. Very often it is referred to as the Government. It refers to that branch of government which executes or enforces the laws of the State. It is used in two senses – narrow sense and broader sense. In its broader sence, it denotes all State officials who are concerned with the execution of laws and administration. In its narrow sense it refers to the heads of departments (ministers) who run the machinery of Government.

The President in America and the Prime Minister and other Ministers in India constitute executive in the narrow sense.

Functions of the Executive :
The functions of the executive differ from country to country depending upon the nature of Government and the ideology of the State. Apart from law – execution, it undertakes a number of functions which can be studied under the following heads :

1) Administrative functions :
The entire administration is carried on in the name of the executive. Its functions in this context include: appointment of highest officials, giving directions to different administrative departments, changing the rules and regulations from time to time, enforcing laws, maintaining order and peace etc.

2) Diplomatic functions :
These include functions like conducting foreign affairs, appointing diplomatic personnel to foreign countries and receiving them from other States, concluding treaties and agreements, sending peace missions for promoting friendly ties with other countries, arranging ceremonial welcome and tour programmes to the Heads of the foreign countries etc.

3) Military functions:
These include protecting the territorial integrity of the Country against external invasion, maintaining armed forces, declaring war or concluding treaty of peace with other countries and acting as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

4) Legislative functions :
Executive enjoys certain legislative powers also. In Parliamentary Government the executive guides the work of legislature. It summons, prorogues and dissolves the legislature, issues ordinances when the legislature is not session; gives approval to the bills passed by the legislature, vetoes any bill or sends it back to the legislature cannot directly participate in legislation. ‘Even then, it influences legislation by exercising veto power, sending messages to it.

5) Financial functions :
The executive prepares the Budget, raises the revenue and spends it on different items. Maintaining financial stability of the State is the responsibility of the executive. Levy or abolition of taxes, provisions of capital funds, reduction of prices etc., come under the purview of executive functions.

6) Judicial functions :
The executive in all countries under takes some judicial functions like appointing the judges to the highest courts of law, removing them on grounds of proved misbehaviour, granting pardons, reprieves and remissions of punishments, implementing the Judgement Qf the Courts of law etc.

7) Other functions :
Apart from the above, the executive also undertakes functions like framing plans for the development of the country; declaring emergency during war; granting titles and awards, implementing welfare programmes etc.

In view of the above functions, the executive is described .as “a multi – functional . organ”. It is the mainspring of the Government. It makes the wheel go round.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 6.
Point out the functions of the Judiciary.
Answer:
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary:
1. Interpretation of Laws:
The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2. Custodian of the Constitution :
Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3. Guardian of Civil Liberties :
Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo- warranto and Certiorari.

4. Federal equilibrium :
Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5. Advisory Functions:
Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of. the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6. Appellate Jurisdiction :
The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7. Maintenance of records :
Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8. Acting as Head of the State :
In some countries, under certain conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and Vice-President in office.

9. Administrative Functions :
The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the traditional form of Governments.
Answer:
The ancient Greek political philosophers like Aristotle held detailed deliberations on the classification of States. The modem political scientists prefer to call such classification as ‘classification of governments’. On the whole, governments are classified into three types namely monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Some of the traditional and modern classifications are mentioned below.
Aristotle’s classification of Governments

Number of persons having ruling power End of the State
Normal form Perverted form
One Monarchy Tyranny
Few Aristocracy Oligarchy
Many Polity Democracy

Aristotle classified Governments on the basis of two elements, namely, (i) Number of persons holding power and (ii) end of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms.

He mentioned monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, Oligarchy and Democracy are the perverted form of Governments. According to him monarchy is a rule by one person, who exercises powers himself. When that person rules the state with good intensions, such government is known as monarchy. Otherwise it will degenerate into tyranny. Aristocracy is a noble form of government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talents, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers.

When these persons exercise powers with selfish motivations, such a government is known as oligarchy. Polity is a form of government comprising many persons who have noble qualities such as set honesty impartiality, wisdom etc., on the other hand democracy is a perverted form of government in the sense that the rulers always assign priority to their self interests thereby ignoring popular wishes.

Question 2.
What are the features of Unitary Government? [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Definition :
A.V. Dicey “A Unitary Government is the habitat exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Features of Unitary Government:
The basic or essential features are as follows :
1. Single government:
A Unitary government consists of a single Central Government for the entire country. It has all the powers. The concentration of all powers in the Central Government is meant for uniformity and efficiency in administration.

2. Provincial government:
In a Unitary Government, the provisional governments are not created by constitution. They are created by the Central Government for the sake of administrative convenience. The Central Government has the power to destroy the provincial governments. The states are the agents of the Central Government.

3. Transfer of powers :
For the sake of administrative convenience, the Central Government may transfer some of its powers to the provincial governments. These powers can also be taken back by the centre at any time.

4. Constitution :
A Unitary Government may have an unwritten constitution. Ex : Britain has an unwritten constitution. However, all the unitary states do not follow the model of Britain. France, a unitary state has a written constitution.

5. Single citizenship:
In a unitary state, all the citizens will have only one citizenship. No citizen will have the citizenship of the state in which he lives.

6. Unicameral legislature :
A unitary state may also function with a unicameral legislature (one house only). It is possible because, in a unitary state, the states need not have representation in the upper chamber. However, all the unicameral states do not opt for it. Ex: Britain, France, China have bicameral legislatures.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 3.
Discuss the features of Federal Government. [A.P. 18]
Answer:
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning:
The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

Definitions :
1. A.V. Dicey :
“A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights.

2. J.W.‘Garner:
Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.

3. Hamilton :
“Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.

4. K.C. Wheare :
“A federal government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features, of Federal Government:

Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1. Written Constitution:
A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2. Dual Citizenship :
Federal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the. States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3. Division of Powers:
In a Federation, the Powers of Government are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc., having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4. Bicameralism :
Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5. Rigidity:
Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it cannot be amended easily. The Concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6. Independent Judiciary :
Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. The Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by any body under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

Question 4.
What are the Merits of Parliamentary Government?
Answer:
Merits :
The merits of the Parliamentaiy Government may be explained as follows :
1) Co-ordination between the Legislature and Executive Organs:
Executive is chosen from the Legislature in this system. Hence, there is greater opportunity for good Co-ordination and harmonious relationship between the legislature and executive organs.

2) No scope for despotism :
All the powers of the State will be equally distributed between the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The executive is responsible to the Parliament and it can be removed by ‘no confidence motion’. Hence, there is no scope for the executive to become despotic in this Government.

3) Scope for distribution of powers :
Parliamentary Government stands for the distribution of political power and administrative authority. The constitutional machinery of this system allocates Governmental powers among several persons who have commitment, commonsense, public spirit etc.

4) Easy to form alternative Government:
Parliamentary Govemmentfenables easy formation of Government. Normally, that party or those parties which securejnajority seats in the lower house of the legislature, during general election, will be able to form the Government. Similarly, changes in governmental policies could be initiated op easy lines. Whenever the party in power resigns or is removed from power, the opposition parties will make efforts to form alternative government.

5) Adequate representation :
Parliamentary Government provides adequate representation to the various sections and regions. The executive and legislative branches in this system comprise members representing various walks of life. No one including the minorities is ignored in this system. As a result, it embodies national spirit and unity among the people.

Question 5.
Explain the Theory of Separation of Powers.
Answer:
Montesquieu is the main proponent of this theory. Montesquieu explained this theory in his book “The Spirit of Laws” (1748). He visited England and made a comparative study of the French despotism and the British Parliamentary democracy He came to the conclusion that the Britishers enjoyed greater liberty because of the separation of powers among the three branches of British Government.

Montesquieu stated that concentration of powers in one person or a body of persons would result in despotism and negate individual liberty. He suggested separation of powers among the three organs of government in a balanced manner. Every organ must check the misuse of powers of other organs. Then only individuals enjoy their liberties without fear from the governmental interference. His theory became the basis of American Constitution. It is aptly said that the American Constitution is an essay on the theory of separation of powers propounded by Montesquieu. The constitutions of many countries including India have incorporated the ideas of Montesquieu.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 6.
Discuss any three functions of Legislature.
Answer:
Legislature is the law – making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :
1) Legislative functions :
The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Law-making is the most important activity of legislature.

2) Deliberative functions:
The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.

3) Executive functions :
In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessaiy, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Government.
Answer:
Prof. J.W. Gamer defined “Government as the agency or machinery through which common policies are determined and by which common affairs are regulated and common interests are promoted.”

Question 2.
Write about Aristotle’s classification on Government.
Answer:
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely, i) Number of rulers ii) Aims of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 3.
Write the meaning of Aristocracy. [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Aristocracy is a noble form of Government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talent, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers. When these persons exercise their powers with selfish motivations, such a Government is known as oligarchy.

Question 4.
Define Democracy. [T.S. Mar, 15]
Answer:
i) Aristotle defines “Democracy as a perverted form of Government of many rulers”.
ii) Abraham Lincoln defines “Democracy is a Government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

Question 5.
What is a Unitary Government?
Answer:
Meaning:
The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition :
A.V. Dicey “A Unitary government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 6.
What do you mean by Federal Government? [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers* of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning:
The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means ‘Treaty of Agreement”.

Question 7.
Write briefly about the theory of separation of powers.
Answer:
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his5 famous book The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government In presidential executive will be distributed on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is ‘Checks and Balance’, which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

Question 8.
How many orgam of government are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are three organs of Government.
They are :

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

Question 9.
What do you understand by Parliamentary Government?
Answer:
Governments are classified into (1) Parliamentary and (2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A Parliamentary system of Government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India. ‘

Definition:
Prof. Gamer defined Parliamentary Government as “a system in which the real executive-the cabinet or ministry – is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (8) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 10.
What are the other names of Presidential Government?
Answer:
The other names for Presidential Government are :

  • Single Executive Government,
  • Fixed Tenure Government and
  • Non Responsible Government’

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 11th Lesson Constitutions Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 11th Lesson Constitutions

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Constitution and explain its features of the Constitution.
Answer:
Introduction :
The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a constitution. A Constitution is a condition of modem state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

Meaning:
The term constitution is an English word. It was derived from a Latin word “Constitution, which means to Establish”.

Definitions:
1) Aristotle :
“Constitution is the arrangement of offices in a state, especially the highest of all”.

2) Lord Bryce:
“Constitution is a set of established rules embodying and enacting the practice of Government”.

3) Stephen Leacock:
“Constitution is the form of Government”.

4) K.C. Wheare :
“Constitution is that body of rules which regulates the ends for which governmental power is exercised”.

Features of the Constitution:
1) Preamble :
Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2) Clarity:
Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights :
Every Constitution includes some funda-mental rights. These fundamerital rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4) Brevity :
Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confussion among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included in the Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5) Flexibility:
The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modem state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6) Permanence:
Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

7) Mode of Amendment:
The Constitution specifies the mode of amendment. It will be relevant to the contemporary conditions of the state. It contains a special chapter on the constitutional amendment procedures. Usually the constitutional amendments are of three types, namely (i) Rigid (ii) Flexible and (iii) Half rigid and Half flexible. On the whole, the constitution of every state comprises both rigid and flexible elements.

8) Explanatory:
The Constitution is explanatory in nature. It denotes and discusses almost all elements relating to the People, Government and State. It contains separate provisions on the structure, powers and limitations of state activity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
Define Constitution and point out the differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitutions.
Answer:
Definition :
The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a Constitution. A constitution is a condition of modem state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

Flexible Constitution:
Flexible constitution is one whose provisions can be amended easily. It requires no special procedure for changing its provisions. It can be amended by the authorities by adopting the same procedure of ordinary laws. So we do not find differences between ordinary and constitutional laws. Flexible constitutions were prevalent in the ancient period. Ex : British constitution.

Rigid Constitution :
Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. Ex : United States.

Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Not appropriate to a federal state. 2. Appropriate for a federal state.
3. Highly unstable. 3. Highly stable.
4. Constitution can be easily amended. 4. Constitution cannot be easily amended.
5. Provides no scope for judicial review. 5. Provides scope for judicial review.
6. Only one type of law is found. 6. Two types of laws are found, constitutional and ordinary. Constitutional laws precede ordinary laws.
7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people may not be safeguarded by the Judiciary. 7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people will be better safeguarded by the Judiciary.
8. No scope for revolutions. 8. Scope for revolutions.
9. Possibility of unlimited legislative power. 9. Possibility of a limited legislative power.
10. More suitable to the politically advanced states. 10. More suitable to the developing nations.
11. It makes no differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws. 11. It makes differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws.
12. Appropriate to small states. 12. Appropriate to large states.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Constitution. Explain its features. [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Features of the Constitution:
1) Preamble :
Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2) Clarity:
Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights :
Every Constitution includes some fundamental rights. These fundamental rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4) Brevity :
Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confession among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included inf he Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5) Flexibility:
The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modem state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6) Permanence:
Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
Explain the various bases of classifying constitutions.
Answer:
Political Scientists classified the constitutions into various types on the basis of (i) Evolution (ii) Nature (iii) Amendment. They are mentioned in the following table.
AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions 1

1) Evolution of Constitution:
On the basis of evolution, constitutions are divided into two types, namely (a) Evolved Constitution (b) Enacted Constitution.
a) Evolved Constitution :
Evolved Constitution is also called as Cumulative Constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material. It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. It is not made as it grows with the roots in the past. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions etc act as the sources of this consitution. E.g. Britain.

b) Enacted Constitution :
Enacted Constitution is also known as Conventional Constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially convened for that purpose. It is promulgated by the sovereign authority – King or Parliament. The provisions of this constitution are incorporated in a document or a series of documents. E.g. United States, India.

2) Nature of Constitution:
Constitutions are classified into two types on the basis of the incorporation of the various provisions. They are
a) Written Constitution and
b) Unwritten Constitution

Question 3.
What are the merits and demerits of a Written Constitution?
Answer:
Written Constitution :
A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Merits:

  1. A written constitution carries more simplicity. It gives no scope for confusion and ambiguity among the people in understanding the structure and organization of various institutions.
  2. It protects the fundamental rights of the people.
  3. It puts limitations on the powers of the Government.
  4. It renders political stability due to its rigid nature.
  5. It embodies the aspirations of the people. It cautions the Government about the importance of the accomplishment of popular needs.
  6. It maintains equilibrium between the centre and the states by allocating powers in a judicious manner.
  7. It safeguards the sanctity and spirit of a federation.

Demerits:

  1. A written constitution cannot provide a better Government as it impose some . stipulated conditions on the party in power.
  2. It makes the judiciary a predominant one.
  3. Its provisions cannot be changed according to the needs and wishes of the people. So, the progress of the nations lags behind.
  4. Its rigid nature is not helpful to the development of the state.
  5. It gives scope for conflicts among the governmental organs.
  6. It may not be conductive to the formation of a welfare state.

Question 4.
Explain the merits and demerits of Unwritten Constitution.
Answer:
Unwritten Constitution: Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws.

The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Merits:

  1. An unwritten constitution paves the way for progressive legislation. It has development orientation.
  2. It always undergoes the process of evolution as it aims at ‘bettering the best’.
  3. It gives no scope for revolutions and such other agitations. It concedes to the popular demands.
  4. It can be amended according to the popular needs and aspirations.
  5. Its provisions are elastic in nature. So, changes in the constitution are easily made.

Demerits:

  1. An unwritten constitution may be changed frequently by the party in power for its political gains. This affects the political stability of the nation.
  2. It fails to protect the rights and freedoms of people.
  3. It is more informal in nature.
  4. It is also not suitable for federal states.
  5. An unwritten constitution is considered as a play tool of judges. This may lead to judicial manipulations.
  6. It is prone to frequent amendments.
  7. It is not suitable to democratic states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 5.
Distinguish between Written and Unwritten Constitution.
Answer:
Written Constitution :
A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution:
Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 6.
Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Answer:
Rigid Constitution :
Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary’ laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. The Constitution of the United States is the best example of a rigid constitution.

Merits:

  1. Rigid constitution secures political stability.
  2. It is a product of political experience.
  3. It avoids hasty and ill-considered legislation.
  4. It protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  5. It preserves and enhances the interests of the provinces in a federal state.
  6. It is suitable for all kinds of people.

Demerits :

  1. Rigid constitution cannot be easily amended to suit the changing needs.
  2. It may affect the nation’s progress and growth.
  3. It is not suitable for tackling the issues arising during emergencies.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by Constitution?
Answer:
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
What is an Evolved Constitution?
Answer:
Evolved constitution is also called Cumulative constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material; It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions are the major sources of this Constitution. Ex : British Constitution.

Question 3.
What is an Enacted Constitution?
Answer:
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex: The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

Question 4.
Write any three merits and demerits of the Flexible Constitution.
Answer:
Merits of Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is elastic and adaptable in nature. Its provisions can be easily amended from time to time.
  2. It is responsive and responsible to popular wishes.
  3. It protects the people from the dangers of revolutions.

Demerits of the Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is not suitable to the federal states, having a rigid constitutions.
  2. It is not suitable to democratic states.
  3. It is highly unstable.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 5.
Mention any two differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitutions.
Answer:
Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 10th Lesson Secularism Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 10th Lesson Secularism

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Secularism and explain the conceptions of Secularism.
Answer:
Introduction:
Secularism is one of the characteristic feature of a Modem State. Secular State explains the relation between the State and Religion. The concept of secularism was popularised by the state authority to control the religion and religious authority oyer the state affairs.

Meaning:
The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of Religion”.

Definitions:
1) E.S. Waterhouse :
Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.

2) GJ. Holyoake :
“Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Conceptions of Secularism :
Secularism has many conceptions. Some of them may be explained as below:

1. Secularism a humanistic and atheistic philosophy :
Secularism has several personal, cultural, political and social implications. It was humanistic in nature as it seeks the well being of human beings. It assigns importance to the saying that man is the measure of all things. It neither supports nor opposes religion. It allows individuals with the discretion of choosing and following their religion.

2. Political and social dimension :
Secularism has certain political and social dimensions. It stands for the achievement of autonomous political and social order having naturalistic and materialistic perspectives. It allows religious freedom in the matters of family, association and society.

3. Liberty and Secularism:
Secularism serves as a beneficial element of liberty and Secularism. It also acts as the basis of liberal Secularism. It strongly opposes the existence, continuance and survival of authoritarian religious leaders and institutions. It advocated Secularism and decentralisation of governmental powers.

4. Opposition to religion :
Secularism is vehemently opposed to the supporting of religion in public matters. It condemned the presence and domirlance of eclesiastical authorities. It relegated religion to unimportant matters of life. It considered that people could follow their rituals without affecting the peace and order in society. Individuals must carry on their religious activities without causing harm, hatred and ill-will among the followers of other religious denominations. They must consider the noble aims and aspirations of the makers of the constitution.

Question 2.
Describe the meaning and various dimensions of Secularism.
Answer:
Introduction:
Secularism is one of the characteristic feature of a Modem State. Secular State explains the relation between the State and Religion. The concept of secularism was popularised by the state authority to control the religion and religious authority over the state affairs.

Meaning:
The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of religion”.

Definitions:
1) E.S. Waterhouse :
Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.

2) G J. Holyoake :
“Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Dimensions of Secularism: Secularism can be analysed under the following dimensions:
1. Social dimension :
Secularism stands for eschewing or ignoring superstitions in social life. It never allows individuals to think and act in terms of one’s caste, colour, creed etc. It desires individuals to abstain untouchability, bonded labour and other evil practices in their day-to-day activities while dealing with their neighbours. It advises them to treat others on equal and respectable manner. It cautions them against the practice of caste disparities, colour differentiations, racial bigotry etc. At the end, it prescribed harmonious relations between individuals in society.

2. Economic dimension:
Economic dimension of Secularism relates to the freedom of individuals to embrace, practice and propagate an occupation which they like best. It restrains them against the practice of religious discrimination between individuals in utilizing natural, human and economic resources in productive operations. It did not allow the State authorities to observe discretion in sanctioning permits and licenses to the entrepreneurs on religious grounds. It assigns significance to elements like merit, talent, enterprising spirit etc., while allocating industrial licenses and other operations among individuals in the economy.

3. Political dimension:
Secularism has also some political dimensions. It allows the citizens to have complete freedom in political affairs. It believes that politics, administration, legislation and execution of public policies are entirely different from religious matters. Accordingly citizens in a Secular State are conferred several political rights and freedoms in choosing the candidates and exercising their franchise during elections. It gives scope for any citizen to hold any public office within the State irrespective of religious conside¬rations. It will not consider religion as a pre-requisite for granting political rights. It will pave the way for democratic aspirations and freedom of the people. To say in brief political dimension of secularism in synonymous with the democratic functioning of modem state.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 3.
What do you. know about the meaning and merits of Secularism?
Answer:
Introduction:
Secularism is one of the characteristic feature of a Modem State. Secular State explains the relation between the State and Religion. The concept of secularism was popularised by the state authority to control the religion and religious authority over the State affairs.

Meaning:
The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of religion”.

Definitions:
1) E.S. Waterhouse :
Secularism is an ideology which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.

2) G.J. Holyoake :
“Secularism is an idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religious beliefs”.

Merits of Secularism :
The following are some of the important merits of secularism.

1. Equality:
Secularism forms as the basis of equalitarian society. It treats the people belonging to all religious denominations as equal. It gives no recognition to the man made inequalities and discriminations based on caste, colour, community, region, religion, language, race etc. People will have a strong favourable impression towards the nation.

2. Religious freedom :
Secularism enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent. The state will not interfere in the religious affairs of individuals. The Constitution and various laws in a Secular State will provide individuals with complete freedom to embrance, profess, practice and propagate any religion as they like.

3. taw and order:
Now a days one can observe unhappy, miserable and pro-religious movements that are organized by different sections of government, state and other department. The maintenance of communal harmony became a challenging task for the state in pacifying the feelings the people belonging to various religious denominations. Secularism avoids communal clashes and religious bigotry and animosities in the society. This is due to the fact that secularism ultimately promotes religious harmony among the people.

4. Rule of law:
Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to.all religious denomination. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly it makes no discrimination between the people on the ground of religion.

5. Tolerance :
Secularism preaches tolerance and kindness. It believes in universal brotherhood of man and fatherhood of God. It professes, propagates and practices the noble principles of charity, kindness, love, magnanimity, non-violence etc. As a result, Secularism is characterized by the peaceful co-existence of people and smooth working of the polity and social institutions in the state.

6. National integration :
Secularism serves as the best means for fostering national unity and integrity feelings among the people. It is also considered as the best device for achieving unity in diversity. It brings unity among the people of various religious beliefs and practices.

7. Protection to the minorities:
Secularism treats all alike. It makes no discrimination between the people of majority and other sections of society. At the same time it extends special facilities to the minority sections for preserving and promoting their interests against the dominance of majority religious group. It teaches the people about the significance of religious tolerance towards minority sections.

8. Alround progress:
The greatest merit of secularism relates to the achievement of alround progress of the people. This is possible due to the prevalence of rule of law, religious tolerance, neutral attitude of the government etc. Especially the government will make all efforts for the development of the people of all religious denominations in all spheres of welfare, social justice, protecting the interests of disadvantages sections etc.

Question 4.
Define Secular State and elaborate the features and importance of Secular State.
Answer:
Introduction :
A State following secular policy in administrative, educational and employment matters is known as Secular State. The government in Secular State follows a neutral policy in religious matters of the people. Ex: India

Definition :
D.E.Smith defined secular state as “none while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion”.

Features of Secular State :
Secular State comprises the following features.

1. No place for religion:
Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status :
Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations. ‘

3. No state religion :
Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Importance of Secular State :
The concept of Secular State became more important in recent years. Factors like spread of democratic spirit, science and technology, development of transport and communication facilities, rational thinking, welfarism etc., led to the growing importance of Secular State. On the whole, importance of Secular State may be explained with the following points.

  1. Secular state strengthens the non-religious forces in-different fields in the State.
  2. It drives away the social evils and superstitions from the minds of the people.
  3. It contributes to social reformation by driving away the communal bigotry and religious fundamentalism.
  4. It promotes scientific temper and helps intellectual progress of the people.
  5. It gives priority to reason over faith, logic over magic and fact over fiction.
  6. It provides security and protection to religious minorities.
  7. It accommodates every individual with his personal religious beliefs.

Question 5.
Point out Secularism in Indian context.
Answer:
After independence the Constitution of India provided for Secularism as the basic philosophy underlying the organization and functioning of Indian Republic. Accordingly the constitution of India declared India as a secular state. The governments in India (including tiie union, state, provincial and local authorities) adopt secularism in theory and practice. It should not practice religion in public matters in the matters of legislation, execution and administration of the State. People of India are allowed complete religious freedom for professing, practicing and propagating their respective religious beliefs. The State will be neither irreligious nor anti religious. Instead it adopts a neutral policy in religious matters.

It is not entitled to impose taxes or collect them purely on religious grounds. Admissions into the state or government aided institutions are completely prohibited on religious grounds. Similarly, propagation of religious programmes in public institutions are banned. Hence secularism carries a lot of importance as per the constitutional provisions.

It may be noted that the word ‘Secular’ did not find place at first in the Constitution. The preamble too did not contain any wording of secularism. However, keeping in view the ongoing communal incidents for decades together after independence, the top leaders in the union government felt the need for incorporating the word ‘Secular’ in the Preamble. They wanted to avoid religious tensions and forbid communal clashes between the various religious denominations in India.

The Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976 made a provision for the word Secular’ in the Preamble. Smt. Indira Gandhi, India’s third Prime Minister, at the time of introducing the Constitution (forty second amendment) bill in Parliament stated thus “Secularism is neither favouring nor showing in difference to a religion to religion. It implies equal respect for all religious denominations. There is no future for any nation by adopting mere tolerance. Positive respect by every religious group towards other religious groups is the need of the hour”.

Question 6.
Is India a Secular State? Justify this with some examples.
Answer:
It is asserted that India is a Secular State. The addition of the word Secular’ to our Constitution by 42nd Amendment in 1976 proves this fact. Even from the beginning of the Constitution, India is a Secular State. Several provisions of the Indian Constitution also prove this fact.

  1. Article 15(1) holds that no discrimination shall be observed in the provision of employment opportunities in government. But certain sections of the people may be allowed some special privileges.
  2. Article 17 states that practice of untouchability is a crime and illegal.
  3. According to Article 25, every Indian citizen enjoys the freedom to profess and propagate the religion of his own choice. It also allows them to donate their properties for the religious purposes.
  4. Article 26 guarantees every person to
    1. Establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions.
    2. Manage his/her religious affairs.
    3. Own and acquire moveable and immovable properties and
    4. Maintain such properties in accordance with law.
  5. Article 27 states that state shall hot impose any tax upon the individual for the development of religions. It also implies that state shall not impose taxes on the basis of the religious principles of individuals.
  6. Article 28 forbids the imparting of religious teachings in the educational institutions which are wholly or partly aided tty the government. No religious prayers or discussions shall be conducted in educational institutions.
  7. Articles 28 and 29 mention that no admissions shall be made on religious basis in educational institutions which are financed wholly or partly by the state. No individual on religions grounds shall be denied the right to admission into different academic courses in. educational institutions.
  8. The people belonging to minority communities shall be provided with right to protect and promote their language, culture and script by establishing and maintaining their own educational institutions. From the above points, we may say that India is a Secular State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 7.
Suggest measures for making India a Secular State.
Answer:
It is highly essential to wipe out the communal feelings from the minds of people for establishing a real Secular State. In this regard, the following measures have to be adopted by the government, political parties, voluntaiy organizations and people.

  1. The ministers and government officers shall not attend to or participate in the meetings held by religious associations. They shall not adopt any religious methods or poojas at the time of laying foundation or inaugurating the public buildings or programmes and give an impression that they do not favour a particular religion.
  2. Government shall ban all those religious associations which carry on their activities against national or social interests and the constitution.
  3. Government shall not allow the construction of religious structures which may, impede peace and tranquility in a particular locality.
  4. Government shall implement land reforms, family welfare, employment generation and other programmes without any religious bias.
  5. Government shall ban those political parties which use religion for securing votes. Similarly all parties formed on communal basis shall be banned. Use of religious symbols during elections should be banned.
  6. Government shall take steps for publishing text books on secular basis. The text books shall consist of lessons preaching religious tolerance or universal religion.
  7. Efforts shall be made for solving the various social and economic problems on rational and scientific basis without reference to religion.
  8. The various information and communication agencies shall not disseminate information and incidents on religious grounds. They shall not give undue importance to communal riots which may provoke further unrest between the same groups elsewhere.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write about the origin of Secularism.
Answer:
The ancient Roman emperors denied recognition to the Christian religion. In the medieval period social and religious reformers like Martin Luther and Calvin Zwingle challenged the spiritual monopoly of religious heads. They advocated that religion and spiritual matters are purely personal and private matters. Their speeches marked a break through in religious matters. In modem period, political thinkers like Machiavelli and Jean Bodin emphasized the need for the separation of religion from politics.

John Locke and other liberal thinkers advised the people to follow religious tolerance. In course of time, the writings of the above thinkers influenced the people who began to treat religion as a private and personal affair. In the United States, President Thomas Jafforson explained the real meaning of Secularism by stating that there exists a wall of separation between the State and the Religion.

Question 2.
List out the factors that led to the spread of Secularism.
Answer:
It is believed that the following factors have led to the spread of Secularism in general in many parts of the world.

  • People negative attitude towards superstitions
  • Spread of rationed thinking
  • Spread of democratic values and institutions
  • Advancement in science and technology
  • Awareness about the evils of religion
  • Impact of social legislation
  • Need for secular approach
  • Social and economic betterment of individuals
  • Influence of secular political leadership
  • Importance to international peace and order

The above factors have profoundly influenced secularism in modem period.

Question 3.
Narrate any three conceptions of Secularism.
Answer:
Conceptions of Secularism :
Secularism has many conceptions. Some of them may be explained as below :

1. Secularism a humanistic and atheistic philosophy :
Secularism has several personal, cultural, political and social implications. It was humanistic in nature as it seeks the well being of human beings. It assigns importance to the saying that man is the measure of all things. It neither supports nor opposes religion. It allows individuals with the discretion of choosing and following their religion.

2. Political and social dimension :
Secularism has certain political and social dimensions. It stands for the achievement of autonomous political and social order having naturalistic and materialistic perspectives. It allows religious freedom in the matters of family, association and society.

3. Liberty and Secularism:
Secularism serves as a beneficial element of liberty and Secularism. It also acts as the basis of liberal Secularism. It strongly opposes the existence, continuance and survival of authoritarian religious leaders and institutions. It advocated Secularism and decentralisation of governmental powers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 4.
Briefly analyse the dimensions of Secularism.
Answer:
Dimensions of Secularism: Secularism can be analysed under the following dimensions:

1. Social dimension :
Secularism stands for eschewing or ignoring superstitions in social life. It never allows individuals to think and act in terms of one’s caste, colour, creed etc. It desires individuals to abstain untouchability, bonded labour and other evil practices in their day-to-day activities while dealing with their neighbours. It advises them to treat others on equal and respectable manner. It cautions them against the practice of caste disparities, colour differentiations, racial bigotry etc. At the end, it prescribed harmonious relations between individuals in society.

2. Economic dimension:
Economic dimension of Secularism relates to the freedom of individuals to embrace, practice and propagate an occupation which they like best. It restrains them against the practice of religious discrimination between individuals in utilizing natural, human and economic resources in productive operations. It did not allow the State authorities to observe discretion in sanctioning permits and licenses to the entrepreneurs on religious grounds. It assigns significance to elements like merit, talent, enterprising spirit etc., while allocating industrial licenses and other operations among individuals in the economy.

3. Political dimension :
Secularism has also some political dimensions. It allows the citizens to have complete freedom in political affairs. It believes that politics, administration, legislation and execution of public policies are entirely different from religious matters. Accordingly citizens in a Secular State are conferred several political rights and freedoms in choosing the candidates and exercising their franchise during elections. It gives scope for any citizen to hold any public office within the State irrespective of religious considerations. It will not consider religion as a pre-requisite for granting political rights. It will pave the way for democratic aspirations and freedom of the people. To say in brief political dimension of secularism in synonymous with the democratic functioning of modem state.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Theocracy?
Answer:
Theocracy technically means rule by God. In practice, it implies rule by priests. It originated from the theory that all legitimate powers emanate from God. It found expression in the priestly order having the sole right to interpret laws as was the case in Ancient Judiasm and Hinduism. It is also exhibited in the present day Islam. The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated Or controlled by the State. All the official and important offices of the State are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion.

State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals. State provides funds to the religious propagation and to the restoration or construction of the places of worship. Religious co-existence and religious tolerance are said to be minimal in these States. The religious teachers and the religious rituals play a pivotal role in State affairs. Religious personal law is predominant in the enactment of laws and in the way of life of the people. Even in food habits and dress, the importance of religions dictates the public life. States like Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and so many other Islamic states are the best examples of a Theocratic State.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Secular State and Theocratic State.
Answer:
Secular state and theocratic state are not same and identical. Eventhough both arise in human political organizations like State, they completely differ from one another in several aspects. These may be demonstrated with the help of the following table.

Secular State Theocratic State
1. Secular state is based on elements other than religion. 1. Theocratic State is based primarily on religious elements.
2. There will he no official religion in a Secular State. 2. There will be a particular religion which is declared as official religion in a Theo-cratic State.
3. Citizens belonging to all religions enjoy religious freedom without any dis-crimination. 3. Citizens of a particular majority religion will have priority and privileges over those of other religious denominations.
4. Rule of law prevails in a Secular State. 4. Religious diktats take precedence over the ordinary laws.
5. Secular State is based on the principle equality of all religions. 5. Theocratic State is based on the premise that some men belonging to a particular religion will be more important in pvfblic affairs.
6. Religion is not a criteria or basis for the imposition of taxes. 6. Religion will be treated as the basis for imposing taxes or for extending tax concessions.
7. The state will be neither religious nor irreligious. 7. The state will be pro-religious by showing special favour to a particular community in several matters.
8. Education is imparted on secular model in the state aided or partially state aided institutions. 8. Educational curriculm comprises some pro-religious topics.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 7.
Explain any four merits of Secularism.
Answer:
Merits of Secularism:
The following are some of the important merits of secularism.

1. Equality:
Secularism forms as the basis of equalitarian society. It treats the people belonging to all religious denominations as equal. It gives no recognition to the man made inequalities and discriminations based on caste, colour, community, region, religion, language, race etc. People will have a strong favourable impression towards the nation.

2. Religious freedom :
Secularism enables the individuals to enjoy their religious freedom to their full extent. The state will not interfere in the religious affairs of individuals. The Constitution and various laws in a Secular State will provide individuals with complete freedom to embrance, profess, practice and propagate any religion as they like.

3. Law and order:
Now a days one can observe unhappy, miserable and pro-religious movements that are organized by different sections of government, state and other department. The maintenance of communal harmony became a challenging task for the state in pacifying the feelings the people belonging to various religious denominations. Secularism avoids communal clashes and religious bigotry and animosities in the society. This is due to the fact that secularism ultimately promotes religious harmony among the people.

4. Rule of law:
Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to all religious denomination. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly it makes no discrimination between the people on the ground of religion. .

Question 8.
What are the features of Secular State?
Answer:
Features of Secular State :
Secular State comprises the following features.
1. No place for religion:
Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status :
Secular State accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of Other religious denominations.

3. No state religion :
Secular state does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. It adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people. It will not assign special role to any particular religion in public activities. All public places like educational institutions, government offices and judicial organizations will carry on their activities with out aligning to a particular religion.

Question 9.
Write about the importance of Secular State.
Answer:
Importance of Secular State :
The concept of Secular State became more important in recent years. Factors like spread of democratic spirit, science and technology, development of transport and communication facilities, rational thinking, welfarism etc., led to the growing importance of Scular State. On the whole, importance of Secular State may be explained with the following points.

  1. Secular state strengthens the non-religious forces in different fields in the state.
  2. It drives away the social evils and superstitions from the minds of the people.
  3. It contributes to social reformation by driving away the communal bigotry arid religious fundamentalism.
  4. It promotes scientific temper and helps intellectual progress of the people.
  5. It gives priority to reason over faith, logic over magic, and fact over fiction.
  6. It provides security and protection to religious minorities.
  7. It accommodates every individual with his personal religious beliefs.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Secularism.
Answer:
Meaning:
The term “Secular” in Latin language means “Of this World”. It denotes the meaning “the opposite of Religion”.

Definitions:
1) E.S. Waterhouse :
Secularisrn is an ideology Which provides a theory of life and conduct as against one provided in Religion”.

2) G.J. Holyoake :
“Secularism is ari idea of promoting a social order as separate from religion without actively dismissing or criticising religions beliefs”.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 2.
What are the types of Secularism?
Answer:
Secularism is of two types, namely, i) Subjective ii) Objective

Subjective Secularism means the gradual separation Of religious feelings from everyday transactions of the people. Objective Secularism implies the elimination of religious rituals and institutions from public life and government activity.

Question 3.
What is D.E. Smith’s definition of Secularism?
Answer:
D.E. Smith stated three connotations of secularism. They are:
a) Liberty and freedom of religion
b) Citizenship and the right to equality, non-discrimination and neutrality
c) Separation of state from religion.

Question 4.
Write about origin of Secularism.
Answer:
The term ’Secular1 in Latin language means ’of this world’. It implies the meaning ’the opposite of religion’. In modem times, the term was used at first by G.J. Holyoake, a British writer in 1851.

Question 5.
Mention any four factors that led to the spread of Secularism.
Answer:
a) People’s native attitude towards superstitions
b) Spreading rational thinking
c) Spreading democratic values and institutions
d) Advancement in science and technology

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 6.
Write about any one conception of Secularism.
Answer:
Secularism has several personal, cultural, political, and social implications. It was humanistic in nature as it seeks the well-being of human beings. It assigns importance to the saying that man is the measure of all things. It neither supports nor opposes religion. It allows individuals with the discretion of choosing and following their religion.

Question 7.
What is the Social dimension of Secularism?
Answer:
Secularism stands for eschewing or ignoring superstitions in social life. It never allows individuals to think and act in terms of one’s caste, colour, creed etc. It desires individuals to abstain untouchability, bonded labour and other evil practices in their day to day activities while dealing with their neighbours. It advises them to treat others on equal and respectable manner.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Theocracy? [A.P. 19, 18, 15; T.S. 15]
Answer:
The state having an official religion is called a Theocratic State. In such states all other religions or religious activities are either prohibited or discouraged or highly regulated or controlled by the state. All the official and important offices of the state are either appointed or elected only those from the official religion. State officially participates in the religious affairs and rituals.

Question 9.
List out any two differences between Secular State and Theocratic State.
Answer:

  • Secular State is based on elements other than religion, whereas theocratic state is based on religious elements.
  • There will be no official religion in a Secular State, whereas there will be a particular religion which is declared as official religion in a theocratic state.

Question 10.
In what way does secularism enable religious freedom to individual?
Answer:
Secularism does not recognize any particular religion as the state religion. Secular state adopts neutral policy in religious matters. It implements various laws and social welfare measures without basing on the religious feelings of the people.

Question 11.
How does rule.of law promotes Secularism?
Answer:
Secularism accords recognition to the concept of Rule of Law. A state following secularism will enact laws and implements them keeping in view the interest of not a particular religious denomination, the people belonging to all religious denominations. It will not take into account the religious dogmas while making laws. Similarly, it makes no discrimination between the people on the grounds of religion in the matters of legislation enforcement and adjudication of laws.

Question 12.
Define Secular State.
Answer:
D.E. Smith defined Secular State as “None while guaranteeing individual and corporate freedom of religion, which deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion”.

Question 13.
Write about any two features of Secular State. [A.P. Mar, 18]
Answer:
Features of Secular State :
Secular State comprises the following features.

1. No place for religion:
Secular States does not assign significance to any particular religion. It will not make laws or implement them on religious grounds.

2. Equal status :
Secular state accords equal status to its people. It makes no differentiation between individuals on the grounds of their caste, colour, community, religion, race, region, language etc. As a result, people will have satisfaction and extend co-operation to the government in the implementation of various policies and programmes. They live together with the fellow members of other religious denominations.

Question 14.
What is the importance of Secular State?
Answer:
The concept of Secular State became more important in recent years. Factors like spread of democratic spirit, science and technology, development of transport and communication facilities, rational thinking, welfarism etc., led to the growing importance of Secular State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 10 Secularism

Question 15.
Mention any two elements that justify India as a Secular State.
Answer:

  • The term ‘Secular’ was included in the Indian Constitution in the year 1976 through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act.
  • Indian Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights out of which, the most promising right i.e., right to freedom of religion from articles 25 to 28, is enough to justify India as a Secular State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 9th Lesson Democracy Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 9th Lesson Democracy

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Democracy and explain the essential features of democracy.
Answer:
Definitions:
The term ‘Democracy’ is taken from two Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratos’. ‘Demos’ means people and ‘Kratos’ means rule or authority. Hence, democracy means the rule of the people or the authority of the people. Democracy is defined by different political scientists in different ways.

Those are –

  1. Abraham Lincoln defines “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.
  2. Seeley defines “Democracy is a government in which everyone has a share”.

Features of Democracy:
The features of democracy may be explained as follows.

1) Popular government:
Democracy is basically a government by the people. In democracy people act as the rulers and the ruled. While the voters assume ultimate sovereign authority, their representatives are considered as the immediate masters over the rulers in government. Both the voters and their representatives play a decisive role in public affairs of course with some minor degree of variations.

2) Popular control:
In democracy, citizens will have control over the political affairs. Citizens regulate the affairs of government by expressing their opinion on various policies and programmes of the latter. They support the wise, honest and welfare oriented programmes.

3) Individual’s dignity :
In democracy individual’s dignities are honoured by the government. Even the ordinary persons living in distant and remote places are given various opportunities to express their opinions.

4) Elections :
Democracy and elections are closely related. Democracy gives scope for holding elections at regular intervals as per constitutional norms.

5) Public accountability :
Democracy is characterised by public accountability. The various governments functioning in democracy owe accountability immediately to the legislators and ultimately to the voters at large.

6) Fundamental freedoms :
A noble feature of democracy relates to the enjoyments of fundamental freedoms by the people. Democracy gives scope for civil, political economic, cultural and other freedoms.

7) Independent Judiciary :
Independent Judiciary is another essential feature of democracy. In some states like United States and India the judicial organizations enjoy the power of judicial review.

8) Equality :
Democracy is based on the concept of equality. Equality is the basic postulate of democracy. Democracy allows no special privileges to some thereby affecting others rights. It is based on the equal application of laws and equal provision of opportunities.

Question 2.
Explain the merits and demerits of Democracy.
Answer:
Introduction :
Democracy is an important and most significant form of government. In Democracy the people rule themselves either directly or indirectly through their periodically elected epresentatives.

Meaning :
The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions:
1. Abraham Lincoln :
“Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. Lord Bryce:
“Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

3. J.R. Seely:
“Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Merits :
Democracy has the following merits.

a) Efficient government :
Prof. Garner described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties :
Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality:
Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all,the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses :
Democracy is described as a laboratory for a large scale experiments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphelts, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism :
The people in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility:
J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy whatever”. Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship :
De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

h) A rational government :
Democracy is based on the principle that no man is infallible. It adopts a process of discussion and criticism which serves as necessaiy correctives to the abuse of power. Besides, they safeguard the rational nature of the political system.

Demerits :
Democracy has the following demerits.
a) Rule of Ignorance :
Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich :
The ruling political party in democracy depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the party in power to make laws Which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored:
The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance them quality.

d) Methods of representation is not correct:
The present method of representation in democracy is known as territorial representation. It is not suitable to the requirements of the modem society.

e) Principle of equality abused:
In the name of equality, everybody is treated as an equal to the other irrespective of his worth. Ex: Right to vote is given to all without knowing their political ability.

f) No moral values :
In democracy, there is great scope for bribery and corruption. Red tapism, party defections and the role of money in elections are thebest examples of its corrupt nature.

g) Expensive one:
Democracy is an expensive government. In the name of elections, political parties and government spend chuge amounts of public money. Even in developing countries like India, crores and crores of rupees are wasted for elections.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Question 3.
Suggest the conditions required for the successful functioning ofDemo-
Answer:
The following conditions are essential for the success of democracy.
1. Sound system of Education:
The success of democracy requires adequate edcation for the citizens. Ignorance, innocence and uneducation prevent them from adopting right attitudes and large-scale reforms. Education sharpens the intellect of individuals. It develops a proper understanding of various things. It makes the citizens vigilant. Besides, this enables them to assess and criticise the policies of government.

2. Enlightened Citizenship:
Enlightened citizens are an asset to the democratic state. They can excise proper vigilance. They can actively participate in public affairs and help their fellow, citizens in the exercise of their rights and discharge of their reponsibilities. They extend co-operation to the government in all its good work.

3. Independent Press:
An independent press is a prerequisite of democracy. It enables the people to receive accurate and unbiased information regarding the activities of the government. It not only keeps the people in touch with government activities but also ventilates their grievances. It strives to promote harmonious relationship between the people and the government.

4. Strong Opposition :
The success of parliamentary democracy depends to a great extent on the strong and effective opposition. Such an opposition will act as a check against the government by pointing out its lapses. In this regard, the role of opposition in some advanced states.

5. Decentralization of powers :
Decentralization of powers and establishment of democratic institutions at the grass roots level is indispensable for the healthy organisation of democratic institutions. The representative bodies at the grass roots level (as known as Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in India) will act as the mini legislatures. The residents of local areas will be able to know how to exercise their franchise.

6. Absence of economic disparities :
Democracy can not function smoothly when there are economic disparities in a country. When a country comprises a large number of poor people and a few wealthy persons, democracy could not work successfully.

7. Social Equality:
Social equality is another pre-requisite of democracy. Caste, class and racial differences will impede the healthy working of democracy. Such elements encourage of democratic polity. To be successful, democracy must open its doors to everybody on equal basis by providing equal social opportunities to all in social sphere. Social equality must not only be proclaimed but also be practiced.

8. Faith in democracy:
Certain democratic beliefs and values like individual’s worth, need for tolerance of differences, decisions through discussions etc., should be inculcated among the people.

9. Sagacious Leadership :
Sagacious leadership is another essential condition of democracy. Sagacious leaders, by dint’ of their administrative acumen, political propriety, social commitment and economic perspective, will be able to lead the democratic state to greater heights of glory.

10. Honesty and transparency:
Honest persons belonging to various walks life, when entrusted with major responsibilities of the government, will strive for the success of democracy. Similarly transparency in administration also acts as a basic ingredient for the success of democracy.

11. Absence of militarism :
Democracy functions mostly in countries which are relatively free from militarism. In rules out the use of force and believes in the worth of individuals. It provides adequate opportunities to the people basing on worth, ablility and dedication militarism, on the other hand, demands concentration of authority and favours despotism.

Question 4.
What do you mean by Democracy? Write about the direct democratic devices.
Answer:
Meaning :
The term Democracy is derived from two greek words namely, “Demos” and “Kratos”. Demos means people and Kratos mean rule (or) authority.

Definitions:
1. Abraham Lincoln :
“Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. Lord Bryce:
“Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

3. J.R. Seely:
“Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Direct Democracy :
Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

Devices Direct Democracy:
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State. Those are

  1. Referendum
  2. Initiative
  3. Recall and
  4. Plebiscite.

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum:
It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up.

Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum: All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex : In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative :
It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative : People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Recall:
It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite:
The term ‘Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are the different aspects of democracy?
Answer:
Aspects of Democracy:
Democracy has there aspects, namely, 1) Social, 2) Economic and 3) Political. Democracy does not exist if any of the aspects are not prevalent in a society.

1. Social aspect of democracy implies the abolition of all discriminations on the grounds of class, colour, caste, creed, religion, nationality etc. All people irrespective of men or women, rich or poor are treated equally. In other words, democracy in its social aspect, means the prevalence of rule of law, equality of treatment, abolition of discrimination and absence of special privileges.

2. The economic aspect of democracy implies the equal distribution of wealth in society and removal of glaring disparities on the basis of wealth. Economic democracy becomes real through the provision Of right to work, leisure, adequate and fair wages. It implies the workers’ participation in the management of the factories or democracy in industry. Economic democracy also involves the provision of adequate opportunities to all people in economic matters.

3. Lastly, the political aspect of democracy means the provision of rights, namely, right to vote, right to contest elections, right to hold public offices and right to criticism. It also implies the provision or right to freedoms of speech, expression, criticism, associations, assembly, residence and movement.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Question 2.
Describe the various types of Democracy. [A.P. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Democracy is mainly classified into two types, Namely 1. Direct or Pure Democracy 2. Indirect or Representative Democract. These two types are explained as below :

1. Direct or Pure Democracy:
Direct Democracy :
Direct Democracy is said to prevail when people themselves directly express their views and participate in the deliberative and administrative affairs of the government. People in direct democracy assume all powers of making laws. They formulate laws at a meeting attended by all the people. Direct Democracy is prevalent in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the citizens living in some small cantons meet together on a Sunday in April or May to elect their representatives and to make laws.

2. Indirect or Representative Democracy :
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”. This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc. Under this System, citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections.

These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people. They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

Question 3.
Write briefly about Representative Democracy.
Answer:
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. According to J.S. Mill “Representative democracy is one in which the whole people or some numerous portion of them exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by themselves”.

This type of democracy for the first time, came into vogue in England. Later on, France, Germany, Italy and India adopted this system. At present representative democracy is prevalent in several countries like India, France, Japan, America, Canada, Holland, Sri Lanka etc. Under this system; Citizens who attained the age of maturity elect their representatives in times of elections. These representatives will assume the deliberative and legislative powers of the government on behalf of the people.

They formulate different legislative policies in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of the electorate. They are responsible and responsive to the people for their acts. They continue in office only for a definite period of time. They can be removed by the citizens in times of elections when they fail to promote the welfare of the people. Hence in indirect democracy the people rule the country not themselves directly but indirectly through the periodically elected representatives.

Respond to public opinion. Indirect or representative democracy is again classified into two types namely. 1. Presidential 2. Parliamentary. In Presidential system all executive powers are exercised by a single executive head. Ex: In USA where there is Presidential system all executive powers are concentrated in the office of the President. On the other hand, in Parliamentary system executive powers are exercised by some ministers under Prime Minister’s leadership and in the name of the President. The ministers along with the Prime Minister are responsible for their acts to the Parliament. Ex : U.K., India, Australia etc.

Question 4.
Briefly and explain about Direct democratic devices.
Answer:
Devices Direct Democracy:
There are four devices prescribed in direct democracies to enable the people to participate directly in the administrative activities of the State. Those are

  1. Referendum
  2. Initiative
  3. Recall and
  4. Plebiscite

These methods may be explained as follows.
1. Referendum:
It is one of the direct democratic devices. Literally it means, “must be referred to the people”. It is a device where by the electorate may veto a proposed legislation or a bill which the legislature has already passed. In other words, bills passed by the legislature are the voters for their approval or disapproval. If majority of the voters approve them, they become acts. But if they vote against them, they will be given up.

Hence, referendum is known as “Popular Veto”. It is of two types – 1) Compulsory referendum: All the constitutional bills must be sent to the people. 2) Optional Referendum : An ordinary bill passed by the legislative may be or may not be sent to the people. However, even that ordinary bill must be sent to the people, if a definite number of people demand it. Ex: In Switzerland 30,000 people or eight cantons (States) can demand referendum on an ordinary bill.

2. Initiative :
It is another device of direct democracy. It is a method by means of which the people propose legislation i.e.; they can ask the legislature to pass a particular law. For instance, in Switzerland, if 50,000 voters request the legislature to pass a law, then the proposal is submitted to the consideration of the people. If majority of the people (30,000) approve it, then it becomes an act. Unlike referendum, initiative provides a chance to the people to start the making of law. It is of two types : (1) Formulative Initiative . People present a bill to the legislature (2) Unformulative Initivative : People present a demand to the legislature as king it to pass a bill.

3. Re Call:
It is another device of Direct Democracy. It means “Calling Back”. According to this method a specific number of voters may call back or dismiss an elected officer or a member of the legislature before the expiry of his term, if he is irresponsible. By means of this, the people can remove a representative or an officer from office when he fails to discharge his duties properly.

4. Plebiscite:
The term ’Plebiscite” is derived from a French word “Plebiscitum”, which means “decree of the people”. It is used to obtain the opinion of the people on an important political issue or when there is a dispute regarding some territory. The question of accession or secession or territory is generally solved by means of plebiscite. It is not concerned with legislation. It is not apart of legal process. It is only a democratic method of ascertaining the opinion of the people on any political issue of public importance.

Question 5.
Define Democracy and explain it’s significance.
Answer:
1. Abraham Lincoln:
“Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. Lord Bryce:
“Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is. vested not in a particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

3. J.R. Seely:
“Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Significance of Democracy :
Democracy is important from the following aspects. Democracy is the modem way of life. It is the only system of government where the personal dignity of individuals is ensured. Though democracy has been continuously adopted since the Greek city states, it became popular only after the occurrence of First and Second World Wars. At present, democracy is considered as an important device in the organisation and management of many institutions like state, government and society.

Above all, many view democracy as a moral, ideal and a noble way of life. It is the only system where the rulers as well as the ruled play a key role. Its greatest significance lies in the fact that commonest of common men and poorest of the poor are adored by the supreme rulers and administrators. The political heads, administrative bosses and the legislators at various levels treat the average citizens with great respect and honour.

Democracy is a convenient form of government at all times. Even at the height of political tensions and social compulsions, it offers peaceful and constitutional solutions.

Democracy creates a congenial atmosphere where the diverse socio-political forces interact harmoniously. In this context Lord Bryce aptly observed that people in democracy are friendly, harmonious and adjust with others irrespective of their wealth and social status. To say in a single sentence democracy provides accommodation even to the dissidents and opponents or negative viewers in arriving at decisions through C4 i.e., Consulation, Conciliation, Compromise and Consensus.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Question 6.
Explain any three merits and demerits of Democracy. ^QQBDS
Answer:
Merits :
Democracy has the following merits.

a) Efficient government :
Prof. Gamer described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and1 emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties :
Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality :
Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

Demerits :
Democracy has the. following demerits.

a) Rule of Ignorance :
Plato criticised democracy as a rule of ignorance. Aristotle called it a perverted form of government. Anybody can become a ruler in this system and no special qualifications are prescribed for voters or rulers.

b) Favourable to rich :
The ruling political party in democracy depends on the rich people for their financial support at the time of elections. Therefore it becomes an obligation to the party in power to make laws which are favourable to the rich.

c) Quality is ignored:
The votes in democracy are counted not weighted. Everything is decided according to majority opinion. The quality of majority cannot always be correct. Thus quantity is given greater importance than quality.

Question 7.
Define Democracy and explain its merits.
Answer:
Definitions:
1. Abraham Lincoln :
“Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. Lord Bryce :
“Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling power of the state is vested not in a ‘particular class but in the members of the community as a whole”.

3. J.R. Seely:
“Democracy is a government in which every one has a share”.

Merits :
Democracy has the following merits.

a) Efficient government :
Prof. Gamer described democracy as an efficient and effective government. The government in democracy carries all its activities efficiently and effectively both in normal times and emergencies.

b) Upholds individual liberties :
Democracy is the only government that upholds individual liberties. It guarantees certain civil rights to the people thereby providing an opportunity for them to become ideal and responsible citizens.

c) Assures equality :
Democracy assures equality of individuals in political and economic spheres. The people living in democratic nation enjoy all the political. Civil and economic rights and privileges equally without any discrimination.

d) Educates the masses:
Democracy is described as a laboratory for a large scale ex-periments in public education. The masses in democracy are educated and enlightened through public meetings, election campaigns, distribution of pamphelts, etc.

e) Promotes patriotism :
The pebple in a democracy think that the country is their own property. When the country is in difficulties, they come forward to protect the interests of the nation. Therefore democracy develops patriotic spirit in the people.

f) Develops sense of responsibility:
J.S. Mill says that “democracy promotes a better and higher form of national character than any other policy whatever”. Since it is a rule by themselves, the people behave with a great sense of responsibility.

g) Training school for citizenship :
De Tocqueville, a French writer said that democracy serves as a training school for citizenship. Democracy promotes intellectual and moral qualities among the people.

h) A rational government:
Democracy is based on the principle that no man is infallible. It adopts a process of discussion and criticism which serves as necessary correctives to the abuse of power. Besides, they safeguard the rational nature of the political system.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by Democracy? Write two definitions. [A.P. 19, 18, 15]
Answer:
Democracy is form of government in which the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their periodically elected representatives

Definitions:
1. Abraham Lincoln:
“Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. J.R. Seely:
“Democracy is a government in which eveiy one has a share”.

Question 2.
What do you know about Direct Democracy?
Answer:
Direct democracy is a system of government in which people directly participate in the activities of the State and the Government. The people directly express their views on the government policies. Direct democratic methods are four. They are Referendum, Plebiscite, Initiative and Recall.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Question 3.
What do you understand by Representative Democracy?
Answer:
Indirect democracy is also known as representative democracy. In this type, the people exercise their governing power through their representatives who are periodically elected. The will of the state is expressed through representatives. Indirect democracy was established in Britain in the 17th century. Now-a-days, it is existing in different countries.

Question 4.
What are the features of Democracy?
Answer:
The features of democracy are
a) Popular government.
b) Significance to ordinary man
c) Regular elections
d) Popular responsibility
e) Fundamental rights ,

Question 5.
Write any four conditions that are essential for the success of Democracy. [A.P. 19, 18]
Answer:

  1. Sound system of Education
  2. Independent Press
  3. Strong Opposition
  4. Social Equality

Question 6.
List out the devices of Direct Democracy.
Answer:
The devices of Direct Democracy are :

  1. Referendum
  2. Initiative
  3. Plebiscite
  4. Recall

Question 7.
What do you know about Referendum? [A.P. 15]
Answer:
Referendum means ‘Refer to’. This method is used to ascertain the public opinion on important legislation. In some regions, the public opinion is sought on the problems of constitutional law and ordinary law. This is called referendum. Referendum is of two types. They are i) Compulaory referendum ii) Optional referendum.

Question 8.
What is meant by Initiative? [T.S, Mar, 15]
Answer:
Initiative is a request made by the people to the legislature in framing a law on certain national problem or policy as such. After making the law, the same shall be presented for referendum. In this aspect, people in a specified number present a petition in written form to the legislature proposing a legislation. It is also of two kinds. They are i) Formulative initiative ii) Non-formulative initiative.

Question 9.
What do mean by Plebiscite?
Answer:
Plebiscite means ascertaining public opinion on certain important issues. This is not applicable to the latos and the Constitution. People’s verdict is sought on certain public problems and policies of the government. This method was first used in 1804 by Napoleon in France.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 9 Democracy

Question 10.
What is meant by Recall? [A.P. & T.S. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Recall means To call back. The representatives will be called back by the people in case they are inefficient. Hence, this method helps the representatives in discharging their responsibilities properly for fear of being called back on the grounds of inefficiency.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 8th Lesson Citizenship Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 8th Lesson Citizenship

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define citizenship. Describe the methods of acquiring citizenship.
Answer:
Introduction :
Citizenship is a privilege of individual residing in democratic states. People fed that citizenship enables them to lead a happy, honourable and harmonious life in the state. Citizenship instills the feelings of patriotism, sacrifice, broad outlook etc., among the people.

Definitions :
Prof. Laski:
“Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”.

T.H. Marshall:
“Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

Methods of acquiring citizenship :
There are two methods of acquiring citizenship. They are : i) Natural ii) Naturalization. The two methods may be studied as follows.

i) Natural Citizenship :
Natural Citizenship is one which is acquired by the persons without specific application or request to the authorities. It comprises three elements. They are :

i) Blood relationship (Jus Sanguinis) ii) Soil (Jus Soli) and iii) Mixed principle.

i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship) :
This type of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex : A child born to the Indian parents will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soli (Land or Place of Birth) :
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modem times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Mixed Principle :
Under this method citizenship is granted by following either of the two principles of Jus Sanguinis and Jus Soli. Many states adopted both these principles. Ex : In Britain, France, and United States, the above two principles are employed simultaneously. In this context there may arise duplication of citizenship. Ex: A child born to British parents in the United States becomes an american citizen according to the practice of Jus Soli. The same child becomes a citizen of Britain according to the principle of Jus Sanguinis. In such a case, the child is given option to choose one of its citizenship, after becoming a major.

ii) Naturalised Citizenship:
Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence :
An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice:
The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application :
An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed Assets :
An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private):
An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. He is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or private authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage :
An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

In this context it may be noted that an alien who receives the citizenship of the new state, he will have to forego his native citizenship. In other words no one is allowed to have dual citizenships simultaneously.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 2.
Explain the various qualities of a good Citizen.
Answer:
According to Aristotle good citizens make good state. This is due to the fact that good citizens imbibe many noble qualities. Lord Bryce cited three qualities of a good citizen, namely, conscience, intelligence, and self control. On the whole, a good citizen will have the following qualities.

1) Good Character :
Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous, just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful and virtuous in letter and spirit.

2) Sound health:
A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens make the nation healthy. Only a sound body will have a sound mind. Sound body and mind of a citizen paves the way for the progress of the state in many spheres.

3) Intelligence and education :
Proper education is another quality of a citizen. The citizen should be well-enlightened, fully aware and informed of his rights and responsibilities. He must be intelligent enough to identify good and bad. He will not be emotional in examining the events. In this regard education enables him to play a proper role in the society. An intelligent citizen will be able to understand the problems of the state in a proper way.

4) Self control :
A good citizen will have moderate temperment. He will have self-control in his public activities. Self control and confidence make him to lead a disciplined life. He will not indulge in inhuman activities.

5) Public spirit:
A good citizen should have broad and liberal outlook. He should be ready to take active part in public affairs. He should be intelligent in enjoying his rights and responsibilities. He should have active participation in the social activities. He should have public-spirit and ready to offer his services for the collective welfare of the society.

6) Self-sacrifice:
A good citizen must possess self sacrifice. He must subordinate his self-interest to the interests of the community. He must be imbibed by the spirit of service and devotion to the society, government and state.

7) Honest exercise of franchise:
Honest exercise of one’s franchise is another essential quality of a good citizen. Self interest or sectional interest in terms of class, religion or community act as a hurdle to good citizenship.

8) Sincere performance of obligations :
A good citizen performs his obligations sincerely and faithfully. He extends co-operation to the authorities in the discharge of their obligations. He pays his taxes to the various governmental organizations promptly and properly.

9) Right ordering of loyalties :
A good citizen brings about a right ordering of his loyalties to the family, class, caste, club, trade union, region and nation. He avoids conflicts between various associations by assigning priorities. He sacrifices his self interest for the sake of wider purposes. When there arises a conflict between the interests of the family and the locality, one must sacrifice the interests of the family for the sake of the locality.

Question 3.
Describe the various hindrances to Good Citizenship.
Answer:
There are various hindrances to the growth of good citizenship in a state. These relate to caste system, communalism, ignorance, illiteracy, poverty, social discriminations etc. The main hindrances to good citizenship are discussed as below.

1) Laziness :
Citizens in many states do not prefer to work hard. They remain narrow minded. They have little interest in working for the progress of the nation. They create havoc on many occasions in the state. Many of them are affected by apathy, inactivity, indifference and indolence. Laziness leads to the neglecting of civic duties. Ultimately it makes citizens indifferent in public affairs.

2) Ignorance and Illiteracy :
Ignorance and illiteracy are regarded as the greatest obstacles to the good citizenship. Ignorant and illiterate citizens do not understand their rights and responsibilities properly. Laski rightly stated that citizenship consists in the contribution of one’s instructed judgment to the public good. Ignorant and illiterate persons are unable to make any such contribution. They don’t have an enlightened interest in public affairs in the absence of education. Democracy degenerates into a mob rule in the hands of ignorant and illiterate persons.

3) Poverty:
Poverty is the root cause of all evils. Good citizenship cannot develop in a country where vast inequalities of wealth exist. Poverty leads to apathy and indifference in public life.

4) Ill health:
Ill health is another hindrance to the good citizenship. Because unhealthy citizens cannot carry on their services to the good of the state and society.

5) Narrow Political Interests :
Political parties, which are essential in democracy, play a crucial role in promoting the ideals of good citizenship. But many members of these parties work for the party and not for the society or the nation. Leaders of various parties keep their attention only on capturing power. They show least regard to the promotion of peoples welfare. Some political parties even create rivalries and satisfier among the people. Sometimes interests of the community are sacrificed for the sake of the party.

6) Communalism and Casteism :
Communalism and casteism are two important handicaps in the path of good citizenship. Caste system and class distinctions are especially responsible for bringing out a discord among the people. These distinctions hamper social and political solidarity of the state. .

7) Selfishness :
Selfishness and good citizenship cannot go together. Selfish citizens will confine their thoughts and actions to their own private benefits. They spare no time and energy for the well being of others including their mother land.

8) Indifference:
Indifference is another great obstacle which makes citizens indolent and lazy. Such citizens are least bothered about the contemporary happenings. They do not participate in the dynamics of the state mechanism. They ignore the evil effects of backwardness, dirt, disease and poverty. Lastly, they lack the character of good citizens and suffer from total aversion to public work.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 4.
How many types of citizenship are there? Elucidate.
Answer:
There are three types of Citizenship. They are : (i) Single Citizenship (ii) Dual Citizenship and (iii) Global or Universal Citizenship.

i) Single Citizenship:
Single Citizenship implies possession of one type of citizenship, identical rights, privileges, and immunities by the citizens. Citizens enjoy this type of citizenship without any discrimination. It is prevalent in many states in the modem period. For instance the constitution of India provided for single citizenship to every Indian citizen irrespective of his place of birth, residence etc.,

ii) Dual Citizenship :
Dual citizenship means possession of two citizenships in two States. It is in vogue in some developed and developing countries. For instance, children born to American citizens in other states acquire natural citizenship in both the states – one in their parent American State and another in the State where they are born. However, persons having dual citizenship are not entitled to the special privileges. They are subject to the laws of both countries. Dual citizenship applies to the children until they attain adulthood. Later they have to choose citizenship of one of the two States.

iii) Global or Universal Citizenship :
Global or Universal Citizenship is the latest phenomena in the contemporary international and national politics. The dramatic events that took place after 1980s and 1990s created a great awareness among the people all over the world. The advancement in communications, science, technology, and other spheres transformed human life in a miraculous way.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write about the two methods of acquiring natural citizenship.
Answer:
i) Jus Sanguinis – (Kinship or Blood Relationship):
This type of Citizenship denotes acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relationship. Under this method birth within the territory of a state entitles a person to have citizenship. Every person is treated as a citizen of the state where he is born. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Here blood relationship alone determines the Citizenship. Ex : A child born to the Indian parents will be treated as Indian citizen irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soli (Land or Place of Birth):
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. However this method is not more popular in modem times. It was popular in the Middle Ages when citizenship was associated with land. At present, however, this practice is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 2.
What are the differences between Citizen and Alien?
Answer:
Citizen:
Aristotle defines a Citizen as “One who has a share in the deliberative functions of the state and in the election of its officials.

Alien :
An alien is a person living in a state but owing allegiance to another state.

Differences between Citizen and Alien :

Citizen Alien
1. A citizen resides in a particular State on permanent basis. 1. An alien resides in a State on temporary basis.
2. A citizen owes loyalty to the State in which he resides. 2. An alien owes allegiance to the State to which he belongs.
3. A citizen is entitled to enjoy civil and political rights. 3. An alien will have civil rights only.
4. A citizen can criticize the policies and programmes of the government. 4. An alien has no right to criticize the policies and programmes of the government.
5. A citizen will have both the rights and responsibilities. 5. An alien has more responsibilities than the rights.

Question 3.
How is naturalised citizenship acquired?
Answer:
Naturalised Citizenship :
Citizenship may also be acquired through naturalization. According to this method, an alien will become a citizen after fulfilling certain conditions. These conditions vary from state to state. Some of them may be summed up as follows.

1) Residence :
An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice:
The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application :
An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability, and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

4) Fixed Assets :
An alien who buys some portion of land or acquires some fixed property can acquire citizenship in a state.

5) Service (Public or Private):
An alien who serves in the government of a state or in a private recognised enterprise could become the citizen of that state. He is entitled for such citizenship if he serves in the public or private authorised departments. He may also be given Citizenship if the renders meritorious service in another state.

6) Marriage :
An alien woman acquires citizenship of a state when she marries the citizen of that state. In some countries when a person marries an alien, Citizenship of either of the husband or wife is acquired. For instance, a British lady will acquire Indian citizenship if she marries an Indian citizen. Japanese women do not lose their citizenship even if they marry persons of alien states. The alien person on the other hand, acquires the citizenship of Japan if he marries a Japanese lady.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 4.
How citizenship is lost?
Answer:
Citizens loose their citizenship under the following conditions :
1) Renunciation :
A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of another state. One will lose the citizenship of one’s parent state and may become the citizen of a foreign state by naturalization. In India, the Constitution prescribes that a person who voluntarily acquires Citizenship of any other state will no longer be an Indian citizen.

2) Marriage :
Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien. However some states allow retention of citizenship. For instance in Britain, there is an option to retain British citizenship who marries an alien.

3) Accepting Foreign Service :
A person may lose his citizenship when he enters into the service of another state. If a person accepts a permanent job in the government of a foreign state, he foregoes the citizenship of his native state.

4) Obliging Foreign Decorations or Titles :
When a citizen obliges to receive foreign decorations or titles, it may lead to the forfeiture of his Citizenship.

5) Prolonged Absence :
Prolonged absence in the native state beyond a certain period may lead to the loss of citizenship. In some states like France and Germany citizens who are absent themselves from their native country for more than ten years will loose their citizenship.

6) Treason or Crime :
Involvement of a citizen in a serious crime and subsequent proof of his action will also lead to the loss of citizenship. Especially those persons who directly or indirectly participate or extend assistance to anti-state, anti-social and anti- govemmental activities, will loose their Citizenship by a special notification to that effect.

7) Desertion from Army:
Desertion from army thereby jeopardizing the security of a state leads to the forfeiture of citizenship.

Question 5.
Explain any three conditions for securing naturalized citizenship.
Answer:
1) Residence :
An alien who resides in a state for a prescribed period automatically become its citizen. Residence in any part of the state is a must for an alien. The period of residence varies from state to state. For instance it is 5 years in Britain and United States and 10 years in France respectively.

2) Choice:
The children of alien parents could receive citizenship of the state according to their option and choice.

3) Application :
An alien in a state may apply for the citizenship of that state. Then the government of that state considers his application on its merits. It grants citizenship to him with or without some conditions. These prescribed conditions refer to a minimum period of residence, good moral character, financial capability and knowledge of one of the national languages. Besides, an alien must take an oath of allegiance before he assumes the citizenship of another state.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 6.
Briefly describe about the Global or Universal citizenship.
Answer:
Global or Universal Citizenship is the latest phenomena in the contemporary international and national politics. The dramatic events that took place after 1980s and 1990s created a great awareness among the people all over the world. The advancement in communications, science, technology and other spheres transformed human life in a miraculous way.

Liberalization :
Privatization and Globalization (LPG) have become a boon to them. The various governments in both the advanced and Third World States have shifted their priorities ranging from defence to the welfare and well being of common men. As a result, intellectuals belonging to different walks of life have been given encouragement to go abroad and reap ample benefits.

It is in the above circumstances that large number of citizen have gone abroad for educational, commercial and research purposes. Thousands of them have either settled in foreign states or remained there on work permits. They have earned a lot of money. They remain instrumental in bringing their income to the native states. In the process they have been seeking citizenship in their native state and in the states where they are rendering services. Some states have contemplated the idea of conferring dual citizenship to their citizens in other states. Such an idea became a basis of global Citizenship.

Question 7.
Suggest the remedies for removing the hindrances to good citizenship.
(or)
Point out the ways for overcoming the hindrance to good citizenship.
(or)
How to overcome the obstacles (or) Hindrances (or) Hurdles to good citizenship?
Answer:
In order to remove the hindrances of good citizenship, efforts should be made by the parties, people, press and the state. Laski said that good citizenship implies “the contribution of one’s instructed judgement to public good”. The following are some ways to remove hindrances to good citizenship.

1) Solving People’s Grievances :
First of all government should address the basic grievances of the people. Issues of poverty and unemployment should be tackled with great commitment. Good citizenship can’t be realized when people’s basic needs are not satisfied.

2) Education and awareness :
Education, which is the most important need of the hour should be given top priority. Steps should be taken to spread education and awareness among the people. Citizens must be provided with such instructions which make possible the understanding of human life. They must be trained for expressing their wishes and aspirations which they come across in their life.

3) Efforts of Leaders:
Citizens should always feel that government itself cannot provide succour and rescue them on every occasion. The leaders at various levels should come forward and co-operate with the government in promoting good citizenship.

On the whole, Lord Bryce suggested two types of remedies for overcoming the hindrances of good citizenship. They are : 1. Mechanical and 2. Ethical. The first relates to the laws of the state and second relates to the character of the citizens.
Mechanical Remedies improve the machinery of the state to make it more useful to the public. The entire social structure has to be built up on the principles of equality, Citizenship, and democracy. Citizens should be allowed to utilise their civil and political rights to their maximum extent.

Ethical remedies enhance the general character of citizens in the state. Ignorance and narrow party interests must be avoided. On the other hand, honesty and literacy would induce the citizens to take active role in public life.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define citizenship.
Answer:
i) Prof. Laski defines “Citizenship is one’s contribution of instructed judgement to the public good”.

ii) T.H. Marshall defines “Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess this status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the state is endowed”.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 2.
What do you mean by Jus Sanguinis?
Answer:
Acquiring citizenship by kinship or blood relation is called Jus Sanguinis. According to Jus Sanguinis, a child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth. Blood relation alone determines the citizenship in Jus Sanguinis method.

Question 3.
What do you mean by ‘Jus Soli’?
Answer:
Jus Soli means acquisition of citizenship by the principle of place of birth. According to this method, a child acquires the citizenship of a State, where it boms. It is the place of birth which determines citizenship. This method is not more popular in modem times. At present, this method is observed exclusively in Argentina.

Question 4.
Who is an alien?
Answer:
An Alien is a person living in a state but owing Allegiance to another State. Aliens are entitled to such rights and obligations which are incorporated in the covenants of the Foreign State. Ex: In America, Aliens must obey the laws and pay taxes just like the American Citizens.

Question 5.
Write about any two conditions for acquiring natural citizenship.
Answer:
The two conditions for acquiring natural citizenship are :
i) Jus Sanguinis (Right of blood) :
According to Jus Sanguinis, A child acquires the citizenship of the parents irrespective of its place of birth.

ii) Jus Soli (Right of Soil) :
According to this method, citizenship is determined by the place of birth and not by parentage.

Question 6.
List out two conditions of loss of citizenship.
Answer:
i) Renunciation :
A person is deprived of his citizenship, if he wishes to become the citizen of any other State.

ii) Marriage :
Generally a woman loses her citizenship when she marries an alien.

Question 7.
Mention any two qualities of a good Citizen. [A.P. Mar, 15]
Answer:
i) Good Character :
Good character is essential for a good citizen. A good citizen should be courageous, just, helpful, kind-hearted, sympathetic, truthful, and virtuous in letter and spirit.

ii) Sound Health :
A good citizen should have good health and strength. Healthy citizens make the nation healthy and wealthy.

Question 8.
Explain the significance of citizenship.
Answer:
Citizenship remains significant when the fundamental rights enshrined in the constitution are available to all the citizens. Further, Citizenship ensures the citizens many political rights. Citizens could exercise their vote in elections to the various representative bodies. They could also contest for membership of legislative bodies. Above all, citizens alone are eligible for appointment to the highest offices in the executive like President, Vice-President, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts etc.

Question 9.
In what way do ignorance and illiteracy act as hindrances to good citizenship?
Answer:
Ignorance and illiteracy are regarded as the greatest obstacles to the good citizenship. Ignorant and illiterate citizens do not know their rights and responsibilities properly. They are unable to make any contribution to the State. Democracy degenerates into mob rule in the hands of ignorant and illiterate persons.

Question 10.
What are the suggestions of Lord Bryce for overcoming the hindrances of good citizenship?
Answer:
Lord Bryce suggested two types of remedies for overcoming the hindrances of good j citizenship. They are: i) Mechanical ii) Ethical. Mechanical remedies improve the machinery of the State to make it more useful to the public. Ethical remedies enhance the general character of citizens in the State.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 8 Citizenship

Question 11.
Write short notes on Dual Citizenship.
Answer:
Dual Citizenship means possession of two citizenships in two States. Ex : Children bom to American citizens in other States acquire citizenship in both the States – one in their parent State and the other in the State, where there are born. Dual citizenship applies to the children until they attain adulthood. Later they have to choose citizenship of any one of the two states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 7th Lesson Justice Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 7th Lesson Justice

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Justice and describe various types of Justice.
Answer:
Introduction:
Justice is a dynamic concept in contemporary society. It has received the attention of several political philosophers, social reformers, economic thinkers and psychological experts. They have considered the basic instinct of individuals belonging to the various sections residing in several parts of the world. Besides, almost all states, irrespective of their political and economic doctrines, have been striving to achieve justice and to establish a society based on justice.

Meaning :
The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “Jus” which means “to bind”

Definitions :
We may advance some of the definitions of Justice in the following lines.
1. Plato:
“Justice is giving to everyman his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state”.

2. Aristotle:
“Justice is no other than each and every individual in society discharging his moral duties.”

3. Caphalous :
“Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts.”

4. Polymarchus :
“Justice means to help friends and harm enemies.”

5. Barker :
“Justice means a combination and coordination of political values.”

Types of Justice
There are different types of Justice. They relate to Natural, Social, Political, and Legal spheres. Let us analyse these types of Justice.

1. Natural Justice :
Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice :
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease, etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice :
Political Justice symbolises politicl equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

4. Economic Justice :
Economic Justice refers to the absence of economic discrimination between individuals on irrational and unnatural grounds. It stands for the equal treatment of individuals irrespective of differences in the income, money, wealth, property etc. In its positive aspect, it implies payment of adequate emoluments to the workers strongly abhorring disparities in the distribution of wealth and incomes. It does not allow exploitation of the weaker sections. It sees that nobody is deprived of the basic necessities of life. It hints out that everyone must be provided with adequate food, clothing, shelter and other minimum needs. It conceives just economic order in the society. It supports the principle “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”

5. Legal Justice:
Legal Justice is manifested in the laws of the state. It is supplemented by customs of the society. It is embodied in the Constitution and legislative enactments in a state. It determines the legal contours of Justice. Legal Justice basically has two implications. Firstly, it implies that there is just application of the laws in society on the basis of rule of law. There will be no discrimination between individuals in the applications of laws. Secondly, laws are made in consonance with the principles of natural justice.

Question 2.
What is meant by Justice? How is it evolved?
Answer:
Meaning :
The word “Justice is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means ” to bind”.

It refers to the formulation and implementation of rules and regulations endorsed by the constitution and the judicial organisations.

Development of Justice :
In ancient India, Justice, being associated with dharma as enunciated in Hindu scriptures, was considered to be the duty of the King. The King used to maintain a just social order based on dharma. It was the primary duty of the King to maintain justice by punishing the wrong doers and rewarding the virtuous persons.

Justice normally means giving each person his due. However, its understanding differs from person to a person. Justice is viewed from the human aspect of every individual. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, stated that human beings possess dignity. When all persons ‘are endowed with dignity, they will be entitled to adequate opportunities for developing their talents and for pursuing their goals. Thus, Justice demands that each individual should be given equal consideration.

In Medieval age St. Augustine derived the concept of Justice from Plato. He emphasized on the proper relations between individuals for the harmonious working of society. Thomas Aquinas was considered as the first political philosopher who separated Justice from religion. By 16th century, the concept of justice got completely secularized. The social contractualist like Hobbes identified Justice with the orders of the sovereign.

His successors John Locke, Rousseau, Emmanuel Kant, and others regarded Justice as a synthesis of liberty and equality. The advocates of Natural law developed the idea of individual justice. The Socialists conceived justice from economic point of view. While the conventionalists explained the concept of justice from individual perspective, the modernists viewed it from social perspective.

There is no single precise definition to the concept of justice. It was defined and discussed by various writers in different ways basing on the place, time context, culture, etc. It is considered as the sum total of the principles and beliefs advanced for the survival of the society. These principles and beliefs in turn led to the making of rights, freedoms and laws.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Question 3.
Write an essay on Social Justice.
Answer:
Social Justice is generally equated with the notion of equality. Equality is an indisputable and inherent element of social justice. The term ‘social justice’ has wider meaning. ‘Social justice’ connotes fairness, mutual obligation and responsibility in a society. It firmly believes that everyone is responsible to the others. Everyone must be provided adequate opportunities. Social Justice, in brief, aims at achieving a just society by eliminating injustice. It prevails when people have the belief of sharing the things in the society. They must be entitled to equitable treatment, human rights and fair allocation of common resources.

In this context modem political scientists like John Rawls and David Miller gave two prominent statements.

John Rawls advanced the theory of social justice commonly known as “Justice or Fariness”. To him, social justice implies equal access to the liberties, rights and opportunities as well as taking care of the interests of the deprived and disadvantaged sections of the society. He maintained that what is just or unjust in the human activities is determined on the basis of utility of such activities. He stated that social justice enables human beings equal access to civil liberties and human rights to lead a happy and healthy life. He emphasised that disadvantaged groups in society will be taken care of through the extension of social justice.

John Rawls concept of social justice is built around the idea of a social contract whereby all people sign a covenant for following and obeying certain rules for the betterment of the society as a whole. These rules or principles specify the basic rights and obligations involving the main political and social institutions. They regulate the allocation of benefits arising from social co-operation.

David Miller pointed out that social justice is concerned with the distribution of good (advantages) and bad (disadvantages) in society. He further analysed more specifically how these things are distributed in the society. According to him, social justice is concerned with the allocation of resources among people by social and political institutions. People, through social justice, receive many benefits in the fields of education, employment, wealth, health, welfare, transport etc.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain the major concepts of Justice.
Answer:
Meaning :
The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition :
“Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts”. – Caphalous

Major Concepts of Justice :
There are two major concepts of Justice. They are i) Numerial concept ii) Geometrical concept. They may be explained as follows :

1. Numerical concept:
Numerical concept of justice regards that everyone has equal share. The ancient Greek city states adopted this concept in public matters. The rulers of these city states filled up various offices with as many persons as maximum possible to demonstrate equality. They have not considered special knowledge, qualifications etc., for holding public offices. Jeremy Bentham, a famous British political philosopher, advocated this concept in modem times. He stated thus : “Everyone is to count for one, nobody for more than one.” Many modem liberal democratic states have been functioning on the basis of this concept.

2. Geometrical concept:
Geometrical concept is based on the notion of proportionate equality. It advocates equal share to equals and unequal share to unequals. It means that the distribution of power and patronage in public offices should be allocated in proportion to the worth or contribution of the individuals. Plato and Aristotle favoured this concept. Aristotle stated this concept in the following words: “If flutes are to be distributed, they should be distributed only among those who have the capacity of flute playing.” Efforts were made for allocating of benefits and responsibilities on equal basis keeping in view the worth of the recipients.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Question 2.
How is justice evolved?
Answer:
In ancient India, Justice, being associated with dharma as enunciated in Hindu scriptures, was considered to be the duty of the King. The King used to maintain a just social order based on dharma. It was the primary duty of the King to maintain justice by punishing the wrong doers and rewarding the virtuous persons.

Justice normally means giving each person his due. However, its understanding differs from person to a person. Justice is viewed from the human aspect of every individual. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, stated that human beings possess dignity. When all persons ‘are endowed with dignity, they will be entitled to adequate opportunities for developing their talents and for pursuing their goals. Thus, Justice demands that each individual should be given equal consideration.

In Medieval age St. Augustine derived the concept of Justice from Plato. He emphasized on the proper relations between individuals for the harmonious working of society. Thomas Aquinas was considered as the first political philosopher who separated Justice from religion. By 16th century, the concept of justice got completely secularized. The social contractualist like Hobbes identified Justice with the orders of the sovereign. His successors John Locke, Rousseau, Emmanuel Kant and others regarded Justice as a synthesis of liberty and equality.

The advocates of Natural law developed the idea of individual justice. The Socialists conceived justice from economic point of view. While the conventionalists explained the concept of justice from individual perspective, the modernists viewed it from social perspective.

There is no single precise definition to the concept of justice. It was defined and discussed by various writers in different ways basing on the place, time context, culture etc. It is considered as the sum total of the principles and beliefs advanced for the survival of the society. These principles and beliefs in turn led to the making of rights, freedoms and laws.

Question 3.
Describe any three types of Justice.
Answer:
1. Natural Justice :
Natural Justice is based on the notion that every person in the world possesses some rights for availing the natural resources. Natural resources provide support to the life of each and every creature on earth. As the human beings are the only rational creatures, it is their responsibility to see that natural resources have to be judiciously exploited. Human beings must keep in mind the requirements of future generations in this regard.

2. Social Justice :
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

3. Political Justice:
Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent

  1. Rule of law
  2. Independent Judiciary
  3. Popular elections to the representative bodies
  4. Political parties
  5. Freedom of press and assembly
  6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 4.
Point out any three sources of Justice.
Answer:
Meaning :
The word “Justice” is derived from a Latin word “JUS” which means “to bind”.

Definition :
“Justice means speaking the truth and paying one’s debts” – Caphalous Sources of Justice:

Earnest Barker gives four sources of Justice. They are mentioned as below.

  1. Nature
  2. Ethics
  3. Religion
  4. Economic elements

1. Nature:
The Greek stoics perceived nature to be a source of Justice. Their perception of nature was a combination of moral philosophy and religious beliefs. For them nature, God and reason were inseparable entities. They pointed out that men who lived according to nature shared similar views of reason and God. They viewed that nature embodies three things. They are

1. Man should be free, 2. Man should be treated equally, 3. Man should be associated with his fellow beings by the common element of reason. These three things in turn have remained as a basis for liberty, equality and fraternity in society in course of time.

2. Ethics :
Idealist thinkers like Plato, Emanuel Kant, Thomas Hilly Green, Earnest Barker and other propounded that justice originated from ethical practices. They pointed out that values accepted by the society over a period of time have intum become the impersonal source of positive Justice. The state enforced this positive justice in course of time.

3. Religion :
Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

4. Economic elements :
Economic elements are also treated as a source of justice. These elements attained significance with the advent of industrial revolution which led to glaring economic disparities between different sections of society. Industrial revolution, inspite of its tremendous achievements, led to the growth of miseries, poverty and immorality in society. It forced the people to have a strong zeal of enterprise. Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus and other classical economists analysed justice in terms of economic factors.

Later, revolutionary thinkers like Karl Marx and Frederich Engles strongly advocated the role of economic elements as a basis to the justice. These thinkers began to prove the deficiencies in capitalist society. They argued that justice prevails only when economic equality is achieved through a classless society. But their

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Question 5.
How is social Justice pursued?
Answer:
Social justice remains a mirage in a society having glaring disparities between different sections. Justice can’t be understood in absolute terms. Justice along with equality is a strong desire of every one in modem society. A society dominated by unjust relations between different sections can not achieve progress. In such a society the disadvantaged and deprived sections develop frustration in their day to day life. This leads to mutual conflicts between the majority poor and a few affluent persons. Hence a just society which ensures basic minimum facilities to all to lead happy and secure life is a must. In such a society adequate opportunities will be provided to various sections for realizing their goals.

Though many agree with the veiw that the State should lend a helping hand to the disadvantaged sections of the society to attain some degree of parity with others, there remains a disagreement over the methods pursued for achieving the goal. Extensive debate has taken place in the contemporary society. Such a debate revolved on the topic of inviting open competition through Free State organisation or private enterprises. But the fact lies in between the two. Both state and private involvement are necessary for achieving social justice in a state.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Justice.
Answer:
“Justice is giving to every man his due. It is a combination of reason, courage, appetite and will in terms of the state” -Plato

Question 2.
What is Distributive Justice? [A.P. 19, 18]
Answer:
Distributive justice implies the distribution of goods and wealth of citizens by the state on merit basis. Aristotle stated that Justice is a sort of proportion. He regarded it as the most powerful instrument against revolutions. But modern writers like John Rawls denied Aristotle’s view. He pointed out that inequalities are inherent in the society. He remarked that inequalities must be balanced by some restrictive arrangements in the political system.

Question 3.
What is Corrective Justice?
Answer:
Corrective justice comprises restoring each person the lost rights due to the infringement of his rights by others. Aristotle viewed this justice as essentially negative which is concerned with voluntary commercial transactions like hire, sale and furnishing of property. In brief, corrective justice embodies moral excellence of individuals.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Question 4.
How are economic elements considered as a source of Justice?
Answer:
Economic elements are considered to be one of the important sources of Justice. These elements attained significance with the advent of industrial revolution which led to the vast economic disparities between different sections of the people.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Political Justice?
Answer:
Political Justice symbolises political equality. It implies provision of political rights to all the adult citizens in a state. It facilitates free and fair participation of the citizens in the governance of the country. It is manifested to the full extent in times of elections. It allows the citizens for their active participation in day-to-day administration. It is based on the premise that everyone is counted as one and none for more than one. It may be noted that political justice prevails in the State when the following conditions are prevalent 1. Rule of law 2. Independent Judiciary 3. Popular elections to the representative bodies 4. Political parties 5. Freedom of press and assembly 6. Democratic rule etc.

Question 6.
What is meant by Social Justice? [A.P. & T.S. Mar. 15]
Answer:
Social Justice envisages a balance between rights of individuals and social control. It facilitates the fulfillment of the legitimate expectations of the individuals under the existing laws. It ensures several benefits and extends protection to the individuals against the interference or encroachment from others in society. It is consistent with the unity and the integrity of the nation. It fulfills the needs of the society.

Social Justice enforces the principle of equality before law. It also ensures eradication of social evils like poverty, unemployment, starvation, disease etc. It also extends protection to the downtrodden and weaker sections of society. Ultimately it provides those conditions essential for the all round development of individuals.

Question 7.
What are the implications of Legal Justice?
Answer:
Legal Justice has two implications

  • It implies that there is just application of the laws in the society on the basis of rule of law.
  • Laws are made in accordance with the principle of Natural Justice.

Question 8.
What are the views of John Rawls on Social Justice? [A.P. Mar 18]
Answer:
John Rawls Admitted that:

  • Social Justice implies equal access to the liberties, rights and opportunities to the deprived sections of the society.
  • Social Justice is built around the idea of a social contract committed by the people for obeying certain rules.

Question 9.
Point out the views of David Miller on Social Justice?
Answer:
David Miller pointed out that social justice is concerned with the distribution of good (advantages) and bad (disadvantages) in society. He further analysed more specifically how these things are distributed in society. According to him, social justice is concerned with the allocation of resources among people by social and political institutions. People, through social justice, receive many benefits in the fields of education, employment, wealth, health, welfare, transport etc. However social justice has some negative repercussions. These relate to the interference of government in the private life and prescription of compulsory military service to individuals.

Miller’s theory applied to both public and private spheres. His theory regards social justice as a social virtue that speaks of what a person possesses and what he will owe to others in society.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 7 Justice

Question 10.
In what respect is religion considered as a source of Justice?
Answer:
Religion is regarded as another source of Justice. This source has been in force since medieval age. The church authorities held the notion that it was God who propounded the notions of justice, right and wrong. God, through church, initiated the concept of justice as the rule of the theory of might. Thomas Acqinas a philosopher turned saint believed that the Church is the manifestation of religion. According to him, life based on laws is the best one. The king must lead the people in right directions. He must exercise his authority in compliance to the church authority.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 6th Lesson Rights and Responsibilities Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 6th Lesson Rights and Responsibilities

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Rights. Describe the Civil and Political Rights.
Answer:
Introduction:
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. They are regarded as a power or privilege which the law invests in a person. They are treated as the sum total of the opportunities meant for enhancing one’s personality. Individuals can not achieve progress in the absence of the rights.

Definitions of Rights :
Political scientists have defined the term ‘Right’ in several ways. Some of their definitions are explained below :

1. Earnest Barker:
“Rights are the external conditions necessary for the development of the capacities of the personality of the individual.”

2. Beni Prasad:
“Rights are nothing more and nothing less than those social conditions which are necessary for the development of personality of individuals.”

3. Bosanquet:
“A right is a claim recognised by the society and enforced by the state.”

4. T.H. Green :
“Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”

5. H.J. Laski :
“Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Civil Rights :
Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Social life becomes impossible in their absence.

Individuals in a civilized society enjoy the following Civil rights. These are

1) Right to life :
This is the most important civil right. T.H. Green considered it as the most fundamental civil right. This right provides security to the individual’s life. Individuals can not lead their lives in the absence of this right. This right is based on the premise that the life of an individual is valuable not only to himself, but also to the society and the state as a whole. Hence it prescribes at large the state to extend protection to the life of individuals. However, it empowers the state to impose some reasonable restrictions upon the individuals. The state can insist any person to sacrifice his life for the sake of the nation. This right also includes the right of self-defence.

2) Right to liberty:
This right enables individuals to have freedom in various walks of life. It makes their lives worth living. It enables them to develop their personality in various spheres. It includes various freedoms such as freedom of movement, speech, expression, thought, residence etc.

3) Right to equality:
This right implies that individuals are equal before law. It forbids discrimination on the basis of one’s caste, colour, creed, education, region, race, religion, wealth etc. It enables equal treatment to all persons. It provides scope for uniform application of laws. It enables equal opportunities to all persons in social, economic and political fields.

4) Right to property:
This right enables every individual to acquire, enjoy, donate or inherit the property. It is essential to the individual for securing higher standards of living. This right is crucial for the growth of individual’s personality.

5) Right to family :
Family is a fundamental social institution. This right enables individuals to maintain family relations in society. Consequently, individuals will have freedom to marry persons of their choice. They will have choice to procreate children and rear their offspring. However, the state can impose certain restrictions upon this right keeping in view the national interests. For example, until recent times China imposed severe restrictions against their citizens in the size of their families. Recently it has made some amendments in this regard.

6) Right to religion :
This right allows the individuals to have freedom to practice, propagate and profess any religion of their choice. Every individual is at liberty to preach or practice the religious doctrines as they like. The secular states provide religious freedoms to their citizens.

7) Right to contract :
This right provides freedom to every individual to enter into contract or legal arrangements with others regarding his life, property and work. It regulates the two parties in carrying their contracts in letter and spirit. The state recognizes only those contracts which are helpful to the common well being of the people.

8) Right to education :
In the modem era education is regarded as vital to every individual. Uneducated and innocent individuals cannot play an active role in public affairs. Similarly, illiterate persons cannot fully make use of their abilities. Education and literacy enable the people to understand the problems of the society and policies of the government. This right guarantees a minimum level of education to every citizen in democratic states.

9) Right to form associations and unions :
This right enables individuals to form associations and unions for realising some specific objectives. Individuals may join, continue or keep away from the membership of associations according to their will and pleasure. The State is empowered to impose restrictions against those associations which ignore the welfare of the nation.

10) Right to constitutional remedies :
Civil rights are meaningless in the absence of this right. This right is essential to every individual for safeguarding his rights. This right empowers a person (who was deprived of his liberty due to the intervention or manhandling by others including the government) to seek justice and relief from the concerned judicial organizations. The affected individuals are authorised to approach an appropriate court for correcting such imbalance. In this regard the higher judicial organizations issue several writs and effectively check such tendencies. These writs are in the form of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari etc.

Political Rights :
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote :
Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modem democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections :
This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices :
This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition :
This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modem state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism:
This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Question 2.
Identify the safeguards of Rights.
Answer:
Introduction: Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of the Rights.

Definition:
1) T.H. Green :
“Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.”

2) H.J. Laski:
“Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Safeguards of Rights:
Individuals enjoy their rights only when they were fully protected or safeguarded by the State. In this regard, the following elements act as the safeguards of the rights.

1) Democratic Rule :
Democratic rule safeguards the rights of the people to a great extent. People can enjoy their rights perfectly in democratic states only. This system makes constitutional and legal provisions for safeguarding the right of the people.

2) Written and Rigid Constitution:
A written constitution clearly defines the powers and functions of the government. It also explains about the various limitations of governmental authority. Besides, a rigid constitution will guarantee the rights of the people by making it difficult for the rulers and legislators to make amendments on flimsy grounds.

3) Constitutional Incorporation :
Incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution will prevent the encroachment of individual rights by the government. Such an arrangement protects the rights of the individuals to a great extent.

4) Separation of Powers:
The powers of the government should be separated among the three organs of the government. Such as measure would act as a check against other organ. Ultimately, it serves as a safeguard of individual liberty.

5) Decentralisation of Powers :
Individuals enjoy their rights, when powers are decentralised among the governmental institutions. This involves allocation of powers at various levels – national, provisional, local either on functional or territorial basis.

6) Rule of Law:
Rule of law implies equality before law. It also denotes equal application of laws to the citizens. It gives no scope for discrimination between citizens on the grounds of region, religion, caste, colour, community etc.

7) Independent and Impartial Judiciary :
Independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of rights. Judges in higher judicial bodies will deliver judgement with impartial and independent outlook. In the process of delivering justice, they issue certain writs for immediate protection of the rights.

8) Indepedent Press:
Independent and honest press is another essential safeguard of rights of individuals. Such agency will be able to disseminate news and views impartially and without fear or favour to anybody. In this regard the state should not try to threaten and silence the press. Then only individuals enjoy their rights to the maximum extent.

9) Social and Economic Equalities:
Social and economic equalities are necessary for enjoying one’s rights. People will be able to utilize their rights properly and positively when there are social and economic equalities in the state. These equalities include absence of casteism, communalism, linguism, wide spread economic inequalities, exploitation etc.

10) Eternal Vigilance:
Eternal vigilance is said to be the most important safeguard of rights of individuals. Individuals must be vigilant and cautious about the policies of the government. They should oppose the despotic tendencies of the government through democratic and constitutional methods. Under no circumstances they should allow the self seeking politicians to acquire power. Besides several other elements like judicial review, recall, strong opposition etc., are considered as the safeguards of rights.

Question 3.
Write an essay on Human Rights.
Answer:
Introduction :
Human rights are the amenities required for the basic existence of human beings. They are available to all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community, religion, region, language etc. The constitutional and ordinary laws in democratic states recognize these rights. The various governments in democratic states will take appropriate steps for providing human rights to their people.

Definitions:

  1. “Human Rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion language etc.” – United Nations Organization (U.N.O)
  2. “The Rights which serve as the protective shield to the individuals whenever the state attempts to interfere with the civil liberties of individuals.” – Ronald Darwin
  3. “Human Rights are the new standards of civilization.” – John Dowski

Origin and Growth of Human Rights :

  1. The credit for showing interest on human rights and their application to human goes to Greek rulers. They recognised the need and importance of health and strength in the development of human personality.
  2. Magna Carta sanctioned by King John of England in 1613 gave life to the Freedoms and independence of the people.
  3. The cultural renaissance which shook the various countries in Europe gave strength and succor to the Civil rights movements.
  4. John Locke of England popularised the doctrine of natural rights as a part of his proposal for the spread of human rights.
  5. Rousseu of Switzerland mentioned several times about the importance of human rights in his concept of social contract. He declared that “Man has bom with free but every where he is in chains.”
  6. John Stuart Mill, a prominent British political philosopher, propounded individualism. He stated that every individual is sovereign over himself, his body and mind and all organizations including the state shall not interfere in the affairs of Individuals.
  7. The writings of above philosophers profoundly influenced the people across the globe. Several freedom movements such as bloodless revolution in England (1688), American declaration of Independence (1776), French Revolution (1789), Russian Revolution (1917). The Indian declaration of Independence (1947) etc., led to the creation of favourable atmosphere for the enjoyment of human rights.
  8. After the establishment of United Nations Organization in 1945, the charter of U.N.O assigned priority and significance to the rights of human beings. The universal declaration of human rights came into force on December 10, 1948. Since then, that day is celebrated as the universal human rights day.

As a result, several covenants like international economic, social and cultural rights, International civil and political rights (1966) came into being. The above covenants made obligatory for the international community to provide favourable conditions for enjoying the various human rights by the people of the world. All the member states of the United Nations gave assurance to have full faith in the human rights. They assured their cooperation for observing and promoting human rights.

Violation of Human Rights:
Today in almost all the countries of the World, everywhere the violation of human rights is happening Poverty, Refugees, Separatist movements etc., are the main causes for violation of human rights.

Protection of Human Rights:
Every nation has the responsibility to protect the human rights. Governments as well as voluntary organizations play a key role in protection of human rights. Amnesty International and Asia watch are playing a prominent role in protecting the human rights.

Question 4.
”Rights and Responsibilities are inter related” Analyse.
Answer:
There is a close relationship between rights and responsibilities. The two are considered as the two sides of a same coin. Rights are incomplete in the absence of responsibilities. Rights imply responsibilities are entitled to rights. The two are inseparable. They are compared to the life and breath of living beings.

Essential conditions of social life :
Many political writers described that rights and responsibilities are the two essential conditions of social life. They are like the shield and soul of the people in the state. Every right will have a corresponding responsibility. Similarly, every responsibility has a corresponding right. The two propositions when put together will help to a great extent the individuals to lead a happy, honourable, harmonious and prosperous life in society. For instance, the right to religion allows every individual to embrace a religion of his choice.

It also enables him to preach, profess and propagate his religious beliefs in society. At the same time that person has a corresponding responsibility in religious matters. He has to avail this right to religion in consonance with the religious beliefs of his fellow citizens. He has the responsibility of not interfering in the religious matters of others under any circumstances.

Social Progress :
It is imperative that everyone should enjoy his rights in such a way that his activities contribute to social progress. He should be aware of his rights and perform his responsibilities in a judicious manner. His actions should always be carried on with the Ultimate aim of promoting social progress.

Another postulate regarding the affinity between rights and responsibilities relates to the order in the State. One should utilize his rights in such a way that his actions should in no way disrupt the peaceful atmosphere in the society. Similarly, he should abide by the rules and regulations imposed and implemented by the government authorities from time to time.

He should always carry as his activities in various spheres of life without affecting the rights of others in society. It implies that he must oblige and respect others in the enjoyment of their rights. He should not interfere in other affairs under any circumstances. This reveals the relationship between rights and responsibilities.

Rights and Responsibilities do not have separate or distinct ends. They are always present together like shadow and man.

One’s right automatically becomes other’s responsibility and vice versa. The two rights and responsibilities – together make a person as a good citizen.

Responsibilities lack meaning in the absence of rights. The reason is that there will be no responsibilities without rights. Similarly, there will be no rights without responsibilities. Hence, rights and responsibilities go hand in hand. Together the two concepts enable the peace, progress and harmony in human society.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Question 5.
Write an essay on National Commission on Human Rights.
Answer:
As per the U.N. Declaration of human rights, the government of India too steps for its implementation. In 1993, it appointed National Human Rights Commission and also passed Human Rights Act in 1998.

Composition:
National human rights commission is a multi-member body. It consists of four members, headed by the former chief justice of the supreme court. There will be a supreme court judge (or former Judge). A high court judge (or former high court chief justice) and two other members who actively participated in the human rights activities. The chairman of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities commission, chairperson of national women commission act as the ex-officio members of the commission. There will be a General Secretary having the status of Secretary general in the commission.

Appointment:
The chairman as well as members of the commission are appointed by the President of India.

Tenure :
The Chairman and members shall hold their office for five years or until the super annuation age of 70 years which ever is earlier.

Functions :
The following are some of the important Junctions of national human rights commission.

  1. The national human rights commission makes enquiry into the cases of violation of human rights by the public authorities.
  2. It enquires into the cases of human rights violation as permitted by the judicial organizations.
  3. It reviews the various legislative measures in regard to the implementation of human rights.
  4. It makes suggestions for averting terrorist operations affecting human rights.
  5. It makes research into the matter of human rights.
  6. It takes steps for creating awareness of human rights among the people.
  7. It gives encouragement to voluntary organizations in the matters of preserving human rights.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are the features of Rights?
Answer:
Rights are the essential conditions for the development of the personality of individuals. They are upheld by the laws of the state. Individuals cannot achieve progress in the absence of rights.

Definition :
“Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.”

Features of Rights :
Rights comprise the following features.
1) Rights are possible only in society:
Rights originate in society. They denote human social behaviour. They do not exist outside of the society.

2) Rights are social in nature :
Rights are the claims of individuals. These claims can be established only when the society or the state recognises and maintains them. So they are social in nature.

3) Rights are inherent in nature:
Rights are inherent in the social nature of men. The social contractualists stated that rights are inherent in nature. Their views are accepted to some extent in modem times.

4) Rights are enforced and protected by the state:
Rights are enforced and protected by the state. The various judicial organisations act as the custodians of the rights of individuals. In other words, rights are protected by the courts of law. Individuals enjoy several rights fully only in a democratic state.

5) Rights are not absolute :
Rights are not absolute. Society and state impose some restrictions on the enjoyment of rights by the individuals. These restrictions are meant for maintaining peace and other in the society. Further, rights are meant for contributing social welfare and security.

6) Every right has a corresponding responsibility :
Rights and responsibilities are interdependent. Every right has a corresponding responsibility. It is the responsibility of every individual to see that his neighbours also enjoy the same rights. Rights without responsibilities or responsibilities without rights cannot exist. Both are essential for leading a peaceful social life.

7) Rights are universal :
Rights are universal in nature. They are applicable to all. They are given to all without any discrimination.

8) Rights vary :
Rights vary from time to time according to the needs of the people. They also grow with the changes in time and conditions. Some rights which were not found in the past may exist now. The socio economic, political and cultural conditions will have an influence over the rights.

9) Rights precede the state :
Rights are the products of history. Rights originated in course of time. They were prevalent even before the origin of the state. However, they were guaranteed only after the origin of the state.

10) Rights are meant for common good :
Rights always exist and flourish as long as they are meant for common good. Only those rights which promote common good of the people are recognised by the society and the state. They are essential for leading a prosperous life by the individuals.

Question 2.
Explain Political Rights.
Answer:
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state.

The following are the important political rights :
1) Right to vote :
Right to vote is the most important political right enjoyed by the citizens in modem democratic states. It serves as a powerful weapon for adult citizens in choosing their representatives to various legislative bodies. It makes them as real sovereign. All the citizens are entitled to this right without any discrimination based on creed, colour, language, race, region, religion, sex etc. However, persons such as aliens and minors are deprived of this right.

2) Right to contest in elections :
This right empowers the citizens to contest as candidates to various legislative bodies in the state. Especially this right enables those, who have political sagacity, enthusiasm and dynamic nature, to actively participate in the political dynamics of the state. As a result, it increases political enthusiasm among the citizens. Such an element is considered as a base of democratic polity.

3) Right to hold public offices :
This right provides opportunities to the citizens to hold various public offices for a definite period. It gives no scope for exclusion of citizens or conferring special privileges to some at the cost of others. This helps the citizens to exercise authority in a dignified manner.

4) Right to petition :
This right enables the citizens to forward petitions denoting their requirements or grievances. It is considered as a vital political right in the modem state. The citizens could be able to find solutions to their immediate or long pending issues by bringing them to the notice of the government through this right. It also helps the public authorities to know the grievances of the people and attend to them properly and promptly.

5) Right to criticism:
This right gives opportunity to the citizens to criticize the various public policies and programmes. It also enables them to highlight the omissions and commissions of the leaders, and administrative personnel at various levels. It also gives scope for the citizens to render positive and constructive criticism about the on goings in the government from time to time. Ultimately it keeps the administrative authorities and policy makers to be vigilant in discharging their obligations.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Question 3.
What are the features of Human Rights?
Answer:
Human rights are the amenities required for the basic existence of human beings. They are available to all persons irrespective of caste, creed, community, religion, region, language etc. The constitutional and ordinary laws in democratic states recognize these rights. The various governments in democratic states will take appropriate steps for providing human rights to their people.

Definition :
“Human rights are freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc.” – U.N.O.

Features of human rights :
There are some common features of human rights. They may be mentioned as follows :

  • Human rights are enjoyed by all the people without discrimination.
  • These rights are universal.
  • They treat all people alike.
  • They regard individuals basically as human beings.
  • They encompass some fundamental principles of humanity.
  • They have no geographical limitations.

Almost all members of the united nations organisation have affirmed to follow the human tights in theory.

Question 4.
Write the objectives and classification of Human Rights.
Answer:
Definition of human rights:
“Human Rights are Freedom to all irrespective of place, sex, religion, language etc. – U.N.O.

Objectives of human rights:
The following are the various objectives of human rights.

  1. Provision of independence to the people against discrimination.
  2. Freedom from poverty.
  3. Freedom for availing the latent abilities of individuals.
  4. Freedom from fear.
  5. Freedom of protection.
  6. Freedom from injustice.
  7. Freedom of speech and expression.
  8. Freedom of protection.
  9. Freedom of association.
  10. Freedom for carrying one’s activities on dignified lines.
  11. Freedom against exploitation.

The united nations general assembly declared 1995 – 2005 as the International decade of human rights. The ultimate objective of human rights relates to the provision of human rights to all people of the world.

Classification of human rights:
Human rights are broadly classified into two categories (i) Civil and Political Rights (ii) Economic, social and cultural rights. In the first category, civil rights occupy a prominent position. Civil rights include several rights like right to life, liberty and security of individuals, freedom from slavery and torture, equality before law, protection against arbitrary custody etc.

They also assure the individual for a right to fair trial, right to own property, right to marriage etc. Besides they comprise several freedoms like freedom of speech, expression, association, assembly, movement, residence etc. Political rights include right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections to various offices, right to assume power, right to criticise, right to petition etc.

The second category of human rights include several economic, social and cultural rights. Economic rights include right to work, right to equal payment of salaries to equal work, right to form and join in trade unions, right to adequate standard of living etc. Social rights include right to education, right to health, right to entertainment etc. Respecting the civilization, arts, culture etc., are included in the category of cultural rights.

Question 5.
Discuss the various types of Responsibilities.
Answr:
Responsibility is an obligation of an individual towards other individuals residing in the society. It is regarded as an obligation or duty towards others. The term ’Responsibility’ denotes what one is bound to do. Every individual must abide by certain rules of behaviour in society for his own good and for the good of others. These include some do’s and don’ts. Responsibilities are both positive and negative in nature.

Everyone in society must perform these responsibilities in the larger interests of society and state. Everyone must behave in such a way that promotes common good and social welfare. Responsibilities in turn contribute to the public good. They establish peace and order in society. Responsibilities always preceed rights.

Types of Responsibilities:
Responsibilities are broadly of two types: Moral and Legal.

i) Moral Responsibilities:
Moral responsibilities are those which bound the individuals together on moral grounds. They may not be upheld and supported by the laws of the state. They are based on the moral beliefs of the people. They are sanctioned by the community basing on some customs, traditions and usages. Any violation of moral responsibilities does not lead to punishment. Helping the needy and the sick is regarded as an example of moral responsibilities.

ii) Legal Responsibilities:
Legal Responsibilities are implemented through the courts and with the support of the statutory laws. They carry statutory significance. They are very clear and precise. They are compulsory and coercive in nature. So those who violate these responsibilities will be punished. Obeying the laws of the state, paying taxes, assisting the administrators in the maintenance of law and order etc., are some of the important legal responsibilities of a citizen.

Legal Responsibilities are further classified into positive and negative.

1) Positive Responsibilities:
When a citizen exercises his responsibilities to strengthen the social progress and welfare, they are known as positive responsibilities. Obedience to the laws of the state, defending the country, paying taxes etc., are some of the examples for positive aspects of legal responsibilities. These responsibilities aim at extending co-operation to the government in realizing the objectives of the state.

2) Negative Responsibilities :
When a citizen abstains from doing an activity as prohibited by the laws, it is said to be an example of negative responsibility. Negative respon-sibilities keep the people from not doing certain activities. The government, on behalf of the state, makes several regulations in this regard.

Question 6.
What are the features of Fundamental Rights?
Answer:
Fundamental rights are very essential for the development of the personality of the individuals. They are by and large incorporated in the constitution. Several factors like (i) democracy (ii) individual freedoms (iii) minority interests (iv) greater emphasis on human life, liberty and properties etc., are responsible for the incorporation of fundamental rights in the constitution.

Characteristics of Fundamental Rights :
Fundamental rights have the following characteristics.

  • Fundamental Rights are definite, clear and specific.
  • They are constitutional and legal in nature.
  • They are coercive in nature.
  • They are given to the citizens only.
  • They vary from state to state.
  • They are not absolute.
  • They can be amended under certain conditions.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Rights.
Answer:

  1. “Rights are those powers claimed and recognized as contributory to the common good.” – T.H. Green
  2. “Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best.” – H.J. Laski

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Question 2.
Classify Rights. [A.P. 19, 15; T.S. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Rights are broadly classified into three categories namely, (i) Natural rights (ii) Moral rights and (iii) Legal rights.
Legal Rights intum classified into (i) Civil rights (ii) Political rights and (iii) Economic rights.

Question 3.
What are Civil Rights?
Answer:
Civil rights aim at providing basic conditions for individuals to lead a happy and dignified social life. These rights are considered vital for a civilized society. Social life becomes impossible in their absence. Right to life, Right to liberty, Right to equality etc., are some of the examples of civil rights.

Question 4.
Natural Rights.
Answer:
Natural rights are those rights which are enjoyed by men by birth. Men enjoyed these rights even before the origin of civilised society. The society and the state recognized and respected these rights. John Locke, who propounded the theory of natural rights, claimed that rights are pre-social and pre-political in nature. He cited the right to life, right to liberty and right to property as the basic natural rights. The state cannot deprive men of these rights.

Question 5.
Moral Rights. [A.P. 2018]
Answer:
Moral rights denote claims based on the ‘moral’ code of the community. These rights are morally prescribed to men in the society. The ethical or moral principles in the society act as the basis of the moral rights. Customs, traditions and usages are regarded as the basic source of these rights. Men enjoy these rights in a civil society. These rights are based on the moral conscience of the people. They don’t have legal support. However, they are backed by the society. So violation of these rights is not considered as a crime. Individuals could be punished for their violation. Moral rights are indefinite and vague. But they are popular in nature. The State cannot ignore these rights for a long time.

Question 6.
What are Political Rights?
Answer:
Political rights are those rights which enable the individuals to participate in the political affairs of the state. They help the citizens to manage the political affairs including the organization of the government. They empower the citizens in the political affairs of the state. Citizens can freely participate in the administration of the country. A unique feature of these rights is that they are enjoyed by the citizens only. Aliens do not possess these rights.

Right to vote, right to contest as candidates in elections, right to hold public offices, right to petition, right to criticize the government etc., are some examples of the political rights.

Question 7.
What are the objectives of Human Rights?
Answer:
The following are the various objectives of human rights.

  1. Provision of independence to the people against discrimination.
  2. Freedom from poverty.
  3. Freedom for availing the latent abilities of individuals.
  4. Freedom from fear.
  5. Freedom of protection.
  6. Freedom from injustice.
  7. Freedom of speech and expression.
  8. Freedom of protection.
  9. Freedom of association.
  10. Freedom for carrying one’s activities on dignified lines.
  11. Freedom against exploitation.

Question 8.
How many types of Human Rights are there? Name them.
Answer:
Human rights are broadly classified into two categories :
(i) Civil and political rights (ii) Economic, social and cultural rights.

Question 9.
Significance of Human Rights.
Answer:
The United Nations reaffirmed that the people and governments of every state must strive for respecting individual freedoms and human rights. The concerned authorities and agencies of the United Nations held several international conferences and invited internationally acclaimed intellectuals, jurists and heads of states for eliciting their valuable opinions on extending human rights to every section of human communities throughout the world.

Question 10.
Classification of Responsibilities.
Answer:
Responsibilities are broadly classified into (i) Moral responsibilities (ii) Legal responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are further classified into (i) Positive responsibilities (ii) Negative responsibilities.

Question 11.
Moral Responsibilities.
Answer:
Moral Responsibilities :
Moral responsibilities are those which bound the individuals together on moral grounds. They may not be upheld and supported by the laws of the state. They are based on the moral beliefs of the people. They are sanctioned by the community basing on some customs, traditions and usages. Any violation of moral responsibilities does not lead to punishment. Helping the needy and the sick is regarded as an example of moral responsibilities.

 

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 6 Rights and Responsibilities

Question 12.
Give some examples of Responsibilities.
Answer:
The following are some examples of Responsibilities :

  1. Payment of Taxes
  2. Cooperation in law and order matters
  3. Honest exercise of Franchise etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 5th Lesson Liberty and Equality Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 5th Lesson Liberty and Equality

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Liberty and describe various types of Liberty.
Answer:
Introduction :
The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of people living all over the world.

Meaning:
The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions :
Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers. Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – TH. Green
  4. “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be at their best selves”. – H.J. Laski

Types of Liberty: Liberty is of different types. Some of them may be described in the following :

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty
  5. National liberty.

1. Natural liberty:
Natural liberty is understood as uncontrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the Liberty and Equalitys of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will and capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society, since liberty is a social condition. True liberty does not inconvenience others. Liberty is not a licence. Natural liberty is equal to anarchy. The weak cannot enjoy liberty without Liberty and Equality. Some writers imagined that this kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty :
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. In this regard Gettle said thus “Civil liberty is the group of rights recognised and implemented by the state”. The constitution of the America and the India have in corporated civil liberty in the form of fundamental rights. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights. These include A) Right to Life B) Right to Work Q Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty :
Economic liberty means the right of everyone to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and feari hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. Economic liberty denotes freedom from want or insecurity of economic nature. Without economic liberty democracy is meaningless. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

4. Political liberty:
Political liberty facilitates the citizens to take part in the political affairs of the state. Laski regarded political liberty as the power to be active in the affairs of the state. Gilchrist considered that political liberty is synonymous with democracy. Leacock described political liberty as constitutional liberty or liberty to choose one’s own government. Political liberty is confined to the citizens alone.

It is positive in nature. Political liberty provides several rights in political matters. These include (i) right to vote, (ii) right to contest as candidates in elections, (iii) right to hold public office, (iv) right to criticism etc. Laski emphasised that political liberty becomes real when there prevails (i) education (ii) honest and impartial press etc. Political liberty will be realized only in a democratic system.

5. National liberty :
National liberty implies the freedom and independence of the state. It also denotes the sovereignty of the state. Every state enjoys this liberty and remains free from the political domination of other states. This liberty is essential for the progress of nation in all spheres. It was manifested in several countries since ancient period; Many countries made efforts for securing this type of liberty.

The Greeks fought a war of independence against the Turks. Similarly the Indian masses under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi waged a non-violent struggle to secure national freedom from the British rule. National liberty is veiy valuable. Great leaders like Thomas Jefferson emphasised the significance of national liberty.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 2.
What do you mean by Liberty? What are the safeguards of Liberty?
Answer:
Introduction:
The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning:
The term liberty is derived from the Latin word” LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definition:

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty:
Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1. Democratic rule :
Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic state. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various Liberty and Equalitys. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly.

It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2. Written and rigid constitution :
A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of governmental activity.

It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of people’s freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities. It also imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3. Independent judiciary :
An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Prof. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

4. Rule of Liberty and Equality :
Rule of Liberty and Equality is another safeguard of liberty. It is prevalent in many states like Britan, India, United States etc. Rule of Liberty and Equality safeguards individual liberties in three ways. Firstly, it treats all individuals as equal. Secondly, it makes arrangement for the application and enforcement of uniform Liberty and Equalitys throughout the state. Thirdly, it exercises restraints on the executive against the use of arbitrary powers.

5. Fundamental rights :
Provision of fundamental rights will safeguard rights to a great extent. Citizens enjoy their liberties without restraints when these rights are enshrined in the constitution. Fundamental rights enable the citizens to develop their talents and realise their personality in various walks of life.

6. Economic equality:
Economic equality too acts as an important safeguard of individual liberties. It implies provision of adequate conditions for the people to come out of the evil j effects of hunger, poverty, and unemployment etc. Liberty becomes real when there exists economic equality. Economic equality presupposes economic justice. It is guaranteed by the state. Absence of glaring inequalities is a pre-condition of safeguarding liberty.

7. Decentralization of powers:
Liberty will be better safeguard through decentralisation of powers. Individuals could enjoy their liberties when the country is free from the centralization of governmental powers and authority. When the powers of the government are allocated among the union, state, and local governments, there arises no scope for despotism and infringement of individual liberties.

8. Freedom of press :
Some regarded freedom of press as a safeguard of individual liberty. Individuals could enjoy their liberties when the various agencies of press and other media have autonomy in their functioning. The press will be able to serve as an important agent for creating, consolidating and expressing public opinion. It, through its impartial editorials and honest presentation of news and views, will be able to safeguard individual liberties.

9. Strong opposition :
A strong opposition is a necessary condition for promoting individual liberty. The opposition will act as a watchdog of individual liberty. Whenever the party in power or persons at higher levels of government try to subvert or circumscribe the freedoms of individuals by their oppressive and despotic acts and activities through legislation and execution, the opposition will strongly resist such attempts. Itr by moving a no-confidence motion in the last resort, will uphold the liberties of the individuals.

10. Eternal vigilance :
The best safeguard to liberty is the spirit of the people. It is rightly said, “Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty”. People must be ready to fight for their liberty. They should have the courage even to rebel against the government whenever their liberty is curbed by it. In the words of Laski, “It is the proud spirit of the citizens, that is their most real safeguard”.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Equality ? What are its types?
Answer:
Meaning and explanation of Equality: The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term Equality’ became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.

In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the Liberty and Equality and equal opportunities to develop their personality. But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. Hence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that State should grant to its citizens equality before Liberty and Equality and equal protection by Liberty and Equality.

Definitions :

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of Equality :
There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.

1. Natural equality:
This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

2. Social equality :
Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discrimination. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. For instance, the constitution of India does not reconize caste or class distinctions. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability. When all citizens enjoy social equality, there will be no discrimination against anyone on the grounds of caste, class, colour, creed, race and place of birth and legal rights. Social equality cannot be achieved only through Liberty and Equalitys. There must prevail a sentiment of equality among individuals. The following elements help in achieving and maintaining social equality.

  1. Special privileges should not be allowed by the state to any citizen.
  2. The government shall adopt and implement a uniform policy in the fields of education, employment, administration and legislation.
  3. People must have a broad outlook with the qualities of tolerance, sacrifice, honesty etc., in social and religious affairs.
  4. Citizens of a state should maintain harmonious relations with their fellow citizens.
  5. People should not use their name of the caste, sect or religion at the time of forwarding petitions.
  6. Inter caste marriages should be encouraged.

3. Economic equality :
This kind of equality is a precondition for the enjoyment of social, and political equalities. Its absence leads to several social and political problems. Economic equality does not mean equal distribution of social wealth among all the people. It only means the elimination of inequalities in wealth, income and property. The basic needs like food, shelter and clothing must be available to all. In the opinion of Laski, “Economic equality means the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world”. In Barker’s view, “Economic equality is partly a matter of status and partly a matter of property and income”.

4. Political equality:
Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens and foreign nationals living in a state. Citizens have to utilise the opportunities given by political equality with great case, farsighted outlook and broad-mindedness.

Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

5. International equality:
International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations. Some cautioned about the occurrence of Third World War in the absence of respect to international Liberty and Equality. They expressed apprehensions thinking that human beings will go back to the stone ages.

Question 4.
Explain the relationship between Liberty and Equality.
Answer:
Liberty and Equality are important concepts in political science. They are closely related to each other. Both of them inspired the people of several countries during their struggle of independence against Foreign Rule.

Political philosophers have expressed two different opinions in regard to the relationship between Liberty and Equality. They agreed that both Liberty and Equality are important concepts in Political Science. However, some advanced the notion of affinity between the two. Others considered that the two are incompatible to each other.

The first school of thought includes political philosophers like Rousseau, Tawney, Laski and G.D.H. Cole. The second school of thought includes Lord Mathew Arnold, Lord Acton, De Toe quavilla and others. Let us analyse the argument of the two in the following paras.

Liberty and Equality are opposite :
The propounders of this school have expressed the view that liberty and equality are opposite in nature. Lord Acton said that the desire to have equality destroyed the possibility of full liberty. Whenever the government passes a Liberty and Equality to bring equality, Liberties of some people are restricted. Similarly, when all individuals are allowed freedom to acquire wealth, only a few talented persons will be able to receive the advantages. This leads to inequalities of wealth. When equality is maintained, liberties of some efficient persons will be curtailed.

Industrial revolution (1760-1840) symbolized this type of exploitation in society. It led to capitalism which is characterized by free and cutthroat competition. On the other hand, Socialist countries forced the people to practice the principles of duty, discipline and devotion towards the State. Such a policy will kill the initiative and incentive of the people. The supporters of this view argued that both the concepts will not go together. Unrestrained liberty will destroy equality. Nations can achieve the goal of either liberty or equality at a time. Both cannot be realized simultaneously. For instance, in communist states people enjoy equality but they were deprived of liberty.

Liberty and Equality are complementary :
It is said that liberty and equality are complementary to each other. The proponents of this school argued that liberty can be enjoyed by the people only with some degree of equality. A large measure of equality is essential for the enjoyment of liberty. Tawney, a support of this school of thought, pointed out that a large measure of equality is essential for the enjoyment of equality.

Polard, another supporter, hinted out that there is only one solution to the issue of liberty; it lies in equality. Indeed both the concepts have a common end, namely, the promotion of human personality and the spontaneous development of one’s capacities to the greatest heights.

It may be noted that the above two arguments are not completely real. The fact lies in between the two. Liberty and Equality are neither completely complementary not antithetical in nature. In this context, the real relationship between the two concepts may be explained as below.

Liberty is essential for equality:
a) Liberty does not mean absolute freedom. It has some limitations. It is available to all for achieving social welfare under certain conditions.

b) Liberty cannot be treated as the monopoly of a person or a group of persons.

c) Enjoyment of liberty by a person does not affect the same of others. If one recognizes this principle, he has to respect the principle of equality. It means that the fruits of liberty are found in the branches of the tree of equality. So, liberty and equality are complementary to each other. When liberty is extended to all the people on the principles of equality, the goal of liberty could be fulfilled in the true sense.

Equality is essential for Liberty: Equality does not mean identical treatment which is impossible in a civil society. It means equality under similar conditions. In a civil society, some persons may not have equal status with others. But it is necessary to provide some conditions and opportunities for the people to develop their status and personality. It may be said that when all people are equal, the fruits of liberty is available to all.

In this way liberty and equality are complementary to each other. These two concepts are so inter related that they have common objective. If liberty disregards equality, it would lead to anarchy and dictatorship. In the same way, if equality keeps itself away from liberty, it would lead to slavery. Both the ideals are essential for the betterment of the individual and the society.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 5.
Define the term Equality. Write about Social and Economic Equalities.
Answer:
Meaning and explanation of Equality:
The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality’ became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.
In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the Liberty and Equality and equal opportunities to develop the ir personality. But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. Hence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that State should grant to its citizens equality before Liberty and Equality and equal protection by Liberty and Equality.

Definitions:

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of Equality :
There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.

1. Social Equality:
Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discrimination. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. For instance, the constitution of India does not reconize caste or class distinctions. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability. When all citizens enjoy social equality, there will be no discrimination against anyone on the grounds of caste, class, colour, creed, race and place of birth and legal rights. Social equality cannot be achieved only through Liberty and Equalitys. There must prevail a sentiment of equality among individuals. The following elements help in achieving and maintaining social equality.

  1. Special privileges should not be allowed by the state to any citizen.
  2. The government shall adopt and implement a uniform policy in the fields of education, employment, administration and legislation.
  3. People must have a broad outlook with the qualities of tolerance, sacrifice, honesty etc., in social and religious affairs.
  4. Citizens of a state should maintain harmonious relations with their fellow citizens.
  5. People should not use their name of the caste, sect or religion at the time of forwarding petitions.
  6. Inter caste marriages should be encouraged.

2. Economic equality :
This kind of equality is a precondition for the enjoyment of social and political equalities. Its absence leads to several social and political problems. Economic equality does not mean equal distribution of social wealth among all the people. It only means the elimination of inequalities in wealth, income, and property. The basic needs like food, shelter and clothing must be available to all. In the opinion of Laski, “Economic equality means the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world”. In Barker’s view, “Economic equality is partly a matter of status and partly a matter of property and income”.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Liberty and describe any three types of Liberty. [A.P. Mar, 18]
Answer:
Introduction :
The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning:
The term liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definitions :
Liberty is defined in many ways by different political thinkers. Some of them are cited below :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole
  3. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying”. – TH. Green
  4. “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be at their best selves”. – H.J. Laski

Types of Liberty:
Liberty is of different types. Some of them may be described in the following :

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty
  5. National liberty.

1. Natural liberty:
Natural liberty is understood as uncontrolled freedom or absolute freedom. It is believed that natural liberty existed in the pre-social and pre-state human life. According to this concept there were no rules and regulations except the Liberty and Equalitys of nature in the past. All persons were free to do anything according to their will and capacity. But this type of liberty is not possible in civilised society, since liberty is a social condition. True liberty does not inconvenience others. Liberty is not a licence. Natural liberty is equal to anarchy. The weak cannot enjoy liberty without Liberty and Equality. Some writers imagined that this kind of liberty existed before the origin of state.

2. Civil liberty :
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. In this regard Gettle said thus “Civil liberty is the group of rights recognised and implemented by the state”. The constitution of the America and the India have in corporated civil liberty in the form of fundamental rights. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights. These include A) Right to Life B) Right to Work Q Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

3. Economic liberty :
Economic liberty means the right of every one to earn his livelihood. Laski described economic liberty as the security and opportunity to find reasonable significance in earning one’s daily bread. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. Economic liberty denotes freedom from want or insecurity of economic nature. Without economic liberty democracy is meaningless. It will also be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure.
  5. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 2.
Explain about any three safeguards of Liberty. [T.S. 2017]
Answer:
Introduction :
The concept of Liberty is of great significance in the study of political science. Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. It became a source of inspiration to the millions of the people living all over the world.

Meaning:
The term liberty is derived from the Latin word” LIBER” which means free from restrictions.

Definition :

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely
  2. “Liberty means the positive power of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying” – T.H. Green

Safeguards of liberty:
Liberty is the most cherished ideal of human beings. Hence, it must be safeguarded in the larger interest of the society and state. In this context, the following safeguards of liberty are worth mentioning.

1. Democratic rule :
Democratic rule is considered as a heaven to liberty. Liberty flourishes only in a democratic State. The reason is that democratic state extends protection to individual’s liberties through various Liberty and Equalitys. It creates a conducive atmosphere for the individuals to enjoy their liberties freely and impartially. It makes the people to participate in the government process directly or indirectly. It makes the people to participate in the governmental process directly or indirectly. It makes the government answerable to the people. It allows the people the right to change the government through public opinion or ballot when the government acts improperly.

2. Written and rigid constitution :
A written and rigid constitution is considered the most important safeguard of individual liberty. Such a constitution incorporates the various freedoms of individuals in several provisions. It acts as a custodian of people’s rights and liberties. It demarcates the spheres of governmental activity. It mentions about the various measures to be taken in case of people’s freedoms are infringed or confiscated by others including governmental authorities. It also imposes restraints on the political parties by not allowing them to amend the constitutional provisions for furthering their partisan interests.

3. Independent judiciary :
An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Pro. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

Question 3.
What are the characteristics of Liberty?
Answer:
Meaning:
The term Liberty is derived from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restraints.

Definition :
“Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seely

Characteristics of Liberty:
The following are the important characteristics of Liberty.

  1. Liberty is a dynamic concept. Its interpretation varies according to time, place and wishes of the people.
  2. Liberty always opposes political subjugation, imprisonment and slavery.
  3. It always aims at realizing the aspirations of the individuals.
  4. Liberty always means absence of irrational restraints and presence of favourable conditions.
  5. It is the product of rights.
  6. It is essential for the realization of human personalities.
  7. It is found only in democratic states.
  8. It is manifest in the form of rights.
  9. It does not mean license to do whatever a person wants. It is always subject to limitations.

Question 4.
Describe the different aspects of Liberty.
Answer:
Meaning:
The term Liberty is derived’from the Latin word “LIBER” which means free from restraints.

Definition :
“Liberty means the absence of restraints”.

Aspects of Liberty :
Liberty has two aspects – Negative and Positive.

1. Negative aspect:
Liberty, in its negative aspect, implies absence of restrictions. Individuals enjoy freedom only when there are no restraints on their freedoms. However, some considered this aspect as not realistic. They asserted that unrestrained liberty was possible in a pre-social state. It is neither feasible nor practicable for enjoying freedoms by the individuals in modem times.

2. Positive aspect:
Liberty in its positive aspects denotes a situation in which individual is free to do according to his wishes and allowing others the same in his case. To say in other words liberty is the power which should not cause harm to others. T.H. Green, an idealist philosopher, propounded this aspect of liberty. He stated thus “Liberty is the power of doing or enjoying something that is worth doing or worth enjoying in common with others”.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Civil Liberty?
Answer:
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It relates to the individual’s freedom in his life as a member of the social organisation. It is enjoyed by the individuals in the society. Civil liberty is the essential pre-requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. So it is a must to every one. The state recognises the various freedoms of individuals. In this regard Gettle said thus “Civil liberty is the group of rights recognised and implemented by the state”. The constitution of the America and the India have in corporated civil liberty in the form of fundamental rights. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights. These include A) Right to Life B) Right to Work Q Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 6.
Point out two elements that threaten individual’s Liberties.
Answer:
Liberty is an essential condition without which man cannot develop his personality. Even though the liberty is safeguarded by several ways, there prevails some elements which threatens the Liberty of individuals in modem times. They are as follows :

1. Enhancement of state authority:
The modem democratic state, in the pretext of welfarism has assumed undefinable powers. As a result, it has been intruding into every activity of the people. Even its interference in family matters in the name of population correctives became common. So is the case in the sphere of economy, culture, arts, science etc. All this will lead to the encroachment of state into the public domain. This negated individual liberty to a great extent.

2. Too many Liberty and Equalitys :
In modem times people felt the government should come to their rescue for providing various amenities. This prompted the government to encroach into the sphere of individuals. In the process, too many Liberty and Equalitys have become the order of the day. Extension of Liberty and Equalitys gradually led to the curtailment of individual liberties.

3. Negative attitude :
In democracy, the government informs the people about its policies and responds to the public opinion. In the process there is eveiy possibility of distorting public opinion by the concerned persons on the government. We could notice this tendency in several states of the worlds including India.

4. Tyranny of majority :
Individual liberty is ressed by the tyranny of majority. The party in power, through its majority members support in the legislature, makes Liberty and Equalitys without considering the wishes and aspirations of the people. Such a situation will be dangerous to individual liberties. Citizens must not vote to such a party in power or the opposition as in Indian government in the coming elections.

Question 7.
What is meant by Equality?
Answer:
The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality’ became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment. In political science the term Equality refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the Liberty and Equality and equal opportunities to develop their personality.

Definitions:

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Question 8.
Describe any three aspects of Equality.
Answer:
The concept of equality has mainly two aspects-Positive and Negative. Equality, in its positive aspect, means the provision of adequate opportunities for all. However, it does not mean simply identical treatment for all. Since individuals differ in their needs and capacities, they require different opportunities for their personal development. Individuals should be given such opportunities which will develop their overall personality. If the state provides adequate opportunities to all for developing the capacities, the concept of equality could be realised in practice.

Equality in its negative sense, means no discrimination on some artificial grounds based on caste, colour, creed, descent, domicile, religion, etc. Everyone should get his due share. He should be in a position to realize his best self. Laski says that “Whatever rights herein in another by virtue of his being a citizen must be herein, and to the same extent in me also”. Everyone should have an equal access to the avenues of their Liberties.

Question 9.
What is Equality? Explain any three types of equality. [A.P. 19, 15]
Answer:
Meaning and explanation of Equality:
The concept of Equality is of great significance in the study of political science. The term ‘Equality’ became an important slogan and inspired the people of France, America, Russia and India during their struggle for freedom and independence.

The term “Equality” implies absolute equality of treatment.

In Political science, the term ‘Equality’ refers to a state which grants its citizens equality before the Liberty and Equality and equal opportunities to develop their personality. But it may be noted that individuals are not equal in many respects. While some of them are strong, some others may be weak. Similarly some are more intelligent than others. In this way, men differ in many respects. Hence, equality of treatment is not possible. In other words, it implies that State should grant to its citizens equality before Liberty and Equality and equal protection by Liberty and Equality.

Definitions:

  1. “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”. – H.J. Laski
  2. “Equality implies equal rights for all the people and abolition of special rights and privileges”. – Barker

Types of equality :
There are many types of equality. They may be analysed in the following.

1. Natural equality:
This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

2. Political equality:
Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens and foreign nationals living in a state. Citizens have to utilise the opportunities given by political equality with great case, farsighted outlook and broad-mindedness. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

3. International equality:
International equality means that all the states are treated equally irrespective of their geographical, economic or military composition. According to this element all nations of the world are equal whether they are large or small. For instance, the United Nations have extended equal dignity and status to all the nations in its Charter. International Equality reflects the traits of humanism. It emphasizes the peaceful settlement of disputes between the nations. Some cautioned about the occurrence of Third World War in the absence of respect to international Liberty and Equality. They expressed apprehensions thinking that human beings will go back to the stone ages.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 10.
Write about Political Equality.
Answer:
Political equality is an important kind of equality. It means that all citizens will have equal access to the avenues of authority. All of them possess the same political rights, an equal voice in government and equal right to hold public offices. It may be noted that political equality is enjoyed by the citizens only. It is not given to aliens and foreign nationals living in a state. Citizens have to utilise the opportunities given by political equality with great case, farsighted outlook and broad-mindedness.

Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Then only political equality brings the required fruits. Political equality prevails and flourishes when all citizens were provided with political rights like Right to vote, Right to contest elections, Right to make petitions and Right to criticism. That means political equality flourishes only in democratic countries.

Question 11.
Discuss the importance of Economic Equality.
Answer:
Economic equality is considered as the basis of social and political equalities. It serves as the main driving force behind all activities in the modern state. Economic equality means the elimination of vast inequalities in income, property and wealth. Earnest Barker viewed thus “Economic equality is purely a matter of status and partially a matter of property and income”. Lord Bryce viewed “Economic Equality” as The attempt to expunge all differences in wealth, allotting every man and women an equal share in the worldly goods”.

Prof. Laski held thus “Economic Equality implies the abolition of unfettered and irresponsible will in the industrial world”. At the same time, economic equality does not mean equal treatment and reward. It stands for opportunity to work and earn their livelihood to improve their economic status. This can be achieved only through individuals and government. Many socialist states have tried and partially succeeded in achieving economic equality.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Give any two definitions of Liberty.
Answer:

  1. “Liberty means the absence of restraints”. – J.R. Seeley
  2. “Liberty is the freedom of an individual to express without any external hindrance to his personality”. – G.D.H. Cole

Question 2.
What do you know about positive aspect of Liberty?
Answer:
Positive aspect:
Liberty in its positive aspects denotes a situation in which individual is free to do according to his wishes and allowing others the same in his case. To say in other words liberty is the power which should not cause harm to others. T.H. Green, an idealist philosopher, propounded this aspect of liberty. He stated thus “Liberty is the power of doing or enjoying something that is worth doing or worth enjoying in common with others.

Question 3.
List out any four characteristics of Liberty.
Answer:
Characteristics of Liberty: The following are the important characteristics of Liberty.

  1. Liberty is a dynamic concept. Its interpretation varies according to time, place and wishes of the people.
  2. Liberty always opposes political subjugation, imprisonment and slavery.
  3. It always aims at realizing the aspirations of the individuals.
  4. Liberty always means absence of irrational restraints and presence of favourable conditions.
  5. It is the product of rights.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 4.
Mention the names of four types of liberty.
Answer:
Liberty is of in the following types namely :

  1. Natural liberty
  2. Civil liberty
  3. Economic liberty
  4. Political liberty and
  5. National liberty.

Question 5.
What is Civil Liberty?
Answer:
Civil liberty is also known as personal liberty. It is the essential pre requisite to the existence and survival of human beings. It enables them to lead happy, honourable and civilised life in the state. Civil liberty is manifested in several rights like A) Right to Life B) Right to Work C) Right to Property D) Right to Religion E) Right to Speech, Expression, Assembly, Movement and Residence etc.

Question 6.
Write about Political Liberty.
Answer:
Political liberty facilitates the citizens to take part in the political affairs of the state. Political liberty is confined to the citizens alone. Political liberty provides several rights like i) Right to vote ii) Right to contest as candidates in elections iii) Right to hold public offices iv) Right to criticism etc.

Question 7.
Is it possible to achieve complete Economic Liberty?
Answer:
It is possible to achieve complete economic liberty if the following measures are taken.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Giving representation to the workers in the management of the industries.

Question 8.
What is Economic Liberty? [A.P. & T.S. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Economic liberty means the right of every one to earn his livelihood. Economic liberty ensures everyone freedom from want and fear, hunger and starvation, unemployment and insufficiency. It will be secured by adopting the following measures.

  1. Provision of minimum wages.
  2. Guarantee of the right to work.
  3. Protecting the workers from unemployment, sickness and other types of insecurity.
  4. Providing adequate leisure etc.

Question 9.
What do you know about National Liberty?
Answer:
National Liberty implies the Freedom and Independence of the state. It also denotes the sovereignty of the state. Every state enjoys this liberty and remains free from the political domination of other states. Ex: The Indian masses under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi waged a non-violent struggle to secure National Freedom from the British Rule.

Question 10.
Mention any four safeguards of Liberty.
Answer:

  1. Democratic rule
  2. Written and rigid constitution
  3. Independent judiciary
  4. Rule of Liberty and Equality
  5. Fundamental rights

Question 11.
Write about Independent-Judiciary as a safeguard of Liberty.
Answer:
Independent judiciary:
An independent and impartial judiciary is another safeguard of individual liberty. The judiciary will uphold the constitution and keeps the government accountable to the people. It prescribes various safeguards for protecting the fundamental rights of citizens. The judges in higher courts will deliver justice to the people on fair, free and impartial manner. Prof. Laski, while recognizing this safeguard, stated that good governance depends upon the effective functioning of judiciary.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 12.
What is Equality?
Answer:
According to H.J. Laski “Equality means first of all the absence of special privilege. In the second place “It means that adequate opportunities are laid open to all”.

Question 13.
Mention the different implications of Equality.
Answer:
The following are the major implications of equality. They are :
a) There should not be any special privileges to any individual or a group of individuals.

b) People must be provided with adequate opportunities to develop their personalities.

c) There should not be any discrimination among the people on the grounds of religion, caste, creed, colour, place of birth etc. However, some discrimination may be made on the basis of reasonable grounds i.e., protective discrimination.

Question 14.
What are the aspects of Equality?
Answer:
The concept of equality has mainly two aspects – Positive ad Negative. Equality in its positive aspect, means the provision of adequate opportunities for all. Equality in its negative sense, means no discrimination on some artificial grounds based on caste, colour, creed, descent, domicile, religion etc.

Question 15.
Write about any two features of Equality.
Answer:
The following are the essential features of equality.
1. Equality not given by nature :
Equality is not given by nature. Absolute equality is now here to be found. All individuals are bom in the same circumstances. Human beings are not like standard commodities which are coming out of a factory. Every individual has his own point of strength and weakness peculiar to his personality. No two individuals remain exactly like each other. Practically, individuals are not equal.

2. Equality not absolute:
Equality is not absolute. Absolute equality is neither possible nor desirable. In no movement in the history of the world did individuals claim to have absolute equality. So, equality does not mean uniformity and differences does not mean inequality.

Question 16.
Mention the different forms of Equality.
Answer:
Equality is of the different forms like

  1. Natural equality
  2. Social equality
  3. Economic equality
  4. Political equality and
  5. International equality.

Question 17.
Explain Natural Equality.
Answer:
Natural equality:
This kind of equality existed in the “State of Nature”. It is based on the principle that nature has created everyone as equal. But natural equality exists no where in the world. Nature has not created all people with the same qualities. So by natural equality we generally mean the provision of equal opportunities to all. It implies the abolition of man-made and artificial inequalities.

Question 18.
What do you mean by Social Equality?
Answer:
Social equality stands for equality of status and absence of class distinctions and discriminations. It exists when no individual is made to suffer on account of his caste, class, colour, creed, race etc. In fact it has opposed the practice of untouchability.

Question 19.
What is meant by Political Equality?
Answer:
Political equality implies the provision of adequate conditions for the people in the political affairs of the state. It is enjoyed by the citizens only. It could be achieved by granting various political rights such as

  1. Right to vote
  2. Right to contest in elections
  3. Right to hold public offices
  4. Right to criticise the government etc.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 5 Liberty and Equality

Question 20.
Mention the measures adopted for achieving Economic Equality.
Answer:
The following measures are adopted for achieving Economic Equality.

  1. Provision of adequate means of employment
  2. Implementation of land reforms
  3. Providing housing facilities to the poor
  4. Provision of free education to the poor
  5. Provision of minimum wages etc.