AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 10th Lesson Economic Statistics Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 10th Lesson Economic Statistics

Essay Questions

Question 1.
What are the uses of dispersion?
Answer:
According to A.L.Bowley “Dispersion is the measure of the variation of the items”.
According to Brooks and Dick “Dispersion or spread is the degree of the scatter or variation of the variable about a central value”.
Uses of Dispersion :

  1. To use other statistical methods: After getting the value of dispersion we can proceed to other techniques such as locating co-relation or lines of regression (Regression Analysis).
  2. To compare variability: We are in the general habit of comparison, may it be income, weight, or temperature. To achieve the required degree of result one tries to improve to achieve the required result.
  3. To test reliability of average: If the total of differences between the central value and the given value is smaller, the uniformity is less i.e., it means that this sum should be minimum for the reliability of the average.
  4. To establish trends in time series : In time series we remove, cyclical, seasonal or random fluctuations, which we from after studying central values.
  5. To control the undesired variability: According to Spurr and Bonini “In industrial production, efficient operation requires control of quantity variation, the causes of which are sought through inspection and quality control programmes”.

Thus it is clear from above definition that we have to find the cause for variation when we compare the degree of variability between two series.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 2.
What is meant by dispersion ? Explain the various measures of dispersion.
Answer:
The measurement of the scatteredness of the mass of figures in a series about an average is called a measure of variation or dispersion. According to A.LBowley “Disper-sion is the measure of the variation of the items”.

According to Brooks and Dick “Dispersion or spread is the scatter or variation of the variable about a central value.
Methods of studying variation :

  1. The range
  2. The interquartile range and the quartile deviation
  3. The mean deviation or average deviation
  4. The standard deviation and
  5. The Lorenz curve

1) Range : It is the simplest of the values of dispersion. It is merely the difference between the largest and smallest term- symbolically,
R = L – S

2) Inter – quartile range or quartile deviation: In range we used to calculate L – S terms. But in this case we leave the 1st 25% and last 25% terms to avoid the undue importance of extreme values.
Q.D = \(\frac{\mathrm{Q}_3-\mathrm{Q}_1}{2}\)

3) Mean deviation : It is the average difference between the items in a series from the mean or median or mode.
M.D. = \(\frac{\Sigma f|D|}{N}\)

4) Standard deviation : It is also called Root – Mean Square deviation, as it is the square root of the mean of the squared deviations from the actual mean.
S.D = \(\sqrt{\Sigma \frac{(x-\bar{x})^2}{N}}\)
σ = \(\sqrt{\frac{\sum \mathrm{x}^2}{\mathrm{~N}}}\)

5) Lorenz curve : It is graphic method to study dispersion. It helps in studying the variability in different components of distribution.

Question 3.
Calculate the quartile deviation for frequency distribution.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 1
Solution:
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 2
Q1 = L + \(\frac{\frac{\mathrm{n}}{4}-\mathrm{CF}}{\mathrm{f}}\) × i
Where Q1 = Size of \(\left(\frac{\mathrm{n}}{4}\right)^{\mathrm{th}}\) value = \(\left(\frac{\mathrm{10}}{4}\right)^{\mathrm{th}}\) = 10th item
L = Lower limit = 10
C.F = 5 (value of C.F for the class preceeding the quartile class)
i = 10 (frequency of the quartile class)
Q1 = 10 + \(\frac{10-5}{8}\) × 10 = 16.25
Similarly Q3 = L + \(\frac{3\left(\frac{n}{4}\right)-\text { C.F }}{f}\) × i
Where Q3 =\(\frac{3(n)}{4}=\frac{3(40)}{4}=\frac{120}{4}\) = (30)th item
C.F = 29, f = 7, i = 20, L = 40
L = 40
Q3 = 40 + \(\frac{30-29}{7}\) × 20 = 42.87
Q3 = 42.87
Q.D. = \(\frac{\mathrm{Q}_3-\mathrm{Q}_1}{2}\)
Q.D. = \(\frac{42.87-16.25}{2}\) = 13.31
∴ Q.D. = 13.31

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 4.
Calculate the Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 3
Solution:
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 4
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 5

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define relation between M.D, S.D and Q.D.
Answer:
Measures of dispersion can be classified into five types.

  1. The range
  2. The inter quartile range and the quartile deviation
  3. The mean deviation or average deviation
  4. The standard deviation
  5. The Lorenz curve

The range and quartile deviations are positional measures because they depend on the values at a particular position in the distribution.

The average deviation and the standard deviation are called calculation measures of deviation because all of the values are employed in their calculation while the last method is a graphic method.

Question 2.
Calculate the standard deviation of the following values 5, 10, 25, 30, 50. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Solution:
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 6

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 3.
Define Lorenz Curve. When is it used ?
Answer:
This curve was given by Dr. Max.O.Lorenz, a popular Economic statistician. He studied the distribution of wealth and income with its help. It is graphic method to study dispersion. It helps in studying the variability in different components of the distribution. The base of Lorenz curve is that we take cumulative percentage along X & Y axis. Joining these points we get the Lorenz curve.

Lorenz curve uses the information expressed in a cumulative manner to indicate the degree of variability.
For example: The monthly incomes of employees of a company given below.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 7
Solution:
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 8
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics 9

Question 4.
What is correlation ? State its importance.
Answer:
Correlation is an analysis of the co-variation between two or more variables.

  1. The correlation is a statistical device which help to analyzing the co-variation between two or more variables.
  2. If the value of a variable is given, we can know the value of another variable.
  3. With the help of correlation we can predict about the future.
  4. It helps us in knowing the important variables on which other depend.
  5. In the field of commerce and industry, the technique of correlation coefficient helps to make estimates like sales, price or costs.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 5.
How many types of index numbers ?
Answer:
The first index was constructed in 1764 to compose the Italian price index in 1750 with the price level in 1500. Index numbers are devices for measuring difference in the magnitude of groups of related variabilities.
There are four types of index numbers. They are :

  1. Price index number
    a) Wholesale price index number
    b) Retail price index number
  2. Quantity index number
  3. Cost living index number
  4. Special purpose index number

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Range. [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:
Range is the simplest method of studying dispersion. It is defined as the difference between the value of the smallest item and the value of the largest item included in the distribution.
Range = L – S
Where L = Largest item; S = Smallest item.

Question 2.
Mean deviation.
Answer:
Mean deviation also called as average deviation. It is the average difference between the items in a series from the mean or median or mode. In this mean deviation we ignored ± signs.
M.D. = \(\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{f}|\mathrm{D}|}{\mathrm{N}}\)

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 3.
Correlation. [A.P. Mar 17]
Answer:
Correlation is an analysis of the co-variation between two or more variables. There are two types of correlation.

  1. Karl Pearson’s method
  2. Spearman’s Rank method
    Karl Pearson’s correlation (r) = \(\frac{\Sigma x y}{\sqrt{\Sigma x^2 \times \Sigma y^2}}\)
    Spearman’s correlation (rk) = \(\frac{6 \Sigma D^2}{N\left(N^2-1\right)}\)
    (Or) 1 – \(\frac{6 \Sigma D^2}{N^3-\mathrm{N}}\)

Question 4.
Rank correlation.
Answer:
In 1904, Prof. Charter Edward Spearman had devised a method of rank correlation. It is based on the ranking of different items in the variable. This method is useful where actual item values are not given simply their ranks in the series are known.

Question 5.
Index number. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Index numbers are devices for measuring difference in the magnitude of groups related variabilities. There are four types of index numbers.

  1. Price index number
  2. Quantity index number
  3. Cost living index number
  4. Special purpose index number

Question 6.
Laspeyre’s price index formula.
Answer:
P01 = \(\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_0}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_0}\) × 100

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 10 Economic Statistics

Question 7.
Paasche’s price index formula. [A.P. Mar 16]
Answer:
P01 = \(\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_1}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_1}\) × 100

Question 8.
Fisher’s price index formula.
Answer:
P01 = \(\sqrt{\mathrm{L} \times \mathrm{P}}\)
= \(\sqrt{\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_0}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_0} \times \frac{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_1 \mathrm{Q}_1}{\Sigma \mathrm{P}_0 \mathrm{Q}_0}}\) × 100

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 9th Lesson Economy of Andhra Pradesh Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 9th Lesson Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Write an essay on the economy of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh is one of the largest states in India in terms of area and population. It is the eighth largest state in terms of geographical area, accounting for 4.96% of the area of the country. The state has a total geographical area of 160.21 lakh hectares. In terms of population, it is the 10th largest state with 4.96 crores i.e., 4.10% of the country’s population.

State Gross Domestic Product (SGDP) : The SGDP may also be called as state income. SGDP is defined as the total value of the finished goods and services produced within the boundaries of the state during a year.
The three sectors in A.P Economy area as follows.

  1. Primary sector: Agriculture, Animal husbandry, Forests etc.
  2. Industrial sector : Industries, Electricity, Irrigation.
  3. Tertiary sector: Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication etc.

The SGDP A.P an increase trend from 2005 – 06 ₹ 1,41,977 crore to 2013 – 2014 it was ₹ 2,50,282 crores. The growth rate of SGDP of A.P 6.08% in 2013 – 14.

Per capita income : The per capita income gives a better idea of the standard of the people. A.P per capita income was ₹ 85,797 in 2013-14.

Agriculture: Agriculture and allied actives remained the main source of livelihood of the state population. During 2013-14 food crops are grown in 54.92 lakh hectors.

Industry: The industrial development in A.P in going on the same lines of the industrial development of India. The industrial sector contribution in GSDP undergoes slight changes. It shares decreased from 23.7 during 2007-08 to 20.7% by 2013-14.

Tertiary Sector: The share of tertiary sector in the SGDP has shown a tremendous increase from ₹ 64,411 crore to ₹ 1,40,054 crore in 2013-14.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 2.
What is SGDP ? Explain the trends in SGDP of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
The State Gross Domestic Product may also be called as the State Income.

The State Gross Domestic Product is defined as the total value of the final/finished goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the state during a year.

The directorate of economics and statistics estimates the SGDP in Andhra Pradesh. The directorate makes use of the product and income methods for estimation of SGDP”. The three sectors in Andhra Pradesh Economy are as follows :

  1. Primary Sector : Agriculture, Animal husbandly, Forests, Mines and Quarries.
  2. Industrial Sector : Industries, Electricity/Gas, Irrigation, Construction.
  3. Tertiary Sector : Trade, Hostels, Transport, Communication, Real Estate, General Administration, Social Services.

The railway, insurance, banking and communication services are called supra regional sectors. The income generated in these sectors are estimated by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) and the centre allots the share to the states proportionately.

Andhra Pradesh makes use of the product method for estimating the SGDP in Agriculture sector, Forests, Animal husbandry, Industries, Mines and Quarries and the Income Method in Irrigation, Transport, Power Supply of Gas, Insurance, Banking and Communication sectors.

Trends of SGDP in Andhra Pradesh: The following table explains the trends in SGDP of Andhra Pradesh.
GSDP of A.P at Constant (2004 – 05) prices
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 1
GSDP of AP in about 4.36% of Indian G.D.P. It is notical that the growth rates of both A.P and India are not showing a steady trend but are fluctuating.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 3.
Explain the trends in population and percapita income growth in Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
With 13 districts, A.P occupies tenth place among all states of India with 4.96 crores of population according to 2011 census, The population of A.P is 4.96 crores and that of India is 121.06 crores. So the percentage of A.P population is 4 in the total Indian population. The decadal growth rate of population of A.P is always lower than the Indian growth rate. By 2011 the population growth rate of A.P(9.21) is almost half of the national average 17.69.

The density of population in Andhra Pradesh has gone up. During 2011, the density of population per sq. km is 304 persons for the state, as against 382 persons for the country. Among the districts, the Krishna district having high density with 518 persons followed by West godavari district 470 persons per sq.km. The lowest density area is Y.S.R Kadapa with 188 persons.

The fertility rate in A.P is also showing downward trend in the recent decade.

The percapita income gives a better idea of the standard of living of people. The following table reveals the changes in percapita income of Andhra Pradesh from 2004-05 to 2013-14.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 2
From the table, it is clear that the percapita income of A.P. was ₹ 25,959 in 2004 – 05 and has gone up to ₹ 85,797 at 2013 – 14.

Question 4.
Importance of Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh Economy.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh is considered as the Annapurna, i.e., granary of South India. Agriculture and its allied activities remained the main source of livelihood for a sizable chunk of the state population in general and its labour force in particular. Ensuring food security and providing gainfaul employment to the labour force, has been the essential premise of the policy makers. Raising form incomes through crop diversification and encouraging alternative methods of forming perhaps help to improve the standards of the farmers in the state.

With regard to foodgrain production in India, Uttar Pradesh stands in the 1st place, Punjab in the second and A.P in the third. The table provides information on the food grain production in Andhra Pradesh.
Area under Food & Non Food Crops in the State
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 3
From the above table we can come to the conclusion that food crops are dominating with around 65% of are put for their production and the trend is continuing over the year. During 2013 – 14 food crops are grown in 54.92 lakh hectares which is 67.57% of total area in that year.

According to 2013 – 14 provisional estimates, 11,698 thousand tonnes of food grains are produced in which 10,618 thousand tonnes are cereals and millets and 1,080 thousand tonnes pulses. 2,242 thousand tonnes of oil also produced from various parts of the state.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 5.
Importance of Industry in Andhra Pradesh Economy.
Answer:
The role of industrial sector in any economy decides its pace of development. The state of Andhra Pradesh is endowed with wide varieties of natural resources, longest coastline in South India. Infrastructure, communication system, experts in technical field and wide market opportunities.

The contribution of this sector was only 29,124 cr. in the base year ie., 2004 – 05 increased to 51,838 crores in 2013 – 14 continuously except for 2008 – 09. Infact it share decreased from 23.7 during 2007 – 08 to 20.7 percent by 2013 -14.

The share of industrial sector in providing employment opportunities to the labour force remained same in both state and the nation over the years. The share of this sector is increasing very sluggishly.

The value of industrial exports from the state is continuously increasing. It is ₹ 1,29,001 crore in 2012 – ’13. In the total silk units of the country, A.P’s sick units are 10.2 percent and state stood in fourth place. There are 44 State Level Public Enterprises (SLPEs) functioning in the combined state with the capital of ₹ 69,125 crore. Among them, APCPDCL, A.P. GENCO, APSPDCL, Housing Board etc., are top level SLPEs. Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) is the nodal agency for special economic zones in the state, A.P. is the first state in the country to announce an exclusive SEZ policy. As on March 2014, there were 32 number of SEZs in the state in which 10 were IT related, 6 multiproduct, 4 pharmaceuticals, 2 biotech and 10 sector specific SEZs. Recently, State Finalized Visakapatnam SEZ in an area of 3,500 acres.

Question 6.
Importance of tertiary sector in Andhra Pradesh economy.
Answer:
A service sector is the fastest growing sector in Andhra Pradesh as it is in total India. It is expanding as of agriculture is losing, the industrial sector being constant.

Service sector is the major contributor to the state GSDP with 48.54 percent in 2004- OS and increase further to 55.96 by 2013-14. ₹ 64.411 crore were contributed by the service during 2004 – 05 which increases enormously to 1,40,054 crore in 2013 – 14. This means only service sector alone is contributing more than half of the states GSDP. Same trend is also noticed in India where service sector is the single largest contributor to the GDP with more than 50 percent contribution. IT sector is the faster growing sector.

Service sector is the second largest among the three sectors with provides nearly 1/4th of the employment opportunities in the state. It is providing livelihood to nearly 25 percent of labour force, which is, on par with the national average (25.4 percent).

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 7.
Explain the Irrigation facilities in Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
Irrigation : Andhra Pradesh is blessed with many major rivers. The most important being Godavari, Krishna, Thungabhadra, Penna and Vamsadhara. The State, share of dependable flows from all the rivers and streams is estimated at 2.746 TMC, and only 1.753 TMC has been utilized so far. Apart from rivers the state consists of many artificial lakes and reservoirs for irrigation and drinking water.

Irrigation development as well as management is of utmost importance in the State. Andhra Pradesh is rightly called “A River State” as it is blessed with major river systems like the Godavari, Krishna, Thungabhadra, Vamsadhara and other rivulets. Presently, 54 major, medium and other projects are being considered under Jalayagnam, with a hope to irrigate 52 lakh acres.

Polavaram project is a multi – purpose irrigation project witch has been accorded ’National Project Status’ by Central Government. This dam across the Godavari river is under construction located in West and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh and its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Orissa States also. The project is expected to enabling irrigation of23,20,000 in Krishna, West Godavari, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts of Andhra Pradesh.

The Pattiseema Project is crucial as it will lift 80 tmft of surplus Godavari water from Pattiseema to Krishna Basin and divert it through Srisailam to the parched Rayalaseema till Polavaram project is completed. Government also announced that Pattiseema project would not go aganist the interest of farmers of twin Godavari districts, but would meet drinking and irrigation water need of Rayalaseema.

Government of Andhra Pradesh is also encouraging drip irrigation system, in the State. It is supplying drip irrigation equipment on subsidized rates to the farmer. A.R ranks 1st in Micro irrigation system in the country and so far covers 5.63 lakh hectors.

Question 8.
Explain about the transport facilities in Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
The transport facilities available in Andhra Pradesh can be classified into four categories.
They are :

  1. Railways
  2. Roadways
  3. Airways
  4. Waterways.

1) Railways : They have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the State alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. Andhra Pradesh mainly served by three major railway zones viz., South Central Railway, Southern Railway and East Coast Railway. State has total 444 railway stations and having 3,355 km of rail network. State Government proposals are with Ministry of Railways to set a new Railway Zone in newly formed Andhra Pradesh.

One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in Eastern Ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri. Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of biggest railway junctions in India.

2) Roadways : Roads are one of the basic modes of transportation system and also an important priority sector of infrastructure. Systematic development of road is one of the important pre-requisites for development and acceleration of growth in the economy. Among the different modes of domestic transportation systems, road transport carries more than 80 percent of the goods and passenger traffic.

Andhra Pradesh has an extensive road network of 1,46,954 km with 42,511 km of State Highways, 3,144 km of National Highways and 101,484 km of District Roads. Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation (APRDC), established 1998 is responsible for Maintenance and Management of roads.

National highways and State highways connect to every village and town within the State, as well as to major cities of neighbouring States. National Highway 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km runs from Srikakulam district to Nellore district.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTQ operates public bus services in the state owned by the State Government. Pandit Nehru Bus Station in Vijayawada is the largest bus terminus in the State.

3) Civil Aviation (or) Airways : Government has entered into Memorandum of understanding with Airports Authority of India (AAI) For up – gradation / modernization of non – metro airports at Vijayawada, Tirupati, Kadapa and Rajahmundry airports. The Airport Authority of India (AAI) has proposed to upgrade the Tirupati airport to International standards. AAI proposed Master plan for development of Rajahmundry airport.

4) Seaports (or) Waterways : Andhra Pradesh has the second longest coastline of 972 km after Gujarat in India. Ports provide development and growth of maritime activities such as international trade of exports and imports, ship repairs, tourism, fishing and water sports.

Ports are a gateway to trade and commerce. Visakhapatnam, the largest port in the State is also one of the largest ports in terms of handling cargo in the country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 9.
Role of Information Technology (I.T) in the economic development of Andhra Pradesh. .
Answer:
The combined State of A.P had taken a leadership position in E-Govemance and IT. However, the new state of A.P formed on 2nd June 2014, accounts for only 2 percent of the IT export Turnover of the combined State and about 1.8 percent of employment Significant, consistent and planned efforts have to be made if these figures have to attain respectability over the next 5 years.

A.P is called as Hi-tech Capital and Cilican Valley of India. But after bifurcation, Government announced that Vizag city having all potential to be developed as IT center. IT parks would be developed in all district headquarters across the State in a phased manner said minister for IT, P. Raghunatha Reddy. Following important points can be drawn from AP’s IT sector.

  • Vizag may be the IT Capital of the State.
  • Every district headquarter will have IT park.
  • IT sector contributes 38.22 percent of total exports from A.P (United Andhra)
  • IT sector provides employment opportunities to around 3 lakh employees by 2013.
  • This sector export value was nearly 36 thousand crore by 2013.
  • Out of 3 IT professionals working in USA, one is from India and out of 3 Indians, one is represented from A.P.
  • State having highest number of IT Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in India – 10 out of 56.
  • IT export expected to go up from current level of ₹ 36,000 crore to about ₹ 150,000 crore by 2017.
  • Direct employment from existing 3 lakh to 7 lakh.
  • State Government is looking forward to integrate IT and BT. It says Information Technology and Biotechnology need to come together to streamline manufacturing processes.

Latest IT policy of A.P – 2014 : To face the challenges in IT sector development after the bifurcation of the State, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has developed a blueprint “Re-imagining Andhra Pradesh – role of E-Govemance, Electronics and IT “for development of ICT Industry in the State.

Government shall endeavor to establish state-of-the-art infrastructure of international standards suiting to the requirements of the IT/ITESC Industry. Visakhapatnam will be developed as a Mega IT Hub, through an initial effort of developing an IT township with a built – up space of 5 million square feet. A signature tower of 1 million square feet shall form the nucleus of the Mega IT Hub. IT Hubs shall also be developed at Vijayawada, Kakinada, Tirupati and Anantapur. Fiscal and non – fiscal incentives are announced in the policy to attract investment in the field.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 10.
Briefly give an account of the Welfare schemes of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
The foremost objective of any welfare state is to sustain and improve the living standards of people. Although since a long time, agriculture and industry have been recognized as prime drivers of economic growth; social sector development is gaining ground especially in the context of human development. The concept of human development invariably highlights the importance of bringing improvement in the social infrastructure like education, health care, nutrition, water supply, housing, social security etc. Further, public investment on these social overheads ensures social justice and equality in the society.! Government of A.P has been implementing various welfare programmes schemes. Some of the important welfare programmes. The following table shows section wise – welfare programmes by A.P Government.

Section-wise Welfare Programmes Implemented by Government of Andhra Pradesh
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 4
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 5

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
State Gross Domestic Product (SGDP).
Answer:
The State Gross Domestic Product may also be called as the State Income. The State gross domestic product is defined as the total value of the final/finished goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the State during a year.
The three sectors in A.P economy are as follows.

  1. Primary sector : Agriculture, Animal husbandary, Forests etc.
  2. Industrial sector : Industries, Gas, Irrigation, Construction.
  3. Tertiary sector : Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication, General Administration Social Services.

Andhra Pradesh makes use of the product method for estimating the SGDP in Agriculture sector, industrial sector, service sector. The GSDP in 2004 – 05 was 1,34,767 crores and it has incrosed to ₹ 2,50,282 crores in 2013 – 14. The annual growth in 2005 – 06 was 5.35 percent and it decreased to 2.14% in 2008 – 09 and picked up again and reached 7.29% in 2011-12.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 2.
State percapitaincome.
Answer:
The percapita income gives better idea of the standard of living of the people. This can be taken as an indicator of improving living standards in A.P economy. The following table reveals changes in percapita income A.P from 2004 – 05 to 2013 – 14.

Percapita Income of A.P and All India at Current Prices
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh 6
The state PCI is always higher than the national average. For 2013-14 the gap between State and National percapita incomes is ₹ 11,417. Among the districts Viaskhapatnam with a percapita income ₹ 1,13,860 stands tall, while Srikakulam remains at the bottom with almost half of the PCI Visakhapatnam.

Question 3.
Occupational distribution of labour in A.P. [A.P. Mar- 18]
Answer:
Occupational distribution pattern in any country decides the level of economic growth. Any economy can be divided into

  1. Agriculture sector
  2. Industrial sector
  3. Service sector

Dividing the total population according to their occupation or work is known as occupational distribution of population or labour.

According to the statistical abstract of A.P 2014, prepared on the basis of the 2011 census, the total number of workers is A.P is 2,30,80,964. Among them, the total number of workers in industry sector in A.P is 33,40,133 which is 14.47% of total work force. Total number of workers related to primary sector is 1,43,92,736. i.e., 62.36% and 34.77% of total work force based on service sector.

The number of people depending on agriculture sector is still very high. Tertiary sector is in the second place and providing livelihood to the larger percent of population after agriculture sector. In A.P secondary sector’s contribution is steady and constant.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 4.
Environmental protection activities in the state. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh having good environmental conditions. Its coastline is second in India and first in South Indian states. To protect this rich environment, steps have been taken by the State Government.
1) Environmental Protection Programmes : State is implementing programmes like Community Forest Management (CFM), National Afforestation Programme (NAP) etc.

2) Chettu – Neeru Programme : The State Government launched ‘neeru – chettu’ a programme aimed at conserving water and saving trees, in all districts in 2015.

3) Non – Conventional Energy : A.P Department of Energy decided to make the State as a largest “Green Energy Corridor”, by increasing the production of renewable energy through solar.

4) Vanamahotsava : Forest Department celebrated 64th Vanamahotsava in 2013 with view of ‘Two million tree plantation”.

5) Wildlife conservation: To protect the rich bio-diversity of Flora, Fauna and ecosystem Govt, declared 66 protected areas which include 13 wildlife sanctuaries and 3 National Parks. Biodiversity conservation society of A.P has been constituted to take care of the conservation measures of wild life sanctuaries. The Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve has been notified and made functional.

Question 5.
Importance of Tourism in A.P. [A.P. Mar. 18, 16]
Answer:
Andhra Paradesh Tourism Development corporation is state government agency which promotes tourism in A.P. The state government is making efforts to bring the world to A.P and take A.P to the world. A new tourism policy was announced in 2010 and steps are initializing to make Andhra Pradesh as a tourist – friendly destination. The important types of tourism in A.P are as follows.

  1. Pilgrim Tourism
  2. Health Tourism
  3. Buddhist Tourism
  4. Beach Tourism
  5. Farm Tourism
  6. ECO Tourism
  7. Leisure Tourism

The tourist spots in A.P are attracting both domestic and foreign tourists.
The state is also famous for pilgrim tourism. All these attractions are increasing the inflow of foreign and domestic tourists in A.P.
Tourism is now becoming a revenue source for the state’s treasury along with IT sector.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 6.
Population characteristics of Andhra Pradesh. A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
The demographic characteristics of newly formed State of Andhra Pradesh with 13 districts (Coastal Andhra & Rayalaseema). The population of 4.96 crore which accounts for 4.1% of the country’s population makes it the 10th most popular state in the Country of this male are 2,48,30,513. A female population is 2,47,46,950 in 2011 census. Sex ratio for every 1000 male is 997 and female is 943 in 2011. Where the rural population is 349.67 in 2011, in total population the density of population goes up 304 per sq.km in 2011 census. The fertility rate in A.P is also showing a downward trend in the recent years. The literacy rate is 67.35 in 2011 for A.P in which male literacy is 74.77 and that of female is 59.96. State has 5.64% less literates when compare to the Nation.

Question 7.
Welfare schemes related to different sections in Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
The foremost objective of any welfare state is to sustain and improve the living standards of people. Government of A:P has been implementing various welfare progra-mmes/schemes some of the important programmes implemented by the government of Andhra Pradesh.

Welfare programmes of women and child they are Janani Suraksh Yojana, Child Health Care services, Kishore Sakti Yojana, Widow Pension Scheme, Pavala Vaddi Scheme, Abhaya Hastham Ready to eat etc. some of the youth welfare programmes are TRYSEM, DWACRA, Rajeev Udyoga Sree etc., some of minorities programmes are Urdu Academy, Micro credit to SHGS, Post Metrict Scholarships, Reimbursement of tution fee etc.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
SGDP [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
The state gross domestic product is defined as the total value of the final goods and services produced with in the geographical boundaries of the state during a year.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 2.
Density of population in A.P.
Answer:
The density of population determines the magnitude of the burden that State is being called upon to carry and to determine the future potential of growth.
Density of population = Total population in the area/total area in square k.m
In A.P the density of population is 304 per square km in 2011 census.

Question 3.
Literacy rate in A.P.
Answer:
Literacy is the reading and writing skill of the people. The literacy rate is 67.35 in 2011 for A.P. in which male literacy is 74.77 and that of female is 59.96. State has 5.64% less literates when compare to the Nation, West godavari stood in 1st place. Vizianagaram having lowest literacy rate.

Question 4.
Project Tiger. [A.P. Mar. 18, 16]
Answer:
This programme is being implemented with the objective of increase the number of our National animal tiger. The Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam Tiger Reserve Spreads over the districts of Kurnool, Prakasam, Guntur which is the home to over 50 tigers and able to support even more.

Question 5.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan.
Answer:
This was introduced during 2001 – 2002 with an aim to provide universal elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2014 SSA has how been renamed as ‘Rajiv Vidya Mission’ in A.P.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 6.
Any Welfare Programme.
Answer:
Government of A.P has been implemention various welfare programmes/schemes. Some of the welfare programmes are Pavala Vaddi scheme, Abhaya Hastam Ready to eat, Metric Scholarships, Micro credit to self help groups etc.

Question 7.
Eco – Tourism [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh vision – 2020 envisaged East Godavari tourism as a growth engine. It is one of the important type of tourism in A.P. Maredumilli, Nelapattu (Nellore) Mamandur, Talakona (Chittoor), Balapalli (Kadapa), Ethipothala (Guntur), Kambala Konda (Visakhapatnam) are the famous eco – tourism centres in A.P

Question 8.
Civil aviation in A.P
Answer:
Government has entered into memorandum of understanding with Airports Authority of India (AAI) for up – gradation / modernization of non metro airports at Vijayawada, Tirupati, Kadapa and Rajahmundary. AAI has proposed to upgrade the Tirupati airport International standards.

Question 9.
Roadways in A.P
Answer:
Roads are one of the basic modes of the transportation system and also an important priority sector of infrastructure. Road transport carries more than 80% of the goods and passenger traffic. A.P has extensive road network of 1,46,954 km with 42,511 km of State Highways 3,144 k.m of National Highway and 1,01,484 km of District Roads.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 9 Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Question 10.
Sea – ports in A.P [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:
Ports are a gateway to trade and commerce. A.P has the second longest coastline of 972 km after Gujarat in India. Ports provide development and growth of maritime activities. Visakha is the largest port in the State and also one of the largest port in terms of handling cargo in Country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 8th Lesson Environment and Sustainable Economic Development Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 8th Lesson Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Define environment and explain the components of environment
Answer:
The word Environment is derived from the French word environner which means to surround or encircle. Everything which surround us may collectively be termed as the environment, we are surrounded by both living and non living things. The living things are called as biotic part (Physical environment) and non-living things as abiotic part (Biological environment) of the environment.

Components of Environment : According to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of USA, 1969, the term “Environment” includes physical, social, cultural, economic and aesthetic dimensions. According to Rau & Wooten, environment can be viewed in four dimensions.

1) Physical Environment: It covers the physical, chemical and biological elements such as land, climate, vegetation, wild life surrounding land uses and physical character of the area, infrastructure, air and noise pollution levels.

2) Social Environment: It includes a large number of factors such as population and its density, community, composition, religious, education, community facilities like schools, parks, hospitals, recreational and cultural facilities. Some social factors will overlap the economic factors.

3) Economic Environment: All economic factors like employment, unemployment levels and sources of income, availability of factors of production, demand patterns, poverty level etc., are come under this category.

4) Aesthetic Environment : This category comprises historical archeological or architecture of objects or sites, scenic areas, views and landscapes. People derive pleasure by seeing such objects.

As the environment consists of all these different components, it is considered to be completely interdisciplinary discipline. We need the knowledge of Physics, Botany, Zoology, Geology, Geography, Agriculture, Chemistry, Economic Education, Demography, Ecology, Sociology, Philosophy, Political Science, Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Genetics to understand what an environment is.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 2.
Describe the relationship between environment and the economy.
Answer:
Relationship between environment and economy: The functions of the environment explain the importance of environment. It acts as the supplier of raw materials to the economy and absorbs the wastes discharged by the economy.

In economic terms, the resources supplied by the environment can be called as environmental goods. These goods are public goods. They can be used by many individuals at the same time without any competition from other individuals.

However, in modem days, the reckless and exploitative behaviour of the economic activity is setting a limit to the efficiency of environment to supply to the resources. Economist warned the world about the consequences of overuse of environmental resources. He said that earth is a spaceship with a limited amount of life support resources. He warned the mankind to minimize the consumption rather than to maximize it.

In the other words, there should be a balance between inputs and outputs. When we receive the inputs to produce goods and services, it must be equal to the consumption and the discharge of wastes. The quality of wastes and emission must be less, so that the environment can absorb them. Material balance model.provides and excellent.answer for the relationship that must exist between environment and the economy.
R = F + W1
The household sector consumes all the ‘F units of produced goods and services. While doing so, it also produces W2 units of wastes.
So in the consumption sector F = W2
Hence, in the consumption economy R = F = (W1 + W2)
Therefore R = (W1 + W2)
These equations show that the entire mass of inputs (raw materials) equal the entire mass of output (wastes). This entire amount of wastes is returned to the environment. Thus, the materials taken from the environment are again returned the environment in equal amounts. Hence, R = W1 + W2.
This equality shows the accounting identing of the material balance. Assuming this two sector model, material balance can be explained by the diagram.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development 1
Note: F = W and R = W1 + W2; F = Final goods and services; W = Wastes; R = Raw material the production sector uses R (Raw materials) units of raw materials from the environrhent to product F unit of final products./While producing the final products, it also produces W1 amount of wastes. So in the production sector.
R = F + W1
The household sector consumes all the ‘F units of produced goods and services. While doing so it also produces W2 units of wastes.
So in the consumption sector F = W2
Hence, in the economy R = F = (W1 + W2)
Therefore R = (W1 + W2)
These equations show that the entire mass of inputs (raw materials) equals the entire mass of output (wastes). This entire amount of wastes is returned to the environment. Thus, the materials taken from the environment are again returned to the environment in equal amounts. Hence, R = W1 + W2. This equality shows the accounting identity of the material balance.

It can be concluded that this material balance model depends upon the first two laws of thermodynamics. The first law explains that the energy can be changed from one form to another. But it can neither be created nor destroyed. The second law is the law of entropy. Economic activities of production and consumption are dependent on these two laws. Similarly generation and assimilation of wastes are also dependent on the two laws.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 3.
What is air pollution ? Explain the causes and consequences for air pollution.
Answer:
“The excessive concentration of contaminated substance in the air which adversely affects the well being of the individuals, living organs and property of all forms” is called as air pollution.

Causes for air pollution : It is estimated that 2 billion tonnes of air pollutants are released every year. Besides natural sources, a number of man-made sources are causing air pollution. Burning of fire woods for domestic purposes, burning of fossil fuels, industrialization, agricultural activities, vehicular emissions, nuclear tests, deforestation, mining power generation, refrigeration industries, etc., are the sources of air pollution.

Effects of Air Pollution :

  1. Air pollution adversely affects people, plants, animals, aquatic life and materials.
  2. It leads to health disorders in human beings.
  3. Damages the leaves of the plants and trees; interferes with photosynthesis and plant growth.
  4. Air pollution discolours the historical monuments; breakdown the exterior paint on cars and houses and deteriorates the quality of natural beauty sites. Ex : Taj Mahal in 1998, when the white marble of the famous monument began to turn yellow.
  5. Air pollution affects the stratosphere and climatic conditions.
  6. Global warming, acid rains, depletion of ozone layer, changes in the distribution of solar energy, rising temperatures, occurrence of droughts, changes in the natural plants, crops, insects, livestock
  7. Increased ultraviolet radiation are the effects of air pollution.

Question 4.
Briefly discuss the sources, effects of water pollution ?
Answer:
Water is blue gold like air, water is very essential for the existence of all the living organisms. It accounts tor about 70 percent of the weight of the human body. About 80 percent of the earths surface is covered by water.

Water pollution is defined as “the addition of some substance or factor which degrades the quality of water, so that it becomes unit for use”.
We have two sources of water surface and ground water.

Water that is found in streams, tanks, rivers and artificial reservoirs is called surface water. Water that per colates into the ground is called as ground water.

Sources of Water Pollution: The major pollutants that pollute water are :

  1. Domestic wastes and Sewage
  2. Surface run-off
  3. Silt
  4. Industrial effluents
  5. Hot effluents.
  6. Fertilizers and Pesticides
  7. Accidental Oil spills
  8. Compounds of toxic metals
  9. Mining wastes
  10. Untreated waste water and garbage etc.,

Effects of Water Pollution: Water pollution generates the following effects.

  1. Transmits the water – borne diseases.
  2. Deteriorates the quality of drinking water.
  3. Affects the productivity of irrigated agricultural lands.
  4. Sea food becomes contaminated.
  5. Depletes oxygen in water. Brings undesirable changes in temperature and breeding of fish.
  6. Makes water unfit even for swimming
  7. Produces offensive odours in water.
  8. Water-related diseases cause a heavy economic burden, particularly for poor people.
  9. Leads to loss of human days due to illness.
  10. Children suffer from intestinal diseases.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 5.
Define noise pollution and explain how it affects the quality of environment?
Answer:
Sound is different from ‘Noise’, though these words are used similarly. Not all sounds are noise. A deep, loud and unpleasant sound is called noise. It is undesirable and unwanted. To be precise, anything between 50 to 90 dB is considered as noise. The human ear can safely responds to pressures upto 120 dB. As per the Environment (protection) (Second Amendment) Rules, 1997, the permitted noise levels is 125 dB.

“Any noise generated above 125 dB and produces harmful effects in effects in environment and causes health hazards to human being” is called as noise pollution.

Noise becomes a pollutant when it exceeds certain limits. Noise pollution remains in the environment only for hazards to human being is called as noise pollution limited time. It is not so dangerous as air and water pollutions. They are

  1. Indoor sources
  2. Outdoor sources.

Sources of Noise Pollution : There are two board categories of sources for noise pollution. They are 1. Indoor sources 2. Outdoor sources.

1) Indoor Sources: Sounds generated by the use of home appliances, libraries, living rooms, business offices, sounds generated by alarm clocks, breathing, conversation, computer rooms etc., are the sources of indoor noise pollution.

2) Outdoor Sources: Noise generated by transport vehicles, loud speakers, industries, marriages, aeroplanes, cinema theatres, firing of crackers, heavy road traffic, festivals etc., are the outdoor noise pollutants.

Effects of Noise Pollution: Noise pollution affects the quality of environment as well as life on earth. Noise pollution leads to the following effects.

  1. Pollutes the essence of music and speech.
  2. Affects communications.
  3. Leads of temporary or permanent hearing loss.
  4. Affects the functioning of various systems of human body. Hypertension, sleeplessness, digestive disorders, peptic hinders, blood pressure changes are some of the ill effects of noise pollution.
  5. Disturbs the brain waves of the people at sleep.
  6. Causes irregular or faster pulse beats and increases in blood cholesterol levels.
  7. Causes increased heart-beat rate of the foetus.
  8. Causes irrepairable damage, to unborn babies.
  9. Ears, the first organ that develop of the unborn babies, are badly affected.

Question 6.
What are the economic implications of environmental degradation ?
Answer:
Environmental degradation is slightly different from pollution. Environmental degradation is decrease in the quality of environment, whereas, the pollution is the contamination of the nature (air, soil, water) with harmful substances. Environmental changes may be driven by many factors including economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, rising energy use and transportation etc. The basic factors for environmental degradation are discussed below.

1) Social factors: Social factors, which are responsible for environmental degradation are briefly discussed below.

a) Population : Population is an important source of development yet it is a major source of environmental degradation when it exceeds the threshold limits of the support systems.

b) Poverty : Poverty is said to be both the cause and effect of environmental degradation. The circular link between both concepts is an extremely complex phenomenon. Inequality may faster unsustainability because, the poor, who rely on natural resources more than the rich, deplete natural resources faster as they have no real prospects of gaining access to other types of resources.

c) Urbanisation : Lack of opportunities for gainful employment in villages and the ecological stresses is leading to an ever-increasing movement of poor families to town, Mega cities are emerging and urban slums are expanding. Such rapid and unplanned expansion of cities has resulted in degradation of urban environment.

2) Economic factors : Environmental degradation is the result of market failure. In this context, environmental degradation is a particular case of consumption or production of externalities reflected by divergence between private social costs.

3) Institution factors: The Ministry of Environment and Forest of the government of India is responsible for protection, conservation and development of environment. Environment Act, 1986 is the key legislation governing environment management. Wild life Act 1972, the forest conservation Act 1980 etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 7.
What are the various factors resulting in environmental pollution ?
Answer:
Pollutions are classified into different ways. They are classified according to their form, exsistence and natural disposal.
According to their natural disposal, the pollutants are classified into three groups.
1) Degradable pollutants: The pollutants are can be rapidly broken down by natural processes are called degradable pollutants. Ex : discorded vegetables, domestic sewage etc. These pollutants are called as Biodegradable pollutants.

2) Slowly Degradable pollutants : Some pollutants remain in the environment for many years in unchanged condition pollution results when their discharge exceeds the capacity of the environmental degrade them. These pollutants are actually waste products. Ex : DDT, Plastic etc.

3) Non – Degradable pollutants: The pollutants which can not be degraded by natural processes are called as nondegradable pollutants once they enter into the environment, it is difficult to eradicate them. They continue to accumulate in the environment. For Ex : Nuclear waste.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain various concepts of Environment.
Answer:
Environment around us consists of living and non living things with their inter dependency and mutual interaction. A study of all these aspects is called as ecology. To understand environment and its nature, a primary information of its basic concepts is needed. Eco-system biodiversity, greenhouse effects, global warming, climate change, acid rains, ozone depletion are some of the basic concepts of environment.

A) Eco-System: The British Ecologist AG.Tansley coined the term Ecosystem in 1935. An ecosystem is a region with a specific and recognizable land, scape (form) such as forest, grassland, desert, or coastal area. The living community of plants and animals in any area together with the non-living components of the Environment constitute as ecosystem.

B) Biodiversity : The word biodiversity was coined by Walter Rosen in 1986. Living organisms are different in their size, colour, shape and structure. The genes, environment and ecosystem decide this variety and complexity in the living organisms. The variety and variability among living organisms is called as biodiversity.

C) Greenhouse effect: It is a phenomenon in which the atmosphere of a planet traps radiation emitted by the sun, caused by gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but retain heat radiated back from the planet’s surface. It is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases and is re-radiated in all directions.

Greenhouse effect may leads to many serious environmental issues such as radiation, climate change, mansoon, directions and its efficiency and so on.

D) Global Warming : Global warming is the increase of Earth’s average surface temperature due to the effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation. Which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth.

E) Acid Rain : Acid rain is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dries deposition (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. These acid rains are the result from both natural sources such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from fossil fuel combustion.

F) Ozone Depletion : Reduction in the amount of Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere is called ozone depletion. It happens due to high levels of chlorine and bromine compounds in that layer.
As ozone depletes more ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes to earth and causes damages to all living organisms. UV radiation seems responsible for skin cancer and other skin complications.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 2.
Causes for soil or land pollution.
Answer:
Soil pollution is defined as “Unfavourable alteration of soil quality by disturbing the natural composition which decreased soil productivity.
Causes for Soil Pollution :

  1. Soil pollution or land degradation is primarily caused by soil erosion, in which the fertile upper surface of the land erode and land become barren. It happens due to deforestation, extensive cultivation, mining activities etc.
  2. Desertification is spreading due to over grazing, extensive use of poor soils, alkalization and salination of soil.
  3. Soil is also degrading because of excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides leads to acidification which changes chemical properties and destroy plants and agricultural sector on the whole.
  4. Filling of wastages and other disposals into the land also causes land degradation.

Question 3.
Types of natural resources with suitable examples. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Natural resources are classified on the basis of their quantity, mutability and re¬usability. However, it would be convenient to classify the natural resources in the following general categories.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development 2
Natural Resources
1) Renewable Resources : The natural resources which cam be used permanently without depletion are called renewable resources. They are not exhaustible. They have the capacity to regenerate themselves, within a short period. Ex: Solar; wind, tidal etc.

2) Non-Renewable Resources : The natural resources which will exhaust by use are called as non-renewable resources. They cannot be regenerated. Once we exhaust these resources, they will not be available for use. Ex : Gold, silver, copper etc.

Question 4.
What is pollution ? Explain the types of pollution.
Answer:
Pollutant is a physical agent which is found more than the normal levels, changes the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the resources that environment is supplying.
Types of Pollution : Pollution can be classified into various types among which air, water, soil, noise pollutions are important forms.

Air Pollution: The excessive concentration of contaminated substance in the air which adversely affects the well being of the individuals, living organs and property of all forms is called as air pollution.

Water Pollution : It is defined as the addition of some substance or factor present in water which degrades its quality. So that it becomes health hazard or unfit for use”.

Soil Pollution : Unfavourable alteration of soil quality by disturbing the natural composition which decreases soil productivity.

Noise Pollution : Any noise generated above 125 dl. B and produces harmful effects in environment and causes health hazards to human being is called noise pollution.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 5.
What do you mean by ”Sustainability” ? Explain the Components of Sustainability.
Answer:
Sustainability can also be defined as achievement of constant real consumption through time keeping the capital intact. A flow of consumption without reducing the capital is called sustainability.

There are three basic components of sustainable developments namely economic, social and environmental components. These three components are interdependent.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development 3
Economic Component: Economic components of sustainability require that societies pursue growth path that generate, optimum flow of income while maintaining the basic stock of man-made capital, human capital and natural capital.

Social Components : Social components of sustainability are built on the twin principles of justice and equity. For development path to be sustained, wealth, resources and oppo’rtunities should be equally shared. All citizens should have access to minimum standards of security, human rights and social benefits such as food, health, education and opportunities of self-development.

Environmental Components : Environment components of sustainability require sustainable resource use, efficient sink function and maintainance of natural capital. The environment should be able to perform its three functions efficiently and uninterrupted so that ecological stability and resilience are not affected.

Question 6.
Explain the effects of pollution on human health.
Answer:
Enviommental degradation has adverse effects on human health; which may lead to raise the labour absenteesism. Ill health causes to decrease the efficiency of labour which intum leads to low productivity.

i) Air Pollution: Air pollutants like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter etc., attack human health through respiratory system. Diseases like bronchitis, lung cancer, eye irritation and skin irritation etc., are caused by air pollution.

ii) Water Pollution : Water is significant vehicle in transmission of diseases, various, disease – producing organisms such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa are transmitted through water. These organisms cause dysentery, typhoid, cholera and infectious hepatitis.

iii) Sound Pollution: Sound pollution affects human health in many ways. Loud noise causes disturbances in sleep and lead to different side effects. It leads to damage of hearing, interference with work tasks and speech, diversion of concentration, hypertension, tachycardia (fast heart beat) and irritation.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 7.
Measures for the conservation of forests. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
Forests are the carbon sinks and treasures of scenic beauty. The following are some protective measures such important forests.

  1. Forest land should not be alloted to poor for house sites.
  2. Specific areas must be developed under social forestry programmes.
  3. Waste land must be brought under plantations.
  4. Forest must be protected from fires particularly in summer.
  5. Measures must be taken to refill the depleted forest area.
  6. Establishment of Joint Forest Management Communities is necessary.
  7. Cattle grazing and illegal cutting of trees should not be allowed.
  8. Local communities must be involved in the conservation of forests.

Question 8.
Need for environmental preservation.
Answer:
1) Moral persuasion, which is an appeal to reduce pollution in the broader interests of the society and making people involved in the environmental protection activities.

2) Methods of recycling should be made compulsory in which production units are restricted to maintain certain level of environmental quality or to install a specific treatment of pollutants.

3) Fiscal controlling techniques should be implemented such as
a) Levying of an affluent charge or pollution charge and revenue so collected should be redirected for the purpose of environmental protection.
b) Giving subsidies on pollution control equipment and encouragement of eco-friendly techniques of manufacturing.
c) Refundable deposit, which is collected from the polluters and refunded after his activities cease.
d) Pollution permits should be fixed and to see each production unit is functioning with in the limits.
e) Industrial permits should be linked with the maintenance of plantation in proportion to its production activity.

4) Government investment programmes such as waste treatment plants, slum clearance and management of wild like refugees, reforestration and afforestation are some policy instruments available to control pollution and preserve environmental equity.

5) As the children are the future citizens, awareness on environment and its protection should be introduced as a part of their curriculum. An effort is made by the government in this direction and now environmental education is mandatory part in education system from school level and onwards.

6) So far, government of India enacted some of the following acts for environmental protection.
a. The Wild life Protection Act, 1972.
b. The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974 amended in 1978 and 1988.
c. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
d. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982.
e. The Forest (conservation) Act, 1980 amended in 1988.
f. The Environment (protection) Act, 1986.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Environment.
Answer:
The word environment is derived from French word environner which means to surround or encircle. Everything which surrounds us is collectively called as environment.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 2.
Ecosystem. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
The British ecologist A.G.Tansley coined the term Ecosystem in 1935. Eco system is the combination of natural and physical environment in a given geographical arc. It is two types. 1. Natural eco-system 2. Artificial eco-system.

Question 3.
Greenhouse effect. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
It is a phenomenon in which the atmosphere of a planet traps radiation emitted by the sun caused by gases such as CO2, water vapor and methane, that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but retain heat radiated back from the planet’s surface. It leads radiation climate changes etc.

Question 4.
Air Pollution.
Answer:
The excessive concentration of contaminated substance in the air which adversely affect the well being of the individuals, living organs and properly of all forms is called air pollution.

Question 5.
Water Pollution. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
It is defined as “the addition of some substance or factor which degrades the quality of water, so that it becomes unfit for use”. The major pollutants that pollute water are, domestic wastes and sewage, slit etc.

Question 6.
Ozone Layer. [A.P. Mar 18, 17, 16]
Answer:
The Ozone layer is present in the stratosphere which is immediately above the troposphere at a height of 12 k.m from the earth. It is 40 k.m thick layer. Ozone absorbs the dangerous ultra violet rays from the sun and protects life on earth from death.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 7.
Global Warming.
Answer:
Global warming is the increase of Earth’s average surface temperature due to the effects of green house gases such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from earth.

Question 8.
Sustainable Development [A.P. Mar. 18, 16]
Answer:
The process of development which sustains the human well being in future also.

Question 9.
Cost – benefit analysis of environment.
Answer:
Evaluation and comparison of capital and environmental costs of a project to estimate its relative merits and demerits. Every economic activity consists of both benefits as well as costs.

Question 10.
Reasons for Deforestation.
Answer:
Forests are deforestation due to various causes such as population growth, poverty and unemployment, fire wood, overgrazing, construction of danis, roads etc.

Question 11.
Biodiversity. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
The word biodiversity was coined by Waiter Rosen in 1986. The variety and variability among living organisms is called as biodiversity or totality of genes species and ecosystems in a region.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 8 Environment and Sustainable Economic Development

Question 12.
What is “Noise”?
Answer:
A deep, loud and unpleasant sound which is undesirable and unwanted.

Question 13.
What is Land Degradation? .
Answer:
Land is a valuable resource wedepend for food, habitations and for all the basic necessities on land. The land is said to be degraded. Deforestation cultivation industrialisation, wind erosion, soil acidity are important sources for land degradation.

Question 14.
Environmental Externalities.
Answer:
An externality is a consequence of an economic activity that is experienced by unrelated third parties. It is either positive or negative. Whenever economic activity is held environmental externalities should be considered.

Question 15.
Swachh BharatAbhiyan. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi communicated a quintessential message to the ration through his efforts, to educate people around him about cleanliness. He wished to see a ‘Clean India’. To work seriously towards this vision of Gandhiji, R M. Shri Narendra Modi – External website that opens Swachh Bharat in October 2, 2014. This mission seeks to achieve the goal.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 7th Lesson Planning and Economic Reforms Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 7th Lesson Planning and Economic Reforms

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Define planning and what are the objectives of planning.
Answer:
There is no single opinion among economists with regard to the meaning of planning. From the economic growth point of view, planning stands for the actions taken during a particular period to achieve a targeted growth rate, economic planning implies deliberate control and direction of the economy by a central authority for the purpose of achieving definite targets and objectives within a specified period of time.

Thus planning means the efforts taken to reach the already set goals during a particular time period or directing the economic activities in a systematic way to reach the set goals.

General objectives of planning :

  1. To increase the annual growth rate.
  2. Thereby, increasing the per capita income and standard of living of the people in the country.
  3. Speedy industrial development.
  4. Self – sufficiency with respect to the production of food grains.
  5. Removal of regional imbalances.
  6. Eradication of poverty by removing disparities in income and wealth.
  7. To increase the employment opportunities.
  8. To bring steady growth through price stabilisation.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 2.
Explain the objectives of Twelth five year plan. [A.P. Mar. 17, 18]
Answer:
The Government on 4th October approved the 12th five year plan (2012 – 2017) to achieve annual average economic growth rate of 8.2 per cent, down from 9 per cent envisaged earlier, in view of fragile global recovery. According to officials the projected average rate gross capital formation in the 12th plan is 37 per cent of GDP. The projected gross domestic savings rate is 34.2 per cent of GDP.

Main objectives :
The main objectives of twelth five year plan with its central aim faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth are discussed under the following heads.
a) Economic Growth :

  • Real GDP Growth Rate of 8.0 per cent.
  • The per capita income should grow at 6.5 per cent per annum.
  • Agriculture growth rate of 4.0 per cent.
  • 10 percent annual growth rate of manufacturing or industrial sector.
  • Industrial sector growth rate of 7.6 percent.
  • Service sector growth rate of 9.0 per cent.
  • Every state must have a higher average growth rate in the Twelth plan than that achieved in the Eleventh plan.

b) Poverty and Employment:

  • Head – Count ratio of consumption poverty to be reduced by 10 percentage points over the proceeding estimates by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Generate 50 million new work opportunities in the non-farm sector and provide skill certification to equivalent numbers during the twelth five year plan.

c) Education :

  • Increase in literacy to 85 percent by 2017.
  • Mean years of schoohng to increase to seven years by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Enhance access to higher education by creating two million additional seats for each age cohort aligned to the skill needs of the economy (RUSA).
  • Eliminate gender and social gap in school enrollment (that is, between girls and boys, and between SCs, STs, Muslims and the rest of population) by the end of the twelth five year plan.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

d) Health :

  • Reduced IMR to 25 and MMR to 1 per 1000 live births, and improve child sex ratio (0-6 years) to 950 by the end of the twelth five year plan.
  • The outlay on health would include increased spending in related areas of drinking water and sanitation.
  • Reduce Total Fertility Rate to 2.1 by the end of Twelth five year plan.
  • Reduce under nutrition among children aged 0-3 yrs to half of the NFHS – 3 levels by the end of the plan.

e) Infrastructure, Including Rural Infrastructure :

  • Increase investment in infrastructure as a percentage of GDP to 9 percent.
  • Increase the Gross Irrigated Area from 90 million hectare to 103 million hectare.
  • Provide electricity to all villages and reduce AT & G losses to 20 percent by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Connect all villages with all weather roads by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Upgrade national and state highways to the minimum two – lane standard by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Complete Eastern and Western Dedicated Freight Corridors by the end of twelth five year plan.
  • Increase rural tele – density to 70 percent.
  • Ensure 50 percent of rural population has access to 55 LPCD piped drinking water supply and 50 percent of gram panchayats achieve the Nirmal Gram Status by the end of plan.

f) Environment and Sustainability:

  • Increase in forest and tree cover to 33 percent.
  • Increase green cover (as measured by satellite imagery) by 1 million hectare eveiy year during the twelth five year plan.
  • Add 30,000 MW of renewable energy capacity in the plan.
  • Reduce emission intensity of GDP in line with the target of 20 percent to 25 percent reduction by 2020 over 2005 levels.
  • Cleaning of all major polluted rivers.

g) Service Delivery:

  • Provide access to banking services to 90 percent Indian households by the end of the plan.
  • Major subsidies and welfare related beneficiary payments to be shifted to a direct cash transfer by the end of the twelth plan, using the Aadhar platform with linked bank accounts.

Question 3.
Briefly review the achievements and failures of Eleven five year plans. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Achievements :

  1. India attained self – sufficiency with regard to the food grain production increased from 50.8 million tonnes into 264 million tonnes.
  2. The growth rate in the national income increased from 3.6 percent in First plan to 8.3 percent by the end of 11 plan.
  3. The percapita income increased from ₹ 1.32 lakhs crores in the first plan to ₹ 47.67 lakh crores by the end of 11th plan. A considerable progress in progress in the production of various industries like steel, aluminium etc.
  4. Large scale development took place in infrastructural facilities like transportation irrigation tele communication etc.
  5. India attained commandable progress in science, technology and research.
  6. To control the increasing population, the family planning programme came into force for the first time in the sixth plan.
  7. The industrial growth increased from 32 million tones to 583 million tones by the end of 11th plan.

Failures of the plans: The Indian economy has made significant progress over more than fifty years of planning era. Still there are many weakness which point out towards the failures of Indian plans in many ways.

  1. Despite more than sixty years of planned economic development. Still there exist the problems of poverty and unemployment.
  2. Inspite of the several measures taken under land reforms. Still there exist inequalities with regard ownership of land. There is need for redistribution of land among the landless. So it can be said that the land reforms are not implemented properly.
  3. The plans are hot able to control the volume of black money and corruption.
  4. We are still have to go along way to reach the target of health to all.
  5. Plans are not been able to reduce the economic concentration of income and wealth in the few plans.
  6. Plans failed to achieved balanced regional development.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 4.
Explain the causes of regional imbalance in India. [A.P. Mar 16]
Answer:
Regional imbalances stand in the way of a nation’s integrity, economic growth and development. Before taking the measures to rectify regional imbalances, it is imperative to know the causes of regional imbalances. They are :
a) Geographical reasons : Physical geography controls economic growth in developing countries than the developed countries. For Ex: Himachal Pradesh, Hill districts of UP, Northern Kashmir etc., remained backward mainly because of in accessibility.

b) Climate condition : Climate too plays an important role in the economic development of many regions in India, regions with adverse climatic conditions reflected in low agricultural output and absence of large – scale industries.

c) British rule: Historically, the existence of backward regions started from the British rule in India. The British helped the development of only those regions which are. endowed with conductive facilities to drain Indian wealth to their country like Calcutta, Bombay etc.

d) Concentration of Industries: New investment, in the private sector has a tendency to concentrate in already well developed areas, thus reaping the benefits of external economics. Since, well developed area offers private investors certain basic advantages viz., skilled labour, infrastructure, transport etc.

e) Scarcity of Natural Resources : Certain regions are endowed with natural resources, whereas some regions are not. Those regions with great natural resource endowment are developed faster.

f) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities: Those regions where there are no proper roads, electricity, telecommunication, drinking water, education, medical, technical, training facility, credit facilities etc., they tend to remain underdeveloped.

Question 5.
Explain the measures taken for balanced regional development
Answer:
As the problem of regional imbalance is multidimensional and peculiar one, it is very difficult to bring balanced regional development. Though steps have been launched since second five year plan in this direction, still a lot is required to do. However, following things can be done to attain a balance between different regions.

  • Transfer of funds from the central pool to backward states.
  • Starting of industries by the Government in the backward regions, as private sector having bias towards developed regions.
  • Providing infrastructural facilities like electricity, telecommunications, transport etc., in backward regions.
  • Encouragement to industrial decentralization through regional planning and micro level planning.
  • Formation of Industrial estates in backward areas.
  • Special policies to the regions where frequent floods and drought occur.
  • Central assistance to develop hill and tribal areas.
  • Encouragement to small scale industries.
  • Provision of subsidies, tax concessions, tax holidays etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 6.
Explain the role of International Trade in Economic Development.
Answer:
The role of international trade in economic development is significant. In modem days all countries irrespective of their financial status are depending in participating in international trade. Economists found a positive association between country’s participation in international trade and its level of economic growth.

a) Increases output: Due to international trade when a country specializes in the production of few goods and division of labour, it exports the commodities which it produces cheaper in exchange for what others can produce at lower cost. It gains from trade through increased output, national income which is useful to break vicious circle of poverty and promotes development.

b) Expand mairket: Developing countries are hampered by the small size of domestic markets which fail to absorb sufficient volume of output. This leads to low inducement to investment. International trade widens the market arid increases the inducement to invest.

c) Increases Employment : Due to international market opportunities, under – developed countries started exploiting unutilized resources which will reduce unemployment and under employment. As people’s income rises, domestic savings and investments increase. Human resources will be utilized optimally.

d) Increases Internal and External Economies : Expansion of productive activities and expanded market opportunities leads to a number of internal and external economies, and hence to reduction of cost of production. There are the direct gains from international trade.

e) Indirect Benefits : By enlarging the size of the market and the scope of specialization, international trade makes a greater use of machinery, encourages inventions and innovation and raises labour productivity.

f) Import of capital goods against export of staple commodities : International trade helps to exchange domestic goods having low growth potential for the foreign goods with high growth potential.

g) Important Educative Effect : International trade helps in importation of ideas, skills and technical know – how from the developed countries and stimulates technical progress in UDCs. So underdeveloped countries have to change their poor educational, technical, productive systems so as to raise their competitiveness.

h) Basis for importation of foreign capital: Developing countries are capital scarce economies. This condition restricts the economy in all fields to move ahead. If a country actively participates in international trade, the unused capital resources of rich countries will flow and utilized effectively in capital poor countries. Foreign capital not only helps in increasing employment, output and income but also smoothen the adverse balance of payments and inflationary pressures.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 7.
Define Globalization and what are the essential conditions of globalization in India.
Answer:
Globalization is the process of integrating or synchronizing domestic economy with the world economy or in simple words it is the process of opening up of domestic economy doors to the rest of the world.

Essential conditions for Globalization : There are some essential conditions to be satisfied on the domestic economy as well as the firm for successful globalization of the business. They are
a) Business Freedom : There should not be unnecessary government restrictions which come in the way of globalization. Like import restrictions, restrictions on sourcing finance, foreign investment etc. So, Liberalization is the pre condition for globalization.

b) Infrastructure facilities : The extent to which an enterprise and develop globally from home country base depends on the infrastructural facilities like water, transport, electricity, finance etc.

c) Government support : Although unnecessary government interference is a hindrance to globalization. Government support can encourage globalization. Government support may take the form of policy and procedural reforms, development of common facilities like infrastructural facilities.

d) Resources : Resources often decide the ability of a firm to globalize. Resourceful companies may find it easier to thrust ahead in the global market. Resources include finance, technology, R and D capabilities, managerial expertise etc.

e) Competitiveness : The competitive advantage of the company is an important determinant of success in global business. A firm may derive competitive advantage from any of the factors such as low costs and price, product quality, product differentiations, technological superiority etc.

f) Orientation : A global orientation on the part of the business firms and suitable globalization strategies are essential for globalization.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 8.
Explain the impact of globalization on Indian Economy.
Answer:
Globalization is the process of integrating or synchronizing domestic economy with the world economy or in simple words it is the process of opening up of domestic economy doors to the rest of the world.
Impact of Globalisation on Indian Economy :
a) India’s share in the world exports raised from 0.53 percent in 1991 to 1.7 percent by 2013.
b) Foreign currency reserves which were as low as one billion U.S dollars, grow up to 333 billion U.S dollars by the end of February 2015.
c) Exports now finance more than 65 percent of imports.
d) Control over country’s current account deficit is observed.
e) The growing rate of external debt decreased drastically when compared to prereform period. .
f) International confidence in India has been restored.
g) Indian consumers are now enjoying wide variety of quality goods at lower prices.
h) Employment situation worsened in the era of globalization. The growth rate of employment actually declined from 2 percent to 0.98 percent after globalization.
i) The pressure of MNCs, IMF and World Bank force governments to take decisions regarding reforms actually leading to the closure of small and medium enterprises.
j) Globalization also widened the income inequalities among the people and even among regions too.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Types of planning.
Answer:
Economic planning is the main characteristic feature of socialistic and mixed economic systems, which fallow planned development strategy.
Types of planning:
a) Perspective plan : A perspective plan is a macro plan formulated for a period of 15 to 20 years, keeping in view the long term needs and long term objectives.

b) Five year plans: Five year plans are designed for a period of five years. A five year plan is an integral part of perspective plan. After the completion of five years, the achieved targets will be reviewed.

c) Annual plans : Annual plan is part of a five year plan. The targets of five year plans are divided into annual targets and detailed plans will be prepared year – wise.

d) Rolling plans : This concept was introduced by Gunnar Myrdal. This kind of plan does not have a fixed period of time. It has only duration and moves forward, the completed year will be deleted and next year will be added.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 2.
Planning commission.
Answer:
After independence on 1st March, 1950, the planning commission was setup by the Government of India. Planning Commission works independently and as an advisor to the central government. The Prime Minister of the country acts as the chairman and there will be an active deputy chairman and other members in the commission. Montek Singh Ahluwalia was its last Deputy Chairman. The cabinet minister of key portfolios also the ex-officio members. Experts in various fields like economics, industry, science and technology etc., will be appointed as full time members. From 1st January 2015, planning commission replaced by NITI Ayog.

Question 3.
Explain the objectives of planning commission. [A.P. Mar 17]
Answer:
Preparing plans for the most effective and balanced utilization of the country’s man power, physical and capital resources is the obligation of planning commission.
Objectives and functions:

  1. To make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country and to examine whether they are sufficient to meet the nation’s requirement.
  2. To.define the stages, on the basis of priority in which the plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.
  3. To indicate the factors that tend to retard economic development and find feasible ways to overcome these factors.
  4. To determine the conditions for the successful execution of the’ plan.
  5. To determine the nature of the machinery required for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects.
  6. To appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the plan and to recommend alternative policy measures when they are needed.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 4.
Explain atleast three failures of plans.
Answer:
The Indian economy has made significant progress over more than sixty five years of planning era. Still there are many weaknesses which point out towards the failures of Indian plans in many ways. Some of the failures are presented as under.

a) Despite more than sixty years of planned economic development, still there exist the problems of poverty and unemployment. In 2012 the Indian government stated 21.9 percent of its population is below its official poverty limit. (About 300 million people), like wise the from 1983 till 2011 unemployment rates in India averaged 9 percent reaching an all time low of 3.8 percent in December 2011. The NSS data reveals the number of unemployed to be of the order of 26.58 million during 1999 – 2000 and 28.1 million during 2009-10.

b) Inspite of the several measures taken under land reforms, still there exist inequalities regarding land, income and wealth. Distribution of surplus lands not completed.

c) One of the objectives of Indian Five Years Plans was to establish an egalitarian society. This could not be achieved so far.

d) The plans are not able to control the volume of black money and corruption. In Feb 2012 Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) said that Indian have $ 500 billion illegal money (Black money) based on a statement made to India’s Supreme Court in July 2011.

e) We still have to go a long way to reach the target of Health to All.

Question 5.
Causes of Regional Imbalances in India. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
Regional imbalances stand in the way of Nation’s Integrity, economic growth and development.

a) Geographical Reasons : Physical geography controls economic growth in developing countries than the developed countries. For example, Himachal Pradesh, Hill district of UP, Northern Kashmir etc., remained backward mainly because of inaccessibility.

b) Climatic Conditions : Climate too plays an important role in the economic development of many region in India, region with achierse climatic conditions reflected in low agricultural output and absence of large – scale industries.

c) British Rule : Historically the existence of backward regions started from the British rule in India. The British helped the developed of only those regions which are endowed with conducive facilities to drain Indian wealth to their country like Calcutta, Bombay etc.

d) Concentration of Industries: New investment, in the private sector has attendance to concentrate in already well developed areas, thus reaping the benefits of external economic. Since, well developed area offers private investors certain basic advantages viz., skilled labour, infrastructure, transport etc.

e) Scarcity of Natural Resources : Certain regions are endowed with natural resources, where as same regions are not. Those regions with great natural resources endowment are developed faster.

f) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities: Those regions where there are no proper roads, electricity, telecommunication, drinking water, education, medical, technical training facility etc., tend to remain underdeveloped.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 6.
Enumerate 3 points in justification of privatization.
Answer:
1) Improvement in efficiency and performance : The Private sector introduces the profit oriented decision making process in the working of enterprise leading to improved efficiency and performance.

2) Fixing Responsibility is Easier : While personnel in the public enterprises cannot be held responsible for any lapse, the areas of responsibility in the private sector is clearly defined. This makes it possible to take people to task in the private sector units for blunders committed by them, whereas in the public sector units, it is easy to pass the buck.

3) Private units are subject to capital market discipline : Private sector firms are subject to capital market discipline and scrutiny by financial experts. In fact, the ability to raise funds in the capital market is critically dependent on performance, but not so in the case of public enterprises.

Question 7.
Rule of International Trade.
Answer:
The international trade plays avery vital role for the development of economic of the developing countries.
1) Due to international trade when a country specializes in the production of few goods and divisions of labour, it exports the commodities which it produces cheaper in exchange for what others can produce at lower cost.

2) Developing countries are hampered by the small size of domestic markets which fail to absorb sufficient volume of output. This leads to low inducement to investment. International trade widens the market and increases the inducement to invest.

3) Due to international market opportunities, under developed countries started exploiting unutilized resources which will reduce unemployment and under employment.

4) Expansion of productive activities and expanded market opportunities leads to a number of internal and external economics, and hence to reduction of cost of production.

5) By enlarging the size of the market and the scope of specialization, international trade makes a greater, use of machinery, encouraging inventions and innovation and raises labour productivity.

6) International trade helps to exchange domestic goods having low growth potential for the foreign goods with high growth potential.

7) International trade helps in importation of ideas, skills and technical know-how from the developed countries and stimulates technical progress in UDCs.

8) Developing countries are capital scarce economics. If a country actively participates in international trade, the unused capital resources of rich countries will fallow and utilized effectively in capital poor countries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 8.
Objectives of GATT.
Answer:

  1.  It had no legal status.
  2. It was not created by the governments and legislatures.
  3. It was not an agency of the United Nations Organization.
  4. It has a set of rules and producers relating to multilateral agreements of selective nature. There were separate agreements on on members.
  5. The GATT disputes settlements system was dilatory and not binding on the parties to the disputes
  6. The GATT was a forum where the member countries meet once in a decade to discuss and solve world trade problems.
  7. The GATT rules applied to trade in goods.
  8. It has a small secretariat managed by a Director General.

Question 9.
Objectives of W.T.O
Answer:
a) It aims at raising standard of living, ensuring full employment and large and steady growth, expanding the production and trade in goods and services among the global countries.

b) To allow for the optimal use of the world’s resources in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development. This also considers environmental protection with economic growth.

c) To ensure the developing and least developed countries secure a share in the growth in international trade.

d) To convince the member countries for reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements through reduction of tariffs and other trade harries.

e) To develop an integrated, more viable and durable multilateral trading system.

Question 10.
Differences between GATT and WTO.
Answer:
GATT

  1. It had no legal status.
  2. It was not created by the government and legislatures.
  3. It was not an agency of the united nations organization.
  4. It has a set of rules and procedures relating to multilateral agreements of selective nature. There were.separate agreements on separate issues which were not binding on members. Any member could stay out of an agreement. Only could be penalized on default.
  5. The GAIT disputes settlement system was dilatory and not binding on the parties to the disputes.
  6. The GATT was a forum where the member countries met once in a decade to discuss and solve world trade problems.
  7. The GAIT rules applied to trade in goods.
  8. It has a small secretariat managed by a Director General.

WTO

  1. It has legal status.
  2. It has been created by international treaty ratified by the governments and legislatures of the member states.
  3. It has co-operative relationship with the UNO. The agreements which form part of the WTO are permanent and binding on all members.
  4. Action can be taken against any defaulting member by all the member states.
  5. The WTO dispute settlement mechanism is automatic, faster and binding on the parties.
  6. Its properly established rule based World Trade Organisation where decisions on agreements are time bound.
  7. The WTO covers not only trade in goods and services but also trade related aspects of intellectual property rights and number of other agreements.
  8. It has a large secretariat and a huge organizational set-up.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 11.
Functions of W.T.O [A.P. Mar. 18, 16]
Answer:
a) WT.O facilitates the implementation, administration and operation of world trade agreements.
b) It provides the forum for trade negotiations among its member countries.
c) It shall handle trade disputes.
d) It shall monitor national trade policies of member countries.
e) It shall provide technical assistance and training to developing countries.
f) It maintains harmonious and co-operative relationship with IMF and IBRD and its affiliated agencies.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define plan.
Answer:
Plan may be defined as an outline or broad statement of schemes Or programmes designed or evolved to relaise certain pre-determined economic objectives.
(Or)
The efforts taken to reach the already set gains during a particular time period.

Question 2.
What is Rolling plan ?
Answer:
Rolling Plan : This concept was introduced by Yunnar Myrdal. This kind of plan does not have a fixed period of time. It has only duration and moves forward, the completed year will be deleted and next year will be added.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 3.
Concept of plan holiday.
Answer:
The gap that occurred in the planning process. There was official gap was 1966 – 69. A unofficial gap occurred in 1990 – 92 due to economic and political instability in the country.

Question 4.
Define perspective plan.
Answer:
A perspective plan is a macro plan formulated for a period of 15 to 20 years. Keeping in view the long term needs and long term objectives.

Question 5.
What is an Annual plan ? Give an example.
Answer:
Annual plan is a part of five year plan. The targets of five year plans are divided into annual targets and detailed plans will be prepared year – wise.
For example : There was a plan holiday for three years from 1966 – 69 at that time annual plans are implemented by postponing the commencement of 4th plan.

Question 6.
Backward states in India.
Answer:
We can classify the states in India into two categories on the basis of percapita income. Poverty and Human development index. They are 1. Developed states 2. Developing states Backward states are Orissa, Bihar, Utter Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Assam.

Question 7.
Define Regional imbalance.
Answer:
The co-existence of relatively developed and economically depressed states and even regions with each country or state is known as regional imbalance. It may be natural or mammal.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 8.
Balanced regional development.
Answer:
It implies the extension of the economic progress to the backward area and widespread diffusion of industry. It does not mean equal development of the different regions in the country. The objective is to raise the standard of living of the people into backward regions.

Question 9.
What is Liberalisation ?
Answer:
It refers to relaxation of previous government restrictions usually in areas of social and economic policies. Thus, when government liberalised trade it means it has removed the tariff, subsidies and other under employment restrictions on the flow of goods and services between the countries.

Question 10.
Explain the concept of privatization.
Answer:
It is the general process of involving the private sector in the ownership or operation of a state owned enterprises. Privatisation is a process the government transfers the producing activity from the public sector to the private sector.

Question 11.
Define Globalisation. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
It is the process of integrating various economies of the world without creating any hindrance in the free flow of goods and services, technology, capital even labour or human capital.

Question 12.
Concepts of TRIPS.
Answer:
Trips refer to the legal ownership by a person or business of an invention attached to a particular product.

Question 13.
What do you mean by TRIMS ?
Answer:
Trade related investment measures refer to certain condition or restrictions imposed by a Governments is respect of foreign investment in the country. TRIMS were widely employed by developing countries. The agreement or trade. Related investment measures calls for introducing national treatment of foreign investment.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 14.
The clause of MFN. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Any concession given to any nation was automatically extended to all the member countries of the GATT. MFN means Most Favoured Nation.

Question 15.
Define Disinvestment.
Answer:
The sale of the public sector equity to the private sector is called disinvestment.

Question 16.
GATT.
Answer:
The general agreement on Tariffs and trade it came into force on 1st January 1948. As the name itself suggests, General Agreement was concerned only with tariffs and trade restrictions and regulated international trade matters. Geneva is the head quarter of GATT.

Question 17.
W.T.O. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
The WTO Agreement came into force from January 1, 1995. WTO is a new international organisation setup as a permanent body and is designed to play the role of a watch dog in the spheres of trade in goods, trade in services, foreign investment, intellectual property rights etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 7 Planning and Economic Reforms

Question 18.
Uruguay Round.
Answer:
There were 8 rounds of negotiations between participating countries. In GATT in 1947. The 1st six rounds were related to curtailing tariff rates. Seventh-round included non-tariff obstacles. 8th round is different from previous round. Because it included a number of new objects for consideration, this 8th round known as “Uruguay Round’.

Question 19.
F.D.I.
Answer:
Investment in a foreign country where the investor remains control over the investment. FDI means foreign direct investment.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 6th Lesson Tertiary Sector Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 6th Lesson Tertiary Sector

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Define tertiary sector. Explain the importance of tertiary sector in Indian economy.
Answer:
The tertiary sector activities include all other activities like transport communication, banking, insurance and trade. Tertiary sector with its sub-sectors act as complementary sector to the development of primary and secondary sectors. Economists argue that the development of the economy is associated with high proportion of grass domestic product and working population employed in tertiary sector. The importance of the tertiary sector can be illustrated by the following indices.

1) Share in the gross domestic product: A review of the sectoral contribution to the gross domestic product reveals that the contribution of service sector has been increasing from 1950, its share was 27.5 percent of the GDP in 1950 – 51 and increased to around 56.0 percent in 2007 – 2008. The share of services sector in India is continuously increasing. It was only 27.5 percent in 1950 – 51 and increased to 40.59 percent in 1990 – 91 and further to 55.73 percent in 2007 – 08. In 2013 it was 57.0%.

2) Workers employed : Generally there is a tendency for the tertiary sector to expand more rapidly than secondary sector activities as a consequency the percentage of labour force engaged in this sector also registers an increase.

The workers engaged in tertiary sector has increased from 178.56 lakhs (1991) to 182.65 lakhs in 2008. Though 189.60 lakh workers were employed in tertiary sector during 2001 there was a decline in the number of workers employed to 182.65 lakhs in 2008. This was mainly due to the decline in the employment of workers in public sector.

It is evident form the data that 54.1 percent of the workers employed in tertiaiy sector are in rural areas and the proportion of urban areas was 45.9 percent.

3) Exports of services: India has been recording high growth in the export of services during the last few years. Exports of services was US $ 460 billion in 2004 – 05, increased to US $ 61.4 billion in 2005 – 06 and to US $ 90.1 billion in 2007 – 08 growth of exports was particularly repaid in the miscellaneous services which comprise software services, business services, financial services and communication services India’s export of services is expected to touch US $ 310.9 billion powered by the booming software consultancy, engineering and tourism sectors by 2011 -12.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 2.
Infrastructure contributes to the economic development of a country. Explain.
Answer:
“Infrastructure” is an umbrella term for many service activities referred to as social overhead. Capital by many development economists infrastructure facilities are also referred to as economic and social overhead often they have also referred to urban and rural infrastructure. Adequate infrastructural facilities help to determine a country’s success and another failure. They diversity production, expand trade, reduce poverty and improve the environmental conditions.
Generally infrastructure is categorised into two groups. They are :

  1. Economic infrastructure
  2. Social infrastructure

The services and facilities that are used in the economic production and by households is called as Economic infrastructure.

Engineering structures, equipment, power, gas, telecommunications, water supply, sanitation public works for irrigation, roads and railways, urban transport ports, waterways, air ports etc., are grouped as “economic infrastructure”.

Social infrastructure includes education, healthcare, family welfare housing, labour welfare etc. Both economic and social infrastructural serve as the true “engine of growth” and provides the needed impetus to the economy. The services associated with the use of infrastructure are called as infrastructural services, act as wheels of the economic activity. The availability on infrastructure improves the per capita GDP and has the following effects:

  1. Raises the productivity of the production process.
  2. Increases access to markets.
  3. Leads to agricultural expansion.
  4. Brings higher yields in agriculture.
  5. Lowers the cost of doing business.
  6. Provides ability to complete in the international trade, even in traditional commodities.
  7. Provides employment opportunities.
  8. Achieves cost – saving in inventory and working capital.
  9. Delivers the product just-in-time particularly in exports.
  10. Facilitates diversification of trade.
  11. Leads to modernisation and diversification of production.
  12. Provides ability to repond to changes in demand and prices.
  13. Facilitates employment intensive growth.
  14. Defines welfare and ensures growth with poverty reduction.
  15. Helps to identify the poor.
  16. Improves the quality of life.
  17. Offers non-farm employment opportunities.
  18. Encourages the modification of physical surroundings as environment friendly surroundings.
  19. Promotes environment sustainability of human settlements.
  20. Removes and disposes the liquid and solid wastes.
  21. Protects public health and provides health benefits.

Keeping in view all these beneficial impacts of infrastructural services, the Government of India has decided to invest ₹ 4,35,349 crore, to spend exclusively on the improvement of rural infrastructure. This amount is allocated for the development of electricity, roads, telecommunications, irrigation, water supply and sanitation.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain the contribution of GDP in service sector.
Answer:
Service sector has become very prominent in world’s economies. The importance may be highlighted in terms of its contribution to GDP, employment and exports.

The share of GDP is high in many countries. The following table shows that the contribution of services sector to the overall GDP those countries is very high in the tuble U.K has highest share of service sector followed by U.S.A, France. In India the share of service sector increase between 2001 and 2013.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector 1

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 2.
What are the activities considered under the India’s Services Sector ?
Answer:
Services in India are emerging as a prominent sector in terms of contribution of national and State incomes, trade flows, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and employment. The following activities can be considered to form the part of the service sector.

  1. Trade.
  2. Hotels and Restaurants.
  3. Transport (Including Railways and transport by other means)
  4. Storage.
  5. Communication.
  6. Banking and Insurance.
  7. Real Estate and Business Services.
  8. Public administration and defence.
  9. Construction.
  10. Other services including education, medical and health, religious and other community services, legal services, recreation services.

Question 3.
What are the advantages of Roadways? [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
Answer:
The principle mode of connectivity between places in roadways. India has one of the largest road networks in the world, spread over 48.65 lakh k.m. district and villages road constitutive 95.2% of the total road network in our country.
Advantages of Roadways :

  1. Road transport connects all the villages and regions and finally it connects to the railways.
  2. Road transport does not required heavy capital expenditure.
  3. The chances of delay, damages are less in case of road transport.
  4. Road transport provides transports the goods to the railway station.
  5. Road transport help the farmers particularly easily and quickly to transport to mandis and towns.
  6. Road transport is more flexible when compared to other means of transport. It can provide door to door service.
  7. Enables to defence forces to move areas inaccessible by railways in emergencies.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 4.
Explain the importance of Railways.
Answer:
Railways provide the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers. They are the great integrating force for the past 150 years and helping in acclerating the development of industry and agriculture railways made a very modest beginning in 1853. With a route length of 34 kms. Indian railways have grown into a vast network of 7,183 stations spread over a route length of 53,332 kilometers. They have a flat of 8025 locomotives, 44090 passenger service vehicles, 5990 other loading vehicles and 2,07,176 wagons. The Indian railways is the world’s third largest rail network under a single management. Better resource management rational pricing policy have led to a significant improvement in the performance of the railways. In India the development of agriculture and industrial sectors has generated higher level of demand for rail transport. Coal, pig iron, iron ore, cement, food grains, fertilizers sugar, salt, steel, petroleum products and other essential commodities are transported by railways.

Question 5.
What is tourism ? Explain its importance in Indian economy.
Answer:
Tourism is the sub – sector of tertiary sector in general and services industry in particular.

W.T.O defined Tourism as “the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more then one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.
Importance:

  1. Tourism provides revenue to the government.
  2. Tourism creates employment facilities for women.
  3. It provides regional development.
  4. It is a source of foreign exchange earnings.
  5. Tourism sells indirectly the environmental resources.
  6. It can be used as a means of reducing poverty.
  7. It builds partnership with private sector.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 6.
Explain the banking system in India.
Answer:
A well – developed banking system is necessary pro -requisite for achievement of economic development. Banks play an important role in mobilization of savings and investments. Banks are the efficient agents of capital formation in the economy and give access to use the resources in a productive way.

Banking system in India has been playing a very important role in the process of economic development. Depending upon the nature of the activity performed by them, banking system in India may be classified into the following categories. They are :
a) Commercial Banks
b) Cooperative Banks
c) Central Bank (Reserve Bank of India)

a) Commercial Banks : The commercial banks were nationalized in phased manner in 1969 and 1980. They are classified as public sector (nationalized) banks and private sector banks. The State Bank of India and its associates along with another 20 banks are the public sector banks. The Indian scheduled banks, which are not nationalized and branches of foreign banks operating in India are called as private sector banks.

b) Cooperative Banks: Under Cooperative Banking System State Cooperative Banks, District Central Cooperative Banks (DCCB) and primary to short term credit. State Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks and Primary Agriculture and Rural Development Bank provide long term credit.

c) Reserve Bank of India (RBI) : The RBI is India’s Central Bank was established on 1st April 1935 was nationalized on 1st January 1949. RBI is Supreme Monetary Authority in the country. It keeps the reserves of all scheduled banks, which were included in 2nd schedule of RBI and which were not included is called as ‘Non-schedule Banks’.

Question 7.
What are the major constituents of insurance industry in India ?
Answer:
A Health and Development Insurance Sector of vital importance to every modem economy. It encourages the savings habits provides a safety net to rural and urban enterprises and individuals and generates long term funds for infrastructure development. Development and insurance is therefore, necessary to support continued economic growth social security and person reforms also benefit from a mature insurance industry.
There are two major constituents of Insurance :

  1. Life Insurance
  2. Non Life Insurance (General)

1) Life Insurance : LIC offers schemes, policies and plans to investors. Particularly the main objective of UC is giving protecting against risk of death and channalizing the funds for the benefits and the economy in the socially oriented sectors during 2013 -14.

Life Insurance under wrote first – year premium of ₹ 1,19,641 crore as against ₹ 1,07,361 crore during 2012-13 registering a growth of 11.44 percent.

2) Non Life Insurance (General): The general insurance companies deal with non life insurance. The GIC was approved as the Indian Reinsurer on 3rd November 2000. It offers fire, marine, motor, health and other insurance. During 2013-14, non-life insurance including stand lone health insurance and specialize insurance (Export Credit Guarantee Scheme) and Agriculture Insurance Company (AIQ underwrote premium worth ₹ 77,584 crore as against ₹ 69,089 crore during 2012 -13 registering a growth of 12.23 percent.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Service sector [A.P. Mar 17]
Answer:
Service sector is also known as tertiary sector. Service sector is the life, line for the social and economic growth of a country. The service sector activities include trade, transport, communications, banking, insurance, education, health, energy, marketing etc., all these facilities and services constitutes collectively the tertiary sector.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 2.
Infrastructure
Answer:
An umbrella term for service activities in the economy. Infrastructure is categorized into two groups. They are economic infrastructure and social infrastructure.

Question 3.
Transport
Answer:
Transport means conveyance of people or property from one place to another. These services provide a link between production distribution and consumption activities. Road ways, railways, airways, waterways are the important means of transport.

Question 4.
Water Transport
Answer:
Water Transport is the another important means of transport. Shipping is an important indicator of both commodity and service trade of any country. Water transport in India is of two types. They are the land water transport and International water transport (Shipping).

Question 5.
Civil Aviation
Answer:
Air transport has a vital role in the economic development of the country. It is the modem and quickest transport. In India the first commercial flight started on February 18th, 19.11. The real progress in civil aviation started in 1920.

Question 6.
Tourism [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:
Tourism is the sub-sector of tertiary sector in general and services industry in particular. Tourism as “the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 7.
LIC [A.P. Mar. 18, 16]
Answer:
Life Insurance Corporation of India was set up in 1956. UC has its central office at Mumbai with 7 Zonal offices, 101 divisional offices and 2,048 branch offices. It mobilise savings of the public to invest in the industrial securities.

Question 8.
GIC
Answer:
General Insurance Industry in India was nationalized in 1972 and a government company known as General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC) was established. There are four GIC companies.

  1. National Insurance Company Limited
  2. New India Assurance Company Limited
  3. Oriental Insurance Company Limited
  4. United India Insurance Company Limited. The GIC deal with non-life insurance.

Question 9.
Micro – Insurance [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
A system that blends insurance with savings and credit practices. The member of self help groups, farmers, migrant workers and tribals are the target groups for this micro finance. This insurance offers both individuals and group insurance services.

Question 10.
Communication
Answer:
The communication system is an integral part of the development process. Communication means the transmission of information. By providing necessary information about markets and supply of goods. It consists of posts of telegraphs, telecommunications broadcasting, television etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 6 Tertiary Sector

Question 11.
Science and Technology
Answer:
Science and technology are ideas and means with which man seeks to change his environment. Science represents accumulation of knowledge, while technology represents ‘refinement in tools. These two have helped to improve the quality of human life.

Question 12.
Performance of software industry
Answer:
The software industry is the main component of the information technology in India. India’s pool of young-aged man power is the key behind this success story. Presently there are more then 500 software forms in the country. Global software gaints like Microsoft, Oracle etc.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 5th Lesson Industrial Sector Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 5th Lesson Industrial Sector

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the importance of Industrial Sector in India.
Answer:
Industrialisation is a pre-requisite for any country, in a particular underdeveloped country like India. The major sectors like Agriculture and tertiary sectors depend upon the available production of equipment and machinery at reasonable prices by the industrial sector.

1) Raising Income: The first important role is that industrial development provides a secure basis for rapid growth of income. In industrially developed countries, for example, the percapita income is very high where, as for the industrially backward countries is very low. Percapita income in 2012 in Germany was $ 44,010, Japan $ 47,870, U.K. $ 38,250, USA $ 50,120 and India only at $ 1530 per annum.

2) Changing the structure of the Economy: Secondly, in order to develop the economy underdeveloped countries need structural change through industrialization. The benefits of industrialization will ‘trickle down’ to the other sectors of the economy in the form of development of agricultural and service sectors leading to the rise in employment, output and income. In India sectoral contribution to gross domestic product is 13.9 percent from Agriculture, 26.2 percent from Industry and 59.9 percent from Service sector during the year 2013-14. (provisional)

3) Meeting High – Income Demands: Demands of the people are usually for industrial products alone. After having met the needs of food, income of the people is spent mostly on manufactured goods. To meet these demands and increase the economy’s output,’ underdeveloped countries need industialization.

4) Overcoming Deterioration in the terms of India : India need industrialization to free themselves from the adverse effects of fluctuations in the prices of primary products and deterioration in their terms of trade. Such countries mainly export primary products and import manufactured goods. For economic development such countries must shake off dependence on primary products. They should adopt import substituting and export oriented industrialization strategy.

5) Absorption of Surplus labour in Industries: The next advantage is underdeveloped countries like India are characterised by surplus labour and rapidly growing population. To absorb all the surplus labour it is essential to industrialise the country rapidly. It is the establishment of industries alone that can generate employment opportunities on an accelerated rate.

6) Bringing Technological Progress: Another advantage is research and development is associated with the process of industrialization. This results in bringing about an industrial civilization (or) environment for rapid progress which is necessary for any healthy economy.

7) Strengthening the Economy: Finally industrialization of the country can provide the necessary elements for strengthening the economy.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 2.
Briefly review the 1948 Industrial Policy Resolution of India.
Answer:
After independence, Government of India issued the first important industrial policy statement on April 6, 1948. This resolution laid the foundation of mixed economy in India. Objectives:

  1. Establishment of a society where equal opportunities and justice to all.
  2. Increase in the standards of living of people.
  3. Removal of inequalities in income and wealth. In order to reach the objectives • mentioned above, the resolution divided the industries into four broad categories.
    1. Industries – where state (Government) had a monopoly.
    2. Mixed sector – Industries in the private sector and Government controls them.
    3. Those industries under the control of Government are the key industries. They are established by the Government. The existing private undertakings were allowed to continue for 10 years. After which Government will think of their Nationalisation.
    4. All over industries which are not included in the above were left open to the private sector. However, the state will have its control over these units. The important features noticed in the 1948 industrial policy resolution are :
      a) Industries are classified into four categories.
      b) The resolution accepted the importance of both private and public sectors in the speedy industrial development of Indian economy.
      c) The 1948 resolution also accepted the importance of small and cottage industries.
      d) The resolution also recognized the role of foreign capital and importance of regularization of its use.
      e) The resolution also mentioned about the Nationlisation of private undertakings in case of unsatisfactory progress.

Question 3.
Discuss the 1956 industrial policy resolution of India.
Answer:
1956 Industrial Policy Resolution: Agriculture sector achieved the desired progress during the first five year plan. Therefore, Government of India shifted the stress to the development of industry in the second five year plan. In the light of the socio-economic changes that took place during the 1st plan and all this necessitated a fresh statement of Industrial policy. As a result the second industrial policy resolutions were adopted in April 30, 1956.

Objectives : Following are the objectives of the 1956 industrial policy resolutions.

  1. Acclerating the rate of growth by speeding up the industrialisation process.
  2. Mutual co-operation between the public and private sectors.
  3. To develop heavy industries and machine making industries by expanding the public sector.
  4. Establishment of the socialistic pattern of society.
  5. To prevent private monopolies and the concentration of wealth and income.
  6. Reducing the regional imbalances.
  7. Encouragement to cottage and small scale industries.
  8. To build up a large and growing co-operative sector.

1956 Industrial policy resolutions gave importance to the establishment of socialistic pattern of society in India with an expanded public sector. In a nut-shall, we can say that this policy modernized the concept of mixed economy.

Important Provisions : The important provisions of the 1956 Industrial Policy Resolutions are :
1) New classification of Industries: The resolutions laid down three categories which bear a close resemblance of the 1948 resolutions.
a) Category A has 17 Industries : Arms of ammunition atomic energy iron and steel, heavy machinery for mining, machine tool manufacturers, heavy electrical, coal, mineral oils, aircrafts, air transports, railways, ship building, telephone, telegraph, wireless equipment, generation and distribution of electricity.

b) Category B includes : 12 Indusries mining industries, aluminium and other non ferrous metals not mentioned in category “A” chemical industry, antibiotics and other essential drugs fertilizers synthetic rubbur, chemicals, road and sea transport, carbonization of coal.

c) Category C includes : Industries which consisted of the rest. These industries and their future development would in general be left to the initiative and enterprise of the private sector.

2) Public and private sectors : This resolution also laid down the importance on the mutual co-operation between the public and private sectors.
The private sector was allowed to operate freely or its help could be obtained if the Government cleaned fit. However, the private sector was to remain subject to various regulations and controls of Government.

3) Cottage and Small scale Industries : The 1956 resolutions recognized the importance of small – scale and cottage industries as the 1948 resolutions.

4) Removing regional disparities ’: It also called for the reduction in regional imbalances and .income inequalities.

5) Role of labour : To provide the technical and training facilities for efficient management that helps for speedy industrialisation.
This resolutions also recognized the importance of industrial peace for the economic growth of the economy.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 4.
Critically evaluate the 1991 New Industrial’Policy Resolution of India. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Industrial policy statement 1991 brought rapid structural changes in the economy of India. Most of the State owned units were running with huge losses. Government was not interested to run the state owned units. So as part of economic reforms generally known as liberalization, privatization, globalization and a new industrial policy became inevitable.

Objectives :
a) To build on the going already made in the industrial sector.
b) To correct the distortions or weakness that may creep in the pattern of industrial growth.
c) To maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment and
d) To attain technological dynamism and international competitiveness.
Main features: In order to explore and exploit the industrial potential of the country the following decisions.

a) Delicensing:
i) Industrial licensing will be abolished for all projects except for these which are important for security, strategic, social and envirorimental reasons and items of elite’s consumption. License is not necessary for the items produced in small scale sector. License is required to establish the following industries viz, coal, petroleum, motor cars, alcoholic drugs, cigars, industrial explosives, hazardous chemicals.

ii) Reservation for the public sector: Establishment of key and strategic industries reserved for public sector are arms and ammunition, defense equipment, atomic energy, mineral oils, railway transport.

iii) Automatic clearance of capital goods: The Government permits imports of capital goods like machinery, without any conditions if the foreign exchange needed for the imports is met from foreign equity capital.

iv) Location policy : In locations other than cities of more than one million population, there will be no requirement of obtaining industrial approvals from the Central Government except for industries specified in Annexure II originally. In cities with a population of more than 1 million, industry other than those of a non-polluting in nature, were required to be located outside 25 kilometers of the periphery.

v) Abolition of convertibility clause : The mandatory convertibility clause will no longer be applicable for term loans from the financial institutions for new projects. This has provided them an option of converting part of their loans into equity, if felt, necessary by their management.

b) Foreign investment policy : According to the new industrial policy approval will be given for direct foreign investment up to 51 percent foreign equity in high priority industries. FDI is prohibited only in the following sectors in 1991 industrial resolution.

They are :

  1. Retail trading
  2. Atomic energy
  3. Lottery business
  4. Gambling and betting

c) Foreign technology agreement: Automatic approval for technology agreements in high priority industries should be given. No permission will be necessary for hiring of foreign technicians and foreign testing of indigenously developed technologies.

d) Public sector policy : Public sector will not be barred from entering areas are not specifically reserved for it. Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) is constituted to undertake the revival of rick public units and to protect the interest of workers affected by rehabilitation.

e) MRTP ACT: The conditions in the Monopoly Restrictive Grade Practices (MRTP) Act that monoploies should get prior approval of the Government for expansion, for establishment of new undertakings merger, amalgamation, take over and appointment of directors will be removed. The Act will concentrate more on controlling unfair or restrictive trade practices.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 5.
Write about National Manufacturing Policy of India.
Answer:
After a long gap there was a major industrial policy initiated by the UPA Government in 2011. India’s manufacturing sector is only about 13% of that of China’s. Government of India brings back industrial policy into focus in the form of National Manufacturing Policy (NMP) on November 4, 2011.

National Manufacturing Polity : This policy envisages simplification of business requlations without diluting their purpose. Recognizing the importance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the country’s economy. These interventions relate primarily to technological up gradation, adoption of environment, friendly technology and equity investments. This policy has been given high priority in the policy through fiscal incentives for private sector and Government schemes. It also provided for on – lands which are degraded and uncultivable.

Objectives:

  1. Increase manufacturing sector growth 12 – 14% over the medium term.
  2. Increase the share of manufacturing in gross domestic product from the present level of about 16.0% to 25% by 2022.
  3. Create 1000 million additional jobs in the manufacturing sector by 2012.
  4. Create appropriate skills among the rural migrant and urban pour for their easy absorption.
  5. Increase domestic value addition and technological depth in manufacturing.
  6. Enchance global competitiveness of Indian manufacturing.

In India 60% of its population in the working age group. The manufacturing sector will have to create gainful employment opportunities for at least half this number.

Features:

  1. The State Government would be responsible for the selection of suitable land having an area of 50Q0 hectares in size.
  2. A Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) will be constituted to discharge the affairs of NIMZs
  3. The State Government would facilitate the provision of water, power connectivity and other infrastructure and utilities linkages.
  4. The Central Government will bear the cost of master planning.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 6.
Explain the disinvestment policy of India.
Answer:
The Government of India in July 1991 initiated the disinvestment progress in India. “In order to raise resources and encourage wide public participation, a part of the Government share holding in the public sector would be offered to mutual funds, financial institutions, general public and employees”. This is a process for disinvestment in the public enterprises.

Salient features of the disinvestment policy are :

  1. Citizens have every right to own part of the shares of public sector undertakings.
  2. Public sector undertakings are the wealth of the Nation and this wealth should rest in the hands of the people.
  3. While pursuing disinvestment, Government has to retain majority shareholding; i.e, at least 51 percent and management control of the public sector undertakings.

Development regarding Disinvestment:
On 5th November 2009, Government approved the following action plan for disinvestment in profit making Government companies.
i) Already listed profitable Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) (not meeting mandatory shareholding of 10 percent are to.be made compliant by offer for sale by Government (or) by the CPSEs through issue of fresh shares or a combination of both.

ii) Unlisted Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) with no accumulated losses and having earned net profit in three preceding consecuive years are to be listed.

iii) Follow on public offers would be considered taking into consideration the needs for capital investment of CPSE, on a case by case basis, and Government could simultaneously or independently offer a portion of its equity shareholding.

iv) In all cases of disinvestment, the Government would retain at least 51 percent equity and the managment control.

v) All cases of disinvestment are to be decided on a case by case basis.

Major disinvestment receipts, since 2004 – 05 have come from sale of equity shares of National of Thermal Power Corporation Limited. (NTPC) ? 2684.07 crore, Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) (Not a CPSU) ₹ 2277.62 crore, Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCI) ₹ 994.82 crore, Oil India limited ₹ 2247.05 crore NMDC limited ₹ 9930.40 crore, Coal India limited ₹ 15,199 crore and Power Finance Corporation (PFQ) ₹ 1144.55 crore upto 30-1-15, the Government of India got ₹ 1,79,625.25 crores through disinvestment process that should be utilized to provide social infrastructure and to undertake other development activities in the country.

Question 7.
Explain the role of foreign Direct Investment in economic development of India.
Answer:
Foreign direct investment is a major source of non financial resources for the economic development of India. Foreign companies invest in India to take advantage of cheaper wages, special investment privileges like tax exemptions etc. The Government has taken many initiatives in recent years such as relaxing FDI norms across sectors such as defense, PSU oil refineries, telecom, power exchange, stock exchange, Auto mobile industries etc.

According to a recent report by global credit rating agency Moody’s, FDI inflows have increased significantly in India in the current fiscal. Net FDI inflow to take of US $ 14.1 billion in the 1st five months of 2014 – 15. Total FDI inflows into India in the period April 2000 – November 2014 touched US $ 350,963 millions.

Government initiatives towards (FDIs): India’s cabinet has cleared a proposal which allows 100% FDI in railway, infrastructure, excluding operations. The Government has notified easier FDI rules for construction sector, where 100% overseas investment is permitted, which will allow overeas investors to exist a project even before its completion.

With the objective of encouraging foreign firms to transfer state of the art technology in defence production, the Government increase the FDI cap for the sector to 74% from 49% at present. The Union Cabinet has cleared a bill to raise the foreign investement ceiling in private insurance companies from 26% to 49%.

The RBI has allowed a number of foreign investors to invest on repatriation basis, in non – convertible preference shares or debentures which are issued by Indian companies. The RBI has established a frame work for investments, which allows foreign port folio investors to take part in open offers, buyback of securities and disinvestment of shares by Central or State Governments.

India will require around US $ 1 trillion in 12th Five Year Plan to fund infrastructure growth covering sectors such as highways, ports and airways. This requires support in terms of FDI. During the year 2013 FDI was dumped into the automobiles, computer software, hardware, power and telecommunications.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 8.
Critically examinethe role of Special Economic Zones in Indian economic development.
Anwer:
The Government of India announced Special Economic Zones policy in April 2000. This policy aims at rapid economic growth supported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the-Central and State level, with the minimum possible regulations. In India, while passing the SEZ Act in May 2005 and came into effect from February 2006, the following objectives were laid down.

  1. Generation of additional economic activity.
  2. Promotion of exports of goods and services.
  3. Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources.
  4. Creation of employment opportunities; and
  5. Development of infrastructure facilities.

Special Economic Zones in India : Upto 2013 number of formal approval Special Economic zones were 577. Number of SEZ notified and functioning are 389 and 170 respectively. The total units approved are 3589 and these units provide employment to 10,74,904 persons (as on March 31,2013). The Special Economic Zones exports are ₹ 4,76,159 crore during the year 2012 – 13. As per the provision of the SEZ Act 2005, 100% Foregin Direct Investment is allowed.

Government Incentives to Special Economic Zones: Government of India offers the following fiscal and incentive packages to Special Economic Zones.

  1. Exemption from custom duties, central excise duties, service tax, central sales tax and securities transactions tax to both the developers and the units.
  2. Tax holidays for 15 years i.e, 100 percent tax exemption for 5 years, 50 percent for the next 5 years and 50 percent of the ploughed back export profits for the next 5 years
  3. 100 percent income tax exemption for 10 years in a block period of 15 years for SEZ devleopers.
  4. Provision of standard factories at low rents with extended lease period.
  5. Provision of infrastructure and utilities.
  6. Single window clearance and simplified procedures.

Advantages of Special Economic Zones : Special Economic Zones are expected to give a big push to exports, employment and investment. In fact, the Government of India has been systematically projecting SEZs as “Carriers of Economic Properity”. The advantages of SEZs are as follows.

  1. Boost economic growth at an extremely fast rate.
  2. Usher in affluence in rural areas.
  3. Provide large number of jobs in manufacturing and other services.
  4. Attract global manufacturing and technological skills. ‘
  5. Bring in private and public sector investment from both home and abroad.
  6. Made Indian firms more competitive and
  7. Help to slow down rural – urban migration.

To conclude, it may be stated that the standing committee report on SEZ in June 2007 is a path breaking document which indicates the direction in which the country must move if it wants to pursue industrialization with a human face.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 9.
Mention the various causes for Industrial backwardness in India.
Answer:
India could not achieve the desired growth rate in the industrial sector even though it is rich in natural resources and has huge working population. Even after completion of eleven Five Year Plans, there is wide gap between targets fixed targets achieved. Rakesh Mohan opines that there is a gap of 20 percent on an average between the targets fixed and targets realized in each plan annually. The reasons for this are as follows.
Reasons for Industrial Backwardness in India
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector 1
1) Under – utilisation of productive capacities: Many of the industrial units failed to utilize the existing productive capacities fully. There are many reasons for this. Among them is raw material scarcity, low technical know-how etc. For example during 2005 – 2006, out of 203 public sector enterprises, the capacity utilization was below 50 percent by nearly 67 percent of the units.

2) Performance of public sector units: Prior to liberalization, there was a phenomenal growth of the public sector. Many of the public sector units were under losses. The number of loss making units decreased from 105 in 1999 – 00 to only 63 in 2011. However, the losses increased from ₹ 10,302 crores in 1999 – 00 to ₹ 27,602 crores in 2011-12.

3) Political factorsIn many situations, political factors influence decision about location of projects not considering feasibility. This approach leads to a considerable wastage of capital resources.

4) Infrastructural constraints: One of the major constraints in industrial development is poor quality and high cost of infrastructure particularly power and transport network. All such infrastructural constraints not only showed adverse effect on industrial growth but also reduced the competitiveness of Indian industries that were, fast emerging in the new global economic environment.

5) Gaps between targets and achievements : In the earlier period of planning achievements were below the targets. Rakesh Mohan has observed. “The average industrial growth rate achieved over thirty – five to forty years has been about 6.2 percent rate to the average of about 8 percent projected”.

6) Emergency challenges : As a founder member of the World Trade Orginization, India has withdrawn all quantitative restrictions on imports. This resulted into the closure of a nuclear of industrial units. Thus, the industrial sector facing so many problems.

Question 10.
What are the merits and demerits of small scale enterprises in Indian economy. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
The small scale and cottage industries play apvital role in the Indian economy. As ancillary industries, they are contributing to the growth of the agriculture and industrial sectors in a developing country like India.

The recommendations of Abid Hussian Committee, the Government raised the investment limit on plant and machinery for small units and ancillaries to 3 crores and that for tiny units to ₹ 25 lakhs.
Merits:

  1. Expansion of small scale industrial sector and its share in industrial production: The rapid growth of small scale units from 2006 – 07 onwards contributing much to India’s gross domestic product.
  2. Employment opportunities : The small industries are labour intensive they could generate employment opportunities to the tune of 191.4 lakh persons in 1994 – 95, 249.3 lakh persons in 2001 – 02 and it increased to 1012.6 lakh persons in 2011 – 12.
  3. Capital formation: The spreading of industry over the country side would encourage the habits of thrift and investment in the rural areas.
  4. Low capital: The small scale units are best suited to the developing countries like India, which are labour intensive and capital scarce economics. It does not require much capital for the establishment Of these units.
  5. Skill formation : A small scale enterprise does not require any sophisticate skill. But it provide, industrial experience for large number of small scale managers.
  6. Low import intensity: Low import intensity in the capital structure of small scale .enterprises reduces the need for foreign capital.
  7. Decentralized industrial development : Development of small scale industries will bring about decentralization of industries. It will promote the object of balanced regional development.
  8. Equitable distribution : The profits earned by small scale enterprises distributed among large number of enterpreneurs leads to decentralization of income and wealth.
  9. Exports : The contribution of small scale enterprises to earn foreign exchange is very high. The share of exports from the small scale sector represents about 31.1% of total exports in 2006 – 07.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Demerits:

  1. Inefficent human factor: Most of the rural people are illiterates and lack technical know-how in the areas of production, finance, accounting and marketing management.
  2. Lack of credit facilities : The small industrialists are generally poor and there are no facilities of cheap credit either. Thus, they are caught up in the vicious circle of debt trap.
  3. Problem of raw materials : The quantity, quality and regularity of the supply of raw materials are all highly unsatisfactory. According to an estimate, about 40 percent of such units have become sick owing to non – availability of raw materials regularly.
  4. Absence of organized marketing: Since marketing is not properly organized, the helpless artisans are completly at the mercy of middlemen. The small scale units cannot afford to spend lavishly on advertisement to promote their sales.
  5. Lack of machinery and equipment: Small scale untis are facing inadequate modem machines and equipment. This leads to low productivity in small scale units.
  6. Power shortage : In recent years power shortage and frequent power cuts played havoc with small scale industries. More hours of power cut are there in rural areas which affect the growth of small scale units.
  7. Lack of technological up – gradation : It is found that the levels of productivity and technology used by the small scale sector are not globally competitive. Without technological upgradation these units may not serve in a globally integrated economy.
  8. Heavy taxation : Cottage and small scale industries have also to bear a heavy burden of taxation both on raw materials and also on finished goods.

Question 11.
Briefly explain the Indian industrial growth rate during the Five Year Plans.
Answer:
The industrial pattern in India has undergone a marked change as a result of Five Year Pains, especially since the beginning of the Second Five Year Plan (1956 – 61). The number of bigger industrial establishments has multiplied and the proportion of producer goods in the composition of manufacturers has registered a striking is increase. Heavy and basic industries have come to occupy an important place in the industrial structure of India.

I. First Plan (1951 – 56): Owing to the small size of the First Plan, insufficiency of funds and greater urgency or agricultural development, the First Plan did not make any big provision for industrial development. The overall industrial production increased by 39 percent i.e about 8 percent per year.

II. Second Plan (1956 – 61) : The actual investment in the public sector on organized industry was ₹870 crores in the second plan. In comprised 27 percent in the Second Five Year Plan’s total outlay.

III. Third Plan (1961 – 66) : The overall financial outlay in industrial sector during the Thrid Plan was ₹ 3,000 crores, out of which the outlay in the public sector was about 1,700 crores and the private sector was ₹ 1,300 crores. An overall target of 7 per cent increase in industrial production was envisaged in the plan.

IV. Fourth Plan (1969 – 74): During the Fourth Plan on the actual out lay organized industry was ₹ 2,700 crores in the public sector. The private sector investment was around ₹ 2,250 crores. The actual performance during the Fourth Plan in the industrial sector was very disappointing. Its average annual growth rate was hardly 5 per cent as against the plan target of 8 per cent.

V. Fifth Plan (1974 – 79) : The Fifth Plan assigned a very important place to the development of industries with a view to achieving self – reliance and social justice. The public sector outlay on industrial development was around ₹ 9,700 crores. The average rate of industrial growth during the plan was targeted at 8.1 per cent per annum.

VI. Sixth Plan (1980 – 85): The public sector outlay of ₹ 23,000 crores was envisaged during the Sixth Plan period, during the sixth plan reveals that a growth rate of 5.45 percent as against 7 percent was achieved.

VII. Seventh Plan (1985 – 90) : The total investment in the industrial sector was ₹ 22,460 crores or 12.5 percent of the total plan outlay. The Seventh Plan achieved the targeted industrial growth rate of 8.5 per cent. It has been made possible because of adequate infrastructure and liberalization policy of the Government.

VIII. Eighth Plan (1992 – 97) : The Eighth Plan was formulated under a new environment when a number of reforms in industrial, fiscal, trade and foreign investment policies were introduced in the economy.

IX. Ninth Plan (1997 – 2002) : Ninth Plan allocated ₹ 69,972 crores for industry at 1996 – 97 prices. Ninth plan targeted a growth rate of 8% for industry. But it achieved only 5%.

X. Tenth Plan (2002 – 07): In the Tenth Plan public sector outlay was ₹ 44,695 crores at 2001 – 02 prices. Industrial performance in the Tenth plan period improved to 8.9% from very low level of growth rate of 4.3% in ninth plan.

XII. Eleventh Plan (2007 – 12): The total outlay in the Eleventh Plan is estimated at ₹ 36,44,718 crores. During this plan, the targeted growth rate is 10 – 11%. The target rate of growth achived more or less in case of industry.

XII. Twelfth Plan (2012 – 2017) : Twelfth Plan envisages an investment of 50 lakh crores in 5 years. The private sector is expected to provide 25 lakh crores. To achieve industrial growth rate to the tune of 9.5% it would require much faster growth in the manufacturing as well as in electricity, gas and water supply sectors.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 12.
Discuss major sources of Industrial Finance in India.
Answer:
Industry needs capital expenditure for the purchase of land, construction of building, installation of machinery etc. Besides this, funds are also required for the purchase of raw materials, for stores, for marketing and for meeting day – to – day requirements of the industry.

The following are the main sources from which the Indian Industry draws finance:
a) Shares
b) Debentures
c) Public deposits
d) Commercial banks
e) Industrial financial institutions

Rapid industrialization needs adequate medium and long term loans. Industrilalization requires lot of funds to start up new units and to modernize existing units. Some of the industrial financial institutions are:
a) Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI)
b) State Financial Corporations (SFC’s)
c) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI).
d) The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)
e) Small Industries Devlopment Bank of India (SIDBI)
f) Industrial Investment Bank of India (IIB1)
g) Venture Capital Funds (VCF)
h) UC and GIC.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Industrial Finance Corporation of India.
Answer:
The Government of India set up the Industrial Finance Corporation of India in July 1948 under a special Act. The corporation was authorized to issue bonds and debentures in the open market, accept deposits from the public and also borrow from the R.B.I.

Functions:

  1. It guaranteed loans raised by the industrial concerns in the capital market.
  2. It granted loans and advances to industrial concerns and subscribed to the debentures floated by them.
  3. If under wrote the issues of stocks, shares, bonds and debentures of industrial concerns. The loans sanctioned by IFCI increased from ₹ 210 crores in 1980 – 81 to ₹ 1,860 crores in 2000 – 01.

Question 2.
Industrial credit and Investment corporation of India.
Answer:
It played a role in consolidation in various sectors of the Indian Industry, by financing, mergers and acquisitions. The ICICI, groups financing and banking operations both wholesale and retail.

Functions :

  1. Guaranteed loans from other private Government source.
  2. Provided financial services such as deffered credit, leasing credit, installment sale, asset, credit and venture capital.
  3. It offered long term and medium – term loans, both indian currency arid foreign currency loan.
  4. Participated in equity capital and in debentures and under wrote new issues of shares and debentures.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 3.
Industrial Estates.
Answer:
Industrial estates are very useful in the development of small scale industries. An industrial estates refers to an area in which a number of small industries are concentrated. As a number of manufacturing units are located with in the same area, they can have common advantages like good site, electricity, water, communication etc. The production costs of the industrial units decrease as they get all facilities at one place for lesser cost.

Advantages:

  1. It providing and opportunity both rural and semi-urban areas to develop industrially.
  2. Giving scope to use the available local resources.
  3. More scope for regional development.
  4. It makes possible for small industrial units to realise the benefits of economics of scale.
  5. They can become the best ancillary units, when they are situated nearby the large scale industries.
  6. The small scale industrial units can make their production profitable by using the available facilities at one place for a lower cost.

Question 4.
Special Economic zones.
Answer:
Special Economic Zones policy was announced by Government of India in April 2000. This policy aims at rapid economic growth by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package, both at the Central and State level. In India, while passing the SEZ Act in May 2005. It came into effect from February 2006.

Objectives:

  1. Development of infrastructure facilities.
  2. Generation of additional economic activity.
  3. Promotion of exports of goods and services.
  4. Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources.
  5. Creation of employment opportunities etc.

Question 5.
Explain the need of Foreign Direct Investment in India.
Answer:
Foreign Direct Investment is a major source of non – debt financial resource for the economic development of India. Foreign companies invest in India to take advantage of cheaperwages, special investment privileges like tax exemption.

  1. Encouraging foreign firms to transfer state – of – the art technology in defence production.
  2. For a country where foreign investments are being made, it also achieving technical know-how and generation of employment.
  3. The continuous inflow of FDI in India, which is allowed across several industries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 6.
National Investment Fund.
Answer:
The Government of India constituted the National Investment Rind (NIF) on 3rd November, 2005. The amount received in the form of Disinvestment will go into the National Investment Rind. The fund was to be maintained outside the consolidated fund of India. The NIF was initialized with the disinvestment proceeds of two CPSE. 1. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) and Rural Electrification Corporation (REQ amounting to ₹ 1814.45.
Features:

  1. The corpus of the National Investment Rind will be of a permanent nature.
  2. The proceeds from disinvestment of CPSEs will be channelized into the national investment fund, which is to be maintained outside the consolidated fund of India.
  3. The Rind will be professionally managed to provide sustainable returns to the Government.
  4. 75% of annual income of the fund will be used to finance selected social sector schemes, which promote education, health and employment. Ex: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) etc.

Question 7.
Objectives of National Manufacturing Policy. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Government of India brings back industrial policy into focus in the form of National manufacturing policy on November 4th 2011.

Objects:

  1. Increase manufacturing sector growth to 12-14% over the medium term.
  2. Create 100 million additional jobs in the manufacturing sector by 2012.
  3. Increase the share of. manufacturing in gross domestic product from 16% to 25% by 2022.
  4. Create appropriate skills among the rural and urban migrant.
  5. Increase domestic value addition and technological depth in manufacturing.
  6. Enhance global competitiveness of Indian manufacturing.

Question 8.
National Investment and Manufacturing Zones.
Answer:

  1. The State Government would be responsible for the selection of suitable land having an area of 5000 hectares in size.
  2. NIMZ’s will be utilised for location of manufacturing units at least 30% of total area proposed.
  3. The State Government would facilitate the provision of water power, connectivity and other infrastructure.
  4. The Central Government will provide financial support in the form of viability gap finding not exceeding J20% of project costs.
  5. The Central Government will bear the cost of master planning and will improve physicial infrastructures like rail, road, airports and telecommunications.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 9.
Write briefly about MSMEs.
Answer:
On October 2, 2006, “Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act” came into force’ MSMEs sector in India constitutes enterprises with investment in plant and machinery less than 10 crore in manufacturing and less than 5 crore in case of service sector. In India MSMEs play a vital role in the industrial economy of the country. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential of low capital cost.

Question 10.
The Industrial Investment Bank of India. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
To provide financial, technical and managerial assistance to sick units, Industrial Reconstruction Corporation of India was set up in 1971. The Government of India converted I the IRCI into Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI) on March 20,1985. IRBI was reconstituted into full-fledged new financial institution called Industrial Investment Bank ; of India (TIBI) in March 1997.

The financial assistance sanctioned by IIBI in 2003 – 04 was ₹ 2,412 crore while assistance disbursed was ₹ 2,252 crore. As the IIBI was suffering operating losses and also poor financial position. IIBI is in the process of voluntary winding up.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
SIDBI. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Small Industries Development Bank of India with a view to ensure largest flow of financial and non financial assistance to the small scale and cottage industries. The SIDBI Act was passed by the parliment in 1989 and the bank commenced its operation from April 2nd 1990.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 2.
IDBI.
Answer:
The Industrial Development Bank of India. The IDBI was set up 1st 1964. The IDBI was initially set up as a wholly owned subsidiary of the R.B.I. In February 16, 1976 the IDBI was made an autonomous’ institution and its ownership passed on from the RBI to the Government of India.

Question 3.
State Finance Corporations.
Answer:
The SFC was set up to offer financial assistance to only large and medium sized undertakings. Therefore the need for separate level development banks which could cater to financial needs of small and medium sized industrial concerns was rightly felt. The 1st SFC setup in punjab in 1953. At present there are 18 SFCs in the country.

Question 4.
Disinvestment.
Answer:
The Government of India in July 1991 initiated the disinvestment process in India. The new industrial policy provides that in order to raise resources and encourage wide public participation, apart of the government share, holding in the public sector would be offered to mutual funds financial institutions, general public and employees.

Question 5.
MRTPAct.
Answer:
Monoploy Restrictive Trade Pratices Act. The Act will concentrate more on controlling unfair or restrictive trade practices.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 6.
Special Economic Zones. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
The Government of India announced Special Economic Zones policy in April 2000. This policy objective is at rapid economic growth supported by quality infrastructure complemented by an attractive fiscal package both at central and state level with minimum possible regulations. This act came into effect from February 2006.

Question 7.
Foreign Direct Investment.
Answer:
Foreign Direct Investment is a major source of non – debt financial resource for the economic development of India. Foreign companies invest in India to take advantage of cheaper wages, special investment privilages like tax exemptions etc.

Question 8.
Industrial Estates.
Answer:
It was established in the year 1955 by small scale industries board for the development of small scale industries. An industrial estate is a group of small scale units constructed on an economic scale in suitable sizes with facilities of water transport, electricity, banks and is provided with special arrangements for technical guidance and common service facilities.

Question 9.
MSMEs.
Answer:
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. MSME sector in India constitutes enterprises with investment in plant and machinery less than 10 crore in manufacturing and less than 5 crore in case of service sector. The labour intensity of the MSME sector is much higher than that of the large enterprises.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 5 Industrial Sector

Question 10.
ICICI.
Answer:
Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation India.
It was set up in January 1955 and it commenced business in March of the same year. It was second all India development financial institution to be established in the country. It was a private sector development financial institution.

Question 11.
IFCI.
Answer:
Industrial Finance Corporation of India. It was set yp in July 1948, under a special Act. It was set up to provide medium and long term credit to industry to start new industries, expansion of old industries and for modernisation.

Question 12.
Globalization.
Answer:
It is the process of integrating various economies of the world without creating and hindrances the free flow of goods and services, technology, capital even labour or human capital.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 4th Lesson Agriculture Sector Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 4th Lesson Agriculture Sector

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the importance of agriculture sector in the Indian Economy.
Answer:
Agriculture plays a vital role in Indian economy and is the backbone of Indian Economy. It provides employment to around 55 percent of the total work force in the country. It provides raw materials for industries and market for industrial goods. It is the supplier of food for 121 crore people. India is the land of producing multiple goods (crops). In our country agriculture is not only an important occupation of people but also a way of life culture and customs.

Importance:
1) Share of Agriculture in the National Income: Agriculture sector, including forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying and allied activities like animal husbandry, horticulture, silk industry etc.’, is significantly contributing to the Gross Domestic Product in India.

The share of agriculture in National Income has been disclining gradually from 1950-51. This is mainly due to the development of non-agriculture sectors during the five years plans in the economy. The share of agriculture in national income declined gradually from 56.5 percent in 1950 – 51 to 13.9 percent by 2013 -14. The share of agriculture in national income in U.K. and U.S.A is 2 to 3 percent. The proportion is about 7 percent in France and 6 percent in Australia.

2) Employment Providing Sector: Agriculture dominates the economy to such an extent that a very high proportion of working population in India is engaged in agriculture.

Agriculture provided employment to 98 million peoples in 1951. Thenumber of people working on lands both the cultivators and agricultural laborers increased to’234 million in 2011.

In case of developed countries the population engaged in agriculture is very much less. Ex: In USA and UK only 2 percent, in Japan and France 4 percent.

3) Importance in International Trade: For a long time three agricultural based exports of India like cotton textiles, Jute and tea accounted more than 50 percent. If we add other agricultural commodities the share of agriculture in exports will rise to 70 to 75 percent.

At present we are exporting Sugar, Cotton, Tobacco, Rice, Cashew nuts, Spices, Oilcakes, Coffee, Tea, Fish, Meat, Fruits, Pulses etc., to foreign countries. By exporting all these products we are earning foreign exchange.

4) Effective Social Safety Net: Though agriculture presently contributes less than 15 percent of Indians GDP yet it continues to employ more than half of the work force. If crops, animal husbandry, fisheries, agro-forestry, silk industry and horticulture are developed at household level, hunger and poverty will be alleviated. Green Revolution, along with White Revolution and Blue Revolution, provides income and employment to the rural poor by eradicating poverty. Thus, agriculture acts as an effective social safety net.

5) Food Supplier of the Expanding Population: The Hunger Index shows that India’s rank is 55 out of 76 countries. According to FAO, India is a hunger affected country. Because of the heavy pressure of population the existing levels of food consumption in our country are very low. The per capita availability of food grains was 510.1 grams per day in 1991. But it has declined to 468.9 grams in 2013. Therefore, unless agriculture is able to increase continuously its marketed surplus of food grains a crisis will emerge.

6) Role of agriculture in Industrialization : Industries which depend on agriculture products for their raw material are called agro-based industry. Industries like Cotton, Jute, Textile, Sugar, Flour mills, Edible oil etc., directly depend on agriculture for raw material. Some other industries like handloom weaving, rice husking, food processing, oil crushing, horticulture etc., are depend on agriculture. The development of agriculture sector will expand .the demand for industrial goods. Thus the development of industrial sector facilities the development of agriculture sector by supplying inputs like machines, fertilizers, pesticides etc.

7) Market for Industrial Products: Two thirds of the populations of developing country like India lives in rural areas. The purchasing power of these people in rural areas is too low to purchase industrial products. If steps are taken to increase agriculture produce and productivity, the income of the rural sector will increase. As a result of increase in income of those who depend on agriculture in rural areas causes demand for industrial goods. The increased demand for industrial goods leads to the development of industrial sector.

8) Other Factors:
a) The development of agriculture sector directly promotes growth in transport sector.
b) Development of agriculture sector invites expansion of branches of banks into rural areas.
c) Agriculture development minimizes migration from rural to urban.
d) Farm tourism in rural areas can be developed through the development of agriculture.
e) Agriculture and its allied sectors play a key role in protecting biodiversity.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 2.
Explain the present conditions of agricultural labour and suggest the measures to improve the conditions of agricultural labour.
Answer:
The number of people living in agriculture sector in developing country like India is very high. Unfortunately agriculture labour belong to economically depressed and socially backward sectors of rural economy.
The people who work on agriculture sector for their survival can be treated as agricultural labour.

Conditions of Agricultural Labourers :
1) Low Social Status: Most of the agricultural labourers are belonged to the depressed classes. They have been neglected for ages. In case of such farm labourers, exploitation has become common and they have not fought for their rights.

2) Unorganised : Agricultural labourers are living in scattered villages. Moreover, they are illiterates. Hence, they cannot easily to be organized. As a results it is difficult for farm labourers to bargain with the land owners for good wages.

3) Seasonal Employment : Agricultural labourers have to face the problems of unemployment and underemployment. They are employed while sowing and harvesting season, of the year they remain unemployed.

4) Low Wages and Income : Agricultural wages and family incomes of agricultural labourer are very low. The wages of farm labourers vary from state to state. In case of attached labourers these wages are pathetic. However, as prices also increased considerably, the real wages rates did not increase much.

5) Rural Indebtedness : Because of the low level of income agricultural labour generally seek debts. In fact the debt of agricultural labourers passes from generation to generation and become bonded labour.

6) Femanisation of Agricultural labour : Female agricultural workers are generally forced to work harder. They are paid less wages comparatively to male workers.

7) High Incidence of Child labour: It is estimated that one-third of child labourers in Asia are in India. The largest number of child workers are engaged in agriculture. Wages paid to child labourers are too low which adversely affect the incomes of their households.

8) Lack of subsidaty professions : Another serious problem that is being faced by farm labourers is lack of non-agricultural occupations in the villages. As there is no work on the fields, agricultural labour has no other means to earn for subsistence. Thus, they are disguised and are burden on land.

Measures to Improves the Conditions of Agricultural Labour:
1) Minimum Wages Act: It was passed in 1948. According to this act every State Government was asked to fix minimum wages for agricultural labour within three years. According to this law while fixing the minimum wages, the total costs and standards of living in various states of the country or in different parts within the states are to be kept in view.

2) Providing Land to Landless Labourers : The Government has distributed land to landless labourers with a view to improve their economic position. The surplus land obtained by enforcing Land Ceiling Acts and those donated in Bhoodan and Gramdan were distributed among the landless labourers.

3) Provision of House sites and Houses: Mostly, agriculture labourers do not possess their own houses. Governments have taken several steps during the plans periods to provide free house live “Indira Avasa Yojana (IAY)”, “Minimum Needs Programme (MNP)” etc.

4) Organization of Labour co-operation : During the second five year plan efforts were made for the formation of labour co-operatives. They provide employment to farm labourers and also eliminate the exploitation.

5) Special schemes for Providing Employment: A number of schemes have been initiated in planning period to provide employment to agricultural workers. Some important schemes are Rural Works Programme (RWP), Crash Scheme for Rural Employment (CSRE), Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS), Food for work Programme (FWP) etc.

6) Sanction of Loans and Subsidies: Loans should be provided to the farm labourers at low rate of interest in order to start their own business. Sometimes Governments resorts debt moratorium for immediate relief of debts of agricultural labour and marginal farmers.

7) Abloition of Bonded Labour: Both exploitation and slavery are inhuman activities and punishable offences. The Government of India passed a legislation known as the Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 1976.

8) Development of Cottage Industries: In order to minimize the pressure of population on land and to improve the economic conditions of farm labour, the Government has been making efforts to start the cottage and smalLscale industries in the rural areas of the country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 3.
What are the factors affecting cropping pattern in India ?. Suggest the measures to correct the cropping pattern.
Answer:
The economic development of any nation depends on the utilization pattern of natural resources like land, water, the fertility of soil, irrigation facilities etc. The cropping pattern determines the development of a country.

Factors affecting cropping pattern in India : The cropping pattern in India can be affected by various factors like physical, economical, technical and Government policies.
I. Physical Factors : Physical factors play a vital role in determining the cropping pattern. These factors are classified below.
1) Climate and Rain fall: Climatic conditions and rainfall determine cropping pattern. Some crops require cool climate while some other crops require hot climate. For instance, apples will be produced in cool climate. For instance, crops like Paddy, Sugarcane require abundance of water.

2) Nature of Soil and Fertility: Nature of soil and fertility determine the production of certain crops. For instance, wheat requires well drained silt and fertile loam soils but for cotton black soils are ideal.

3) Irrigation facility: It also determine the cropping pattern. For instance crops like Paddy, Sugarcane, Wheat etc., require assured irrigation facility. Some other crops like Jowar, Maize, Ragi etc., will grow in the areas where irrigation facilities are insufficient.

II. Economic Factors:
1) Price and Incphie Maximization: Generally, farmers try to maximize their income. Consequently, they produce those crops whose market prices are high. As a result of fixed procurement prices of wheat and rice and other Government controls, the farmers are induced to shift to cash crops like’sugarance and cotton etc., Proff. M. L. Dantwala opined that the area under commercial crops is increasing in India as the farmers fetching higher returns.

2) Farm Size: There is a relationship between farm size and cropping pattern. At first the farmers are interested in producing food grains for their requirements but large farmers are used to produce both food grains and commercial crops.

3) Available of Inputs : The availability of agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides machines etc., affect the cropping pattern in our country. Infrastructural facilities such as transport, storage, marketing, water storage etc., influence the cropping pattern significantly.

4) Insurance Against Risk: Generally, the farmers resort diversified cropping pattern to minimize the risk of crop failure. If Government introduces crop insurance whichprotects the farmers against all risks in farming, the farmers will farm those insurable crops. Thus, insurance affects cropping pattern.

5) Tenancy System: Existing tenancy system in India influences the cropping pattern. Generally, the Landlord decides the cropping pattern to ensure maximum profit before he leases out his land.

6) Social Factors : Social Environment, customs, traditions etc., also influence crop pattern to some extent. These factors induce farmers to cultivate traditional crops by using traditional varieties of seeds and methods.

III. Government Policies : Policies of Government relating to different crops, exports, taxes, subsidies, supply of inputs, available of credit, fixing support prices etc., can affect the cropping pattern in a significant manner.

Measures to correct the cropping pattern: Among all economists there is a common opinion that the cropping pattern in India is not suitable to satisfy the requirements of growing population. In order to maintain an optimum cropping pattern. “The National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) has made the following suggestions for better cropping pattern in India.

  1. Government should enact some legislation fixing the production of certain crops in certain suitable regions.
  2. Government should appoint officials at local level to encourage fanners to produce more of food grains to meet the requirements of the growing population.
  3. Government should encourage mechanization in agriculture sector by supplying required machines at a cheaper rate.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 4.
What are the causes for low productivity in agriculture in India ? Suggest some measures to improve it. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Agriculture plays a predominant role in Indian economy. The productivity in Indian Agriculture is too low when we compared to the agricultural productivity of other countries in the world.

The causes for low level of agriculture productivity in India are manifold. They can be grouped into four broad categories.

  1. General causes
  2. Institutional causes
  3. Technical causes
  4. Environmental causes

1) General causes:
i) Pressure of Population on Agriculture : Pressure of population on agriculture is heavy as a result of high growth rate of population and slow growth rate of other sectors of the economy. In 2011, about 263 million workers out of 348 million rural working populations are employed in agriculture. Increasing pressure of population on agriculture results, in the subdivisions and fragmentation of holding. Consequently, the productivity in agriculture sector remains low in India.

ii) Social Environment: The social environment of villages is an obstacle in agricultural development. The farmers in rural are illiterate, superstitious, conservative and unresponsive to new agriculture techniques. The decline of joint family system and land hunger are also discouraging the rural atmosphere. Peasants are not able to take proper care of their agriculture. Unless this atmosphere is changed, it is too difficult to enhance the productivity of agriculture.

iii) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities: Infrastructural facilities like transport, storage, credit and marketing are inadequate in rural areas to the growing population, due to lack of these adequate infrastructure facilities, the agricultural productivity in rural areas is very low.

iv) Impact of the British Regime : During British rule in India, they have not shown any interest in developing agriculture sector but made our economy as colonial one. Moreover, their policies like land tenure system, collection of land cess gave a deadly blow to the Indian agriculture.

2) Institutional causes:
i) Uneconomic Land Holding: According to the National Sample Survey, 52 percent land holdings had a size of less than 2 hectares in 1961 – 62. In 2010 -11,85 percent of total land holdings are less than 2 hectares. As a result of laws of inheritance and other reasons there is a further divisions and fragmentation of land holdings. Hence, these small holdings are adversely affecting productivity of agriculture.

ii) Defects in Land Tenancy System : The Indian agriculture system was adversely affected before Independence because of defectives in Zamindari, Jagirdari, Mahalvari systems which exploited the farmers. In this system lack of certainty in rent, security of tenure and ownership right the tenants don’t show any attention to develop agriculture. Hence, India has become less productivity.

iii) Lack of credit and marketing facilities : The cultivators are not able to invest requisite sources in agriculture due to lack of marketing facilities and required credit at fair rate of interest. Even support price policy and subsidies to inputs of agriculture fired by the Government are unsatisfactory. Hence, peasants follow traditional methods which results in low productivity.

3) Technical causes:
i) Outmoded Agricultural Techniques : T. W Schultz of famous economist opined that the peasants in India are still using traditional or outmoded techniques. Indian farmers are still using wooden ploughs, bullock carts, sickles etc. Use of fertilizers and new high yielding varieties of seeds is also extremely limited. Hence, the productivity in agriculture is low.

ii) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities : Gross cropped area in India in 2010 – 11 was 198.97 million hectares but only 89.36 million hectares of land had irrigation facilities. It implies that 55 percent of the gross cropped area continues to depend on rains. Rainfall is often insufficient, uncertain and irregular. In such atmosphere it is difficult to extend the new agricultural technology all over the country.

iii) Scarcity of Agricultural Inputs : The supply of modem agricultural inputs like fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid seeds, farm machinery etc., are inadequate to meet the requirements of our country. In order to achieve high production in agriculture requisite supply of inputs is essential.

4) Environmental causes : Environment also plays a vital role in affecting the productivity of agriculture, increase in the temperature. Degradation of soil, changes in temperature, pollution of water and air etc., adversely affect the productivity of agriculture are

  1. Global warming.
  2. Soil Degradation.
  3. The intensive cultivation of high yielding variety crops.
  4. The reckless use of fertilizers.
  5. Shifting cultivation.
  6. Displacement of the traditional practices of crops.

Measures to increase agricultural productivity in India :

  1. The proportion of people depending upon agriculture must decrease. Development of non- farm activities in rural areas go a long way for decreasing the dependency load in agriculture.
  2. A favourable support price policy leads to increased yield levels in agriculture.
  3. Agriculture, like industry must be protected for favourable terms of trade.
  4. Public investment in agriculture must increase.
  5. Timely and adequate institutional credit automatically enhances the access to vital inputs in agriculture.
  6. Strict implementation of land reforms is necessary. Land reforms remove the structural dificiencies in agriculture.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 5.
Explain various sources of Irrigation and its importance.
Answer:
The sources of irrigation in India are mainly classified into four. They are :

  1. Canal Irrigation,
  2. Well Irrigation,
  3. Tank Irrigation and
  4. Other Sources.

1) Canal Irrigation : Canals are considered to be the important source of irrigation. Though construction and maintenance of canals are highly expensive, they can irrigate a wide extent of cultivated area. Canal irrigation is more prevalent in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Canals are classified into two types. They are :
A) Perennial Canals
B) Inundation Canals

2) Well Irrigation : Wells are important and dependable source of irrigation. Wells are classified into common wells and tube wells. These common wells irrigate less area comparatively with tube wells. Well irrigation is more prevalent in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat and Bihar. The area irrigated under tube wells is more in Uttar Pradesh.

3) Tank Irrigation : Tanks form another sources of irrigation. Tank irrigation is common in those areas where canal and well irrigation is not possible. Tank irrigation is popular in Southern States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

Importance of Irrigation:
1) Insufficient, uncertain and irregular rains : The period of rainfall is restricted to only four months during monsoons. Even during monsoons the rainfall is scanty. Sometimes monsoons are delayed while some other times they are prematured. This type of atmosphere results in drought conditions. Hence, with the help of proper development of irrigation, droughts and famines can be effectively controlled.

2) Higher productivity on irrigated land : Irrigation helps greatly in raising the productivity of land than unirrigated land. Because this enables the application of modem inputs like fertilizers, high yielding varieties of seeds etc.

3) Multiple cropping possible: India is a land of tropical and sub-tropical climate. It has potentialities to grow crops throughout the year but rainfall is restricted to less than four months. Provision of irrigation facilities can make possible the growing of multiple crops throughout the year.

4) Crucial role in new agricultural strategy: The successful implementation of high yielding varieties programmed depends on timely and adequate supply of water. These seeds require chemical fertilizers and substantial water at regular intervals of time. Therefore, irrigation facilities facilitates the expansion of new agricultural strategy to larger areas of land.

5) Bringing more land under cultivation: The total reporting area according to land utilization statistics was 305.56 million hectares in 2009-10. Thus, some portion of the waste land can be brought under cultivation if there is availability of irrigation facilities.

6) Prosperity : Irrigation helps in stabilizing the output and yield level. Irrigation plays.a protective role during drought years. Thus, irrigation facilities prevent fall in output during drought and achieve stability in income and output which in turn result prosperity.

7) Indirect benefits of Irrigation: Expansion of irrigation facilities all over the country avoid disparities in the production of food grains. Irrigation promotes the growth of agriculture and allied sectors. Thus, increased production in agriculture stabilizes the prices of agricultural products.

Question 6.
What are the causes for small size.of land holdings in India ? Mention the problems of small holdings.
Answer:
Small size land holdings adversely affect the productivity of agriculture. The following are the causes for low productivity in agriculture.
1) The law of inheritance : The system of inheritance’is causing for division and fragmentation of land holdings. According to the law of inheritance children have an equal share in father’s property. Both the sons and daughters have equal share in father’s property either in Hindu Law or in Mohammedan Law. Consequently the division and fragmentation of land holdings are taken place.

2) Pressure of population: The population of India is growing at a faster rate of 1.64 percent per annum. While land under agriculture has increased only marginally. Because of th6 unsatisfactory expansion of the non-agricultural sector and its inability to absorb the growing population led to subdivision of land holdings.

3) Decline of joint family system : All the family members live together under the joint family system and this kept the land holding intact. As a result, subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings are taken place.

4) Farmers indebtedness: Most of the farmers in India are neck – deep in indebtedness. Frequently they are forced to sell off parts of their land to pay off the debts. It is observed that many money lenders in villages adopt unfair methods of fending and trap the illiterate peasants with a view keeping m mind to grab their lands. Thus the land continues to get subdivided and fragmented.

5) Land hunger In India of rural area are fond of land because of psychological, sentimental, social and economical attachments to land. Generally people in rural areas feel having l^nd as a matter of prestige and social symbol. This sort of attachment with land is called “Land Hunger”. Because of this land hunger peasants are reluctant to leave their land even though it is uneconomical.

6) The decline of handicrafts : Decline of village handicrafts is an another important historical factor for the small sized holdings in our country. Those handicrafts had provided employment and a source of livelihood to the artisans. As a result of competition from machine made goods these artisans left their ancestral occupations and they were forced to depend on agriculture. Hence, this further increased subdivision and fragmentation.

Problems of fragmentation of Land holdings : Small and fragmented land holdings impede agricultural progress. The following are the main disadvantages of subdivision and fragmentation.
1) Wastage of land : Because of subdivision and fragmentation, the size of plots becomes so small. In Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra land holdings were often as small as 0.006 acres. It is not possible to cultivate on them. In addition to such wastage, another 3 to 5 percent of land is wasted in drawing boundaries, hedges, pathways etc.

2) Supervisory problems: In general, agricultural activities are seasonal in nature. It is too difficult to supervise simultaneously the agricultural activities on scattered land holdings in various parts of the village. Hence, the productive efficiency will decline and the productivity will also be affected adversely.

3) Difficulties in modernisation : Small size land holdings are not suitable for mechanization. The small peasants are not able to invest on costly equipments like tractors, electric motors, sprayers, drillers, harvesting machines etc. There is no possibility to implant new technology to improve agricultural productivity in small holdings.

4) Disputes over boundaries : Disputes over boundaries, hedges, pathways, theft of crops, grazing by animals belonging to other villages etc., are very common in villages. These litigations lead to court causing wastage of valuable time and money. All these incidents disturb the rural atmosphere.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 7.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of co-operative farming.
Answer:
Meaning of Co-operative Fanning: Co-operative farming indicates that all farmers of a village from themselves voluntarily a society. After forming the society entire land holdings of the farmers will be pooled into one unit. Later they will handover their land, cattle, implements etc., to the society. The co-operative society will cultivate all these holdings as one farm.

Advantages:
1) Increase in Production: Co-operative farming will bring more land into cultivation either consolidation of land holdings or bring into use waste land. Consequently, both the production and marketable surplus will increases.

2) Large Scale Economies: Large scale economies will occur in co-operative fanning such as technical, marketing, financial economies etc., As a result, the cost of production will decrease and the returns will be maximized.

3) Land Development Activities: Land development activities, like land conservation, land reclamation, construction of water sheds etc., can easily be made by co-operative farming societies. These activities will improve the production of agriculture.

4) New Farm Technology : Co-operative farming enables the farmers to adopt new technical implements in cultivation. New agricultural practices can be made in the farm sector. This results in agriculture development.

5) Effective Farm Management : Co-operative farm societies can easily ensure effective farm management by appointing experts in agriculture science. It is possible to implement division of labour and specialization in farm activities.

6) Higher Demand for Labour: The demand for labour increases because of intensive and extensive cultivation in farm sector. As a result, seasonal and disguised unemployment can be evicted from farm sector.

7) Social Equality: Co-operative farming inculcates the spirit of co-operation among the members of the society. Such a spirit of co-operation results in confidence, collective action, joint thinking and feeling of fraternity among the members of the society.

Problems of co-operative Farming:
1) Opposition from Farmers : The farmers feared that they may lose their right of ownership of the land and their position will decline to the level of agricultural labour. Hence, peasants reluctant to join in co-operative farming.

2) Management problems : Generally, Indian farmers are used to operate the small land holdings but it is difficult to them to operate the large size holdings effectively. Due to lack of efficient managerial persons in villages the co-operative farming was discouraged.

3) Danger of Unemployment: There is a lot of scope for implantation of mechanization in co-operative farms which are large in extent. Usually mechanization generates unemployment of displacing labour with machines.

4) Domination of Landlords : The landlords in the system of co-operative farming never treat the small and marginal farmers equal to them. The interests of share croppers, marginal and small farmers cannot be protected because of the domination of landlords in the co-operative farming.

5) Lack of trained Employees: Professional skill is necessary to operate and manage co-operative farms which are large in extent on contrary to the small individual holdings. Lack of such trained staff in our country, these co-operative farming societies are inactive. .

6) Other Problems:

  1. It is a voluntary programme without any motivation to the peasants.
  2. The principles of distribution of profit between farmers and workers are not clearly defined.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 8.
Explain the tenancy reforms in India.
Answer:
Tenancy system is quite common under the Zamindari and Ryotwari Systems. The farmers who take the land from the landlords on leased basis for cultivation called tenants. Tenants are classified into three categories. They are occupancy tenants, subtenants and tenants at will.

1) Occupancy Tenants : Occupancy tenants are called permanent tenants because the rights of occupancy tenants are permanent and inheritable. These tenants enjoy a fixity and security of tenure. No landlord can evict them until they pay the rent. The difference between occupancy tenant and landlord is that the occupancy tenant pays rent to the landlord while landlord pays rent to the Government.

2) Sub Tenants: Sub tenants are called as temporary tenants. Permanent tenant will lease out a part of land under their control to some other farmers who are called subtenants. These tenants do not have any ownership rights on the land which they cultivate on temporary basis. These tenants are ruthlessly exploited. They can be evicted from land on minor pretexts. The rent fixed under this system is oral.

3) Tenants at will: The position of tenants at will is precarious and pitiable. They are subjective to exploitation in the forms of enhancement of rent, eviction from the land without any reason.

Because of ruthless exploitation, Government implemented some tenancy reforms. They are regulation of rent, security of tenure and ownership right for tenants.
1) Regulation of Rent: During the pre-independence period rents were very high as a result of custom, inelastic supply of land and increasing population. Hence, in order to regulate rent various State Governments have enacted various legislations.

2) Security of tenure : Tenants take much care in agriculture if they are provided security of tenure. Then only tenants can invest on lands for the purpose of development of land, like wells or tube wells, permanent fence, preserving soil fertility etc. Due to the fear of loss of tenancy rights, the tenants do not show much personal interest on land.

3) Ownership rights for Tenants: So far as the right of ownership is concerned, tenants have been declared as the owners of land they cultivate. The main aim of tenancy legislation is to provide “Land to the tiller”. They were allowed to purchase their holdings at a fair price determined by tribunals.

Question 9.
Briefly explain various land reforms in India.
Answer:
The Government of India has implemented various land reforms in the country after independence. The following land reforms are introduced for the welfare of depressed groups of farming community. They are

  1. Abolition of Intermediaries
  2. Tenancy Reforms
  3. Ceiling on Land Holdings.

1) Abolition of Intermediaries: Soon after independence the abolition of Zamindari system and its alien forms like Jagirdary and Inamadari systems and Mahalwari system were abolished. The defectives pertain to the Ryotwari system were also regulated. The first act to abolish intermediaries was passed in Madras in 1948. As a result 30 lakh tenants and share croppers acquire ownership rights over a total cultivated area of 62 lakh acres. Compensation was paid to all the intermediaries on installment basis in our country unlike communist countries.
Advantages:

  1. As a result of abolition of intermediaries, tenants became owners of the land and the exploitation came to an end.
  2. The ownership right to the tillers of the land enabled them to have a direct contact with Government which resulted in agricultural development in India.
  3. The Government provided infrastructure facilities for the development of farm sector as the land revenue increased substantially.
  4. A considerable area of cultivable waste land.

2) Tenancy Reforms : Tenancy system is quite common under the Zamindari and Ryotwari systems. The farmers who take the land from the landlords on leased basis for cultivation called tenants. Tenants are classified into three categories. They are Occupancy tenants. Subtenant and Tenants at will.

Because of ruthless exploitation, Government implemented some tenancy reforms. They are regulation of rent, security of tenure and ownership right for tenants.

3) Ceiling on land holdings : Ceiling on land is an important land reform. This is more essential not only to build rural economy on the basis of socialistic pattern of society but also imperative to save the rural masses from the exploitation. The ceiling on land holdings means statutory absolute limit on the amount of land which an individual cultivator or a household may possess. The supply of land is limited and the claimants for it possession are numerous. Therefore, it is unjust to allow exploitation by single individual over a large surface of land. Hence, the Government will take over the land beyond the limit of ceiling and redistributes it among landless labour and marginal farmers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 10.
Explain the factors responsible for “Green Revolution? in India and its impact on Indian Economy.
Answer:
The Government of India has announced the New Agricultural Strategy in 1965 to ensure rapid agricultural progress. Prof. Norman Borlog is the father of green revolution. The new strategy of agriculture which resulted in revolutionary progress in the farm sector during the period 1960-70 is termed as Green Revolution. Willian S. Gand is the first economist who used the term green revolution.

Achieving high produce and productivity in farm sector by implementing hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machines etc., and also by inducing farmers is called green revolution.

Factors responsible for Green Revolution :
1. Intensive Agriculture District Programme (IADP) : In 1964 Government of India has introduced this programme on the basis of recommendation of Ford Foundation Team. This programme was introduced in.Seven Districts like West Godavari in Andhra Pradesh, Shahabad in Bihar, Raipur in Madhya Pradesh, Thanjavur in Tamilnadu, Ludhiana in Punjab, Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh and Pali in Rajasthan where assured irrigation facilities, high fertility, proper rainfall and less hazards (like floods, drainage problem soil conservation problem etc) are available.

2. Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) : In 1967, Government of India has introduced this programme with a view to extend the area under intensive cultivation. Under this programme intensive cultivation has extended to other districts of various states. Both the programmes IADP and IAAP are restricted to the intensive cultivation of selected regions but IAAP is limited to some crops only. As a result of intensive cultivation in the selected regions, the neighboring districts will also develop which is treated as spread effect. This programme had extended to 164 Districts in the country.

3. High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) : In the new farm technology high yielding variety of seeds programme is crucial because it enables the Indian Agriculture to ensure high productivity Hence, Government of India initiated the programme in 1965.
Various types of hybrid, seeds are innovated with collective efforts of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropic, (ICRISAT), Universities in Punjab and other research institutes, As a result of HYVP remarkable rise in the production of paddy, wheat, sugarcane, cotton etc., has taken place.

4. Introduction of crops with short gestation period: Various crops with short gestation period have been developed in India with the continuous collective research of various organizations like ICAR, ICRISAT. Considerable decrease has taken place in the gestation period of paddy, wheat, maize etc. Some kinds of paddy like IR 8, IR 20,1001,1010, Masuri, Basmati, Jaya, Padma etc., and mexican type of wheat known as miracle wheat which have short gestation period are being produced by Indian farmers.

5. Expansion of Irrigation Facilities: Agriculture research and experiments take place only in those areas where proper irrigation facilities are available. So far all the high yielding variety seeds require more irrigation facilities. The area under the irrigation facilities increased from 21 million hectares in 1951 to 63 million hectares by 2010.

6. Farm Mechanization : Mechanization is an integral part of green revolution. Mechanization in the farm of sector in the form of tractors, oil engines, electric motors, crushers, drillers, harvesting machines etc. enriches the operations in agriculture. As agricultural operations are being seasonal, mechanization is essential for timely operations in agriculture.

7. Consumption of fertilizers and pesticides: High yielding variety seeds are highly responsive to the use of fertilizers and pesticides. In order to achieve high production by using fertilizers and pesticides the Government of India has been providing subsidies favorably affects productivity of agriculture.

8. Other Factors:
a) Agricultural Extension Services centers like “Rural Knowledge Centers”, “Agricultural Technology Management Agency” (ATMA) etc, are established by the Government of India.
b) Adult education centers have been established by the Government to literate the rural people.
c) Credit facilities are indispensible for the successful accomplishment of timely operations in agriculture. The Government of India has been providing credit to the peasants through Commercial, Regional Rural banks, Primary Agricultural Co-operative Credit Societies etc.

Impact of Green Revolution on Indian Economy:
1. Increase in Foodgrain production : The rice production from 35.0 mts in 1960-61 increased to 99.37 mts in 2008-09. The production of wheat was 11.0 mts and rose to 77.63 mts. The production of pulses was only 12.7 mts in 1960-61 which has increased to 14.2 mts. Totally production of food grains was 82.0 mts in 1960-61 and that has increased 229.9 mts by the year 2008-09.

2. Boost to employment generation : Green revolution is the small farm revolution. Labour intensive crops like rice, sugarcane, potato, vegetables, fruits have increased the employment opportunities in agriculture sector. The entiy of corporate houses has generated more employment opportunities in retailing business of fruits and vegetables.

3. Improvement in incomes: The impact of green revolution revealed.that the farmers in Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh had good chances of improving their incomes. It facilitates the farmers to follow simple but scientific and technical ways like grading the produce in the field itself selling directly to the corporate retail companies by avoiding middlemen. Organised retailers have provided better remunerations to the farmers. So the consumers were benefited in the form of quality produce at lower prices.

Therefore the green revolution has also widened the inequalities between big and small farmers, in rural areas.

4. Forward and backward linkages strengthened: Agriculture supplies raw material to industries which is known as forward linkage. The new technology in agriculture has strengthened the backward linkage. This way the linkage between agriculture and industry has got strengthened.

5. Decrease in Poverty : The result of green revolution surplus in the production of food grains is actived.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 11.
What are the various sources of rural credit in India?
Answer:
Credit plays a significant role in the farm activities. The credit needs of the peasants can be satisified either by institutional or non-institutional sources. Credit plays on important role to meet the requirements of the farmes. But at present the importance of institutional credit has been steadly increasing in our Country.

I) Institutional Credit:
1. Government : The Government had played a key role in providing credit for agricultural operations before emerging institutional credit organizations. Generally, the volume of credit supplied by the Government directly to the farmer for farm operations is very low. The Government will sanction direct loans to the farmers whenever natural calamities like drought, famine etc., are happened. The Government will sanction these direct loans at low rate of interest which are called as “Takkavi loans”. These loans can be repaid by the farmers in easy installments. These loans are insignificant because of rigid rules in lending and are about 2.3 percent in the total requisite credit of the farmers.

2. Role of Reserve Bank of India: Reserve Bank of India was established in 1935 and was nationalized in 1949. It has started Agriculture Credit Department and two separate funds in 1956 to supply to the agriculture sector. They are i) National Agricultural Credit fund, ii) National Agricultural Credit Stabilization fund. RBI provides credit to the peasants through State Co-operative Banks.

3. Co-operative Credit Societies : Co-operative credit system was successfully implemented in Germany by providing cheap credit. Keeping it in view this co-operative movement was started in India in 1904. These societies were organized to relieve the indebtedness of rural pqople and to promote thrift.

4. Commercial Banks: Commercial Banks are defined “Those institutions which take up all types of banking activities with a view of profit”. Commercial Banks are extending credit facilities to agricultural allied activities like dairying, poultry farming, piggery, fisheries etc.

5. Regional Rural Banks : Establish Regional Rural Banks in our country on October 2,1975. The Main objective of RRBs is to provide credit and other facilities to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans and small entrepreneurs so as to develop commerce, agriculture, industry and other productive activities.

6. National bank for agriculture and rural development (NABARD) : It was established in 1982. NABARD provides short term credits, medium term and long term credits to State co-operative Banks, Regional Rural Banks, Land Development Banks-and other financial institutions engaged in rural development and approved by R.B.I.

Non-Institutional sources:
1. Money lenders : Money lenders are the major source of agricultural credit for long period of time. Money lenders are two types, i) Agricultural money lenders ii) Professional money lenders. Money lenders lend money to the farmers at exorbitant rate of interest unproductive purposes. They are exploiting farmers by using unfair methods like manipulating accounts. The share of money lenders in the total farm credit was around 70% in 1951. But it declined to 19.6% in 2002.

2. Land lords : Mostly small farmers and tenants depend on land lords in order to meet their financial requirement. Land lords lend money both fob productive and un productive purposes at exorbitant rate of interest. They lend money to the farmers at high rates of interest keeping in view of grabbing their lands. The share of landlords in total farm credit was 15% in 1951-52 and declined 1% in 2002.

3. Traders and Commission agents : They advance loans to agriculturalists for i productive purposes against the crops without any legal agreement. They force the borrowers to sell their products at low prices to them and charge heavy commission on the produce of the farmers. The share of traders and commission agents in the total farm credit was 55% in 1951 and declined 2,6% in 2002.

4. Relatives and friends : Farmers often borrow from their relatives and friends in order to meet their temporary credit needs. They do not involve in any sort of exploitation. The share of these loans in total farm credit was 14.2% in 1951 and declined 7.1 in 2002.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 12.
What are the causes for rural indebtedness ? Suggest some remedial measures to reduce it. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
A majority of rural households are in indebtedness. Among the rural households, in-debtedness is highly prevalent in cultivators household, especially in the case of marginal and small farmers. Generally, these households are borrowing from non-institutional sources at a high rate of interest which results in rural indebtedness. The following are the main causes for increasing rural indebtedness in India.

1. Ancestral debt: The most important cause of the existing rural indebtedness is the ancestral debt which is inherited from ancestors. Infact, the volume of inherited debt should be limited to the extent of inherited property. Hence, many of the rural poor in our country are starting their career with a heavy burden of ancestral debt.

2. Poverty : The basic cause of the indebtedness of the farmers is their poverty. The farmers have to borrow for various purposes, as he has no past savings of his own. Poverty either forces the peasants to borrow or prevents them to pay off debts.

3. Natural calamities : Another cause of rural indebtedness is that indian agriculture is still a gamble in monsoons. Frequent failure of monsoons results is drought. On the other hand, excessive rains cause havoc in the form of floods which damage crops. All these problems force the farmers to borrow funds.

4. Extravagance of the farmers : It has been observed that Indian farmers spend more on social and religious functions like marriages, festivals, births, funerals, dinners, ornaments etc, beyond their capacity. All these funds borrowed for such unproductive purposes cannot be paid off easily.

5. Money lenders : Money lenders are the main source for the provision of credit facilities in the rural areas. Money lenders are least interested in the well being of farmers. Hence, they tempt the farmers to borrow funds for unproductive purposes at high rates of interest keeping in grab of their valuable assets. They adopt many unfair methods to exploit the rural people.

6. Small size land holdings: The average size of land holdings in India is very small due to sub-division and fragmentation of land holdings. When the holdings are small, modernization of agriculture becomes impossible.

7. Litigations: Litigation either civil or criminal is another cause of rural indebtedness. People in rural areas generally indulge in various kinds of disputes like disputes over boundaries, pathways, fencing etc. Hence, their valuable time and money is being wasted and this adversely affect farm production. All these lead to increase in their debts.

8. Passion for land : The peasants have a tremendous passion for land and desire to make improvements on land. These improvements on land should be done through saving and not through borrowing. But farmers mostly borrow for these purposes.

9. Other causes : In addition to the above causes, purchase of household luxuries, spending on bad habits, increasing cost of cultivation, dependence On non-institutional sources, expenditure on medicines, lack of support prices for the crops etc, are becoming responsible factors for increasing rural indebtedness.

Remedial measures:
1. Expansion of Institutional credit: In order to reduce the dependence of the rural people cm money lenders, the Government should provide timely and adequate credit through commercial banks, RRBs, co-operative credit societies etc. Consequently, the rural people get relief of their debts.

2. Regulation of Money lenders: The Government should enact legislations to control money lenders. These legislations should consist of licensing and registration of money lenders, maintenance of accounts in prescribed form, fixing maximum rate of interest, furnishing receipts to debtors after payment etc.

3. Debt Moratorium : Central Government and State Governments are resorting the policy of debt moratorium for redemption of debt of the marginal farmers, small farmers and landless laborers as it was introduced during the period of emergency.

4. Educating the farmers : All the farmers in rural areas should be educated. Then only they can understand various legislations pertaining to ancestral debt and fixed rate of interest.

5. Supply of Inputs : The institutional credit sources should sanction loans to the rural poor not in the form of cash but in the form of inputs in order to avoid unproductive expenditure. Such mode of sanction definitely enhances the repaying capacity of the debtor and minimizes the problem of indebtedness.

6. Others: In addition to the above the Government has to frame various schemes to eradicate poverty and employment which in turn increase the income and the repaying capacity of rural poor. Coverage of women farmers under micro-finance methodology must be increased.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 13.
Explain the role and progress of NABARD in the filed of agriculture and rural credit
Answer:
National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex bank for rural credit and does not deal with rural people directly. The NABARD set up on July 12, 1982. It provides grants assistance through the co-operative banks, commercial banks, Regional Rural banks and self help groups etc.

Disbursement of Refinance : NABARD has initiated several innovative projects like Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), Farm Innovation and Promotion Fund (FIPF), Kissan Credit Cards. It is playing an energetic role in strengthenning the rural credit structure in the country. The following are the features of these schemes.

1. R.I.D.F. : Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) was created in 1995-96 from out of short fall of commercial banks lending to priority sectors and agriculture. Since the NABARD has partnered State Government in the creation of rural infrastructure. The annual allocation of funds under the RIDF has gradually increased from ? 2000 Crore in 1995-96 to 20000 crore in 2012-13.

2. Kisan Credit Card System: KCC scheme was introduced in 1998-99 with a view to facilitate short term timely credit to farmers. Commercial banks, Regional Rural Banks and Co-operative Banks which are refinanced by NABARD are implementing this scheme. Since its inception till the end of August, 2012 ? 91676 crore have been issued to nearly 9.54 crore kisan credit card holders.

3. Micro Finance: The aim of this programme is to bring banking service to the door steps of the poor. Micro Finance is a novel approach to banking with the poor. Under this scheme bank credit is extended to the poor through Self Held Groups (SHGs) which were incepted by NABARD in 1986-87 as non-govt, organisations. Micro credit attempts to combine lower transactions cost and high degree of repayments. NABARD disbursed ? 3916.64 crore in 2012-13 to SHGs.

4. Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): It was launched by the Govt, of India on April 1,1999 by combining various programmes like IRDP, TRYSEM, DWCRA and allied schemes. Under this scheme up to 2011,168.46 lakh Swarojgaries have been assisted with a total out lay of ₹ 42.168 crore. NABARD disbursed an amount of ₹ 111.72 crore to SGSY in its annual budget 2012-13.

Progress of NABARD: The performance of NABARD and the amount to various sectors for the development of rural poor is presented in the following table.
Sector-wise Disbursement of Refinance (Crore)
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector 1
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector 2
In the table the share of non-farm sector is high i.e., ₹ 5150.88 crore in 2012-13. Minor irrigation and development, mechanization, plantation, dairy development and self help groups derived much attention Of NABARD in its disbursement of refinance. The total amount disbursed by NABARD in 2012-13 is ₹ 17674.29 crore.

Question 14.
Explain the defects in agricultural marketing and suggest some remedial measures. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
No doubt, agricultural markets are operating efficiency in India, being influenced by the reforms and the process of globalization. However, the position of agricultural markets is deplorable in our country. The farmer is poor illiterate and ignorant. He does not have facilities to store his produce. He has caught in the evil hands of the middlemen. He has been suffering from the following defects of Agricultural marketing.

1. Inadequate storage facilities: There is lade of proper and sufficient storage facilities for the produce in rural areas. The available facilities are so bad and unscientific that more than 20 percent of the produce is eaten away by the rats.

2. Absence of proper Grading: The farmers are not getting a relevant price according to the equality of their products. They are not properly graded. They are sold in one common tot in heap of all quantities of produce consequently. The farmer producing products of better quality in not assured of a better price.

3. Inadequate transport facilities: Even today the farmers are using traditional means of transportation to move his produce to the markets. Railways and roadways are not properly connecting the village. Bullock carts are used to move the products. As a result, the farmer is forced to domp his produce at nearby weekly or daily markets. This is true particularly in the case of perishable commodities.

4. Existance of middlemen : More number of middlemen are operating in the agriculture marketing. As a result, the share of farmers is reduced in the prices realised for products sold in the market. Many studies observed that middlemen are grabbing almost 60 to 70 percent of the market price.

5. Malpractices in the markets: In the markets, the farmer is defective by the use of wrong weights and measures. He is also cheated by brokers and traders. The farmer has to pay weighing charge unloading charges, separation of impurities in the produce charges and many other miscellaneous undefined and unspecified charges.

6. Lack of adequate market information : The farmers are not having proper information about the prices existing in the markets. They are deprived of getting reasonable price for their products due to the inadequate information.

7. The farmers are unorganised : The farmers in India belong to different places, different languages and dialects and unorganized. The middlemen are strong and well organized. As a result, the farmers are unable to get proper price for their products.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Remedial measures: After independence the Government of India adopted a number of measures to improve the system of agricultural marketing.

  1. Regulated markets : Regulated markets have been started will view to ensure remunerative price to the products of the farmers. These markets check all unfair practices prevalent in the marketing of farm produce.
  2. Co-operative marketing: In this system all the farmers of a village form together into a co-operative marketing society to sell their products at a fair price rate.
  3. Contract farming: It is another good remedy for solving the problems Of agricultural marketing in our country.
  4. Rythu Bazars : The Andhra Pradesh Government has introduced the concept of Rythu Bazars as 26th January 1999. In these markets the farmers will sell their products directly to the consumers without the interference of middlemen.
  5. Facilities of grading and Standardisation : The Government of India has done much to grade and standardise many agricultural goods. For this purpose Government of India enacted legislation in 1937 and established grading centres at Jaipur, Bhopal and Nagpur etc.
  6. Warehousing facilities : Many warehouses have been constructed by the Central Government throughout the country. As a result, the farmers will store their products until they get fair prices.
  7. Transport facilities: Transportation plays an important role in marketing system. Cheap and easy means of transportation encourage the farmers to carry their products to the market and create confidence among the farmers.
  8. Credit facilities : The Government of India established institutions like Primary agricultural co-operative credit societes, Commercial banks, Regional rural banks etc.
  9. Market information : The farmers should have perfect knowledge of prevailing market prices. Thus, market information relating to the prices can be provided to the farmers through Radio, T.V.s and News papers etc.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain the features of Indian agriculture.
Answer:
1) Uncertainty in crop output: Monsoon and climatic conditions play a significant role in Indian agriculture which often affects agriculture productivity adversely. Moreover, floods and drought are quite common. Hence, Indian agriculture is rightly to be called a “gamble on monsoon”. As a result of these unforeseen contigencies production and productivity are uncertain.

2) Feudal relation of Agriculture : After independence Zamindari and Mahalwari systems were abolished and Ryotwari system came into existence. Under this system tenants do not possess security of tenure, regulation of rent and ownership rights.

3) Rural Indebtedness: After independence the Government has initiated co-operative credit societies and banks for providing rural credit. However, the small and marginal farmers continue to depend on money lenders for their requirements. Hence, rural indebtedness prevailing in agriculture sector has become common. Because of indebtedness farmers are unable to invest more on agriculture to reap much harvest.

4) Dualism in Labour market: Because of pressure of population on land, wages in agricultural sector are considerably lower comparatively to the industrial and service sectors of the economy. The cheapness of labour in the traditional agricultural sector causes that labour in agriculture sector to be used extensively rather than other sectors of the economy where wages are high.

5) Diversities in Agricultural sector : The nature of soil, magnitude of rainfall, irrigation facilities etc, vary from one region to another region. Similarly, drought conditions, floods, problems of water salinity etc., vary among various regions of our country. The size of land holdings are differ in various regions. These variations affect cropping pattern.

6) Outmoded Farming techniques : Most of the Indian farmers continue to use outmoded farming techniques. The traditional agriculture depends on human and animal labour, rains and dung manure. Thus, this results in subsistence farming.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 2.
Explain the present conditions of agricultural labourers. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Present conditions of Agricultural Labourers :
1) Low Social Status: Most of the agricultural labourers are belonged to the depressed classes. They have been neglected for ages. In case of such farm labourers, exploitation has become common and they have not fought for their rights.

2) Unorganised : Agricultural labourers are living in scattered villages. Moreover, they are illiterates. Hence, they cannot easily to be organized. As a results it is difficult for farm labourers to bargain with the land owners for good wages.

3) Seasonal Employment : Agricultural labourers have to face the problems of unemployment and underemployment. They are employed while sowing and harvesting season, of the year they remain unemployed.

4) Low Wages and Income : Agricultural wages and family incomes of agricultural labourer are very low. The wages of farm labourers vary from state to state. In case of attached labourers these wages are pathetic. However, as prices also increased considerably, the real wages rates did not increase much.

5) Rural Indebtedness : Because of the low level of income agricultural labour generally seek debts. In fact the debt of agricultural labourers passes from generation to generation and become bonded labour.

6) Femanisation of Agricultural labour : Female agricultural workers are generally forced to work harder. They are paid less wages comparatively to male workers.

7) High incidence of Child labour: It is estimated that one-third of child labourers in Asia are in India. The largest number of child workers are engaged in agriculture. Wages paid to child labourers are too low which adversely affect the incomes of their households.

8) Lack of subsidary professions : Another serious problem that is being faced by farm labourers is lack of non-agricultural occupations in. the villages. As there is no work on the fields, agricultural labour has no other means to earn for subsistence. Thus, they are disguised and are burden on land.

Question 3.
Explain the factors affecting cropping pattern.
Answer:
Factors affecting cropping pattern in India : The cropping pattern in India can be affected by various factors like physical, economical, technical and Government policies.
Physical Factors: Physical factors play a vital role in determining the cropping pattern. These factors are classified below.

  1. Climate and Rain fall: Climatic conditions and rainfall determine cropping pattern. Some crops require cool climate while some other crops require hot climate. For instance, apples will be produced in cool climate. For instance, crops like Paddy, Sugarcane require abundance of water.
  2. Nature of Soil and Fertility: Nature of soil and fertility determine the production of certain crops. For instance, wheat requires well drained silt and fertile loam soils but for cotton black soils are ideal.
  3. Irrigation facility: It also determine the cropping pattern. For instance crops, like Paddy, Sugarcane, Wheat etc., require assured irrigation facility. Some other crops like Jowar, Maize, Ragi etc., will grow in the areas where irrigation facilities are insufficient.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 4.
Explain the importance of irrigation.
Answer:
Importance of Irrigation :
1) Insufficient, uncertain and irregular rains : The period of rainfall is restricted to only four months during monsoons. Even during monsoons the rainfall is scanty. Sometimes monsoons are delayed while some other times they are prematured. This type of atmosphere results in drought conditions. Hence, with the help of proper development of irrigation, droughts and famines can be effectively controlled.

2) Higher productivity on irrigated land : Irrigation helps greatly in raising the productivity of land than unirrigated land. Because this enables the application of modern inputs like fertilizers, high yielding varieties of seeds etc.

3) Multiple cropping possible : India is a land of tropical and sub-tropical climate. It has potentialities to grow crops throughout the year but rainfall is restricted to less than four months. Provision of irrigation facilities can make possible the growing of multiple crops throughout the year.

4) Crucial role in new agricultural strategy: The successful implementation of high yielding varieties programmed depends on timely and adequate supply of water. These seeds require chemical fertilizers and substantial water at regular intervals of time. Therefore, irrigation facilities facilitates the expansion of new agricultural strategy to larger areas of land.

5) Bringing more land under cultivation: The total reporting area according to land utilization statistics was 305.56 million hectares in 2009-10. Thus, some portion of the waste land can be brought under cultivation if there is availability of irrigation facilities.

6) Prosperity : Irrigation helps in stabilizing the output and yield level. Irrigation plays a protective role during drought years. Thus, irrigation facilities prevent fall in output during drought and achieve stability in income and output which in turn result prosperity.

7) Indirect benefits of Irrigation: Expansion of irrigation facilities all over the country avoid disparities in the production of food grains. Irrigation promotes the growth of agriculture and allied sectors. Thus, increased production in agriculture stabilizes the prices of agricultural products.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 5.
What are the causes for low productivity ?
Answer:
The causes for low level of agriculture productivity in India are manifold. They can be grouped into four broad categories.

  1. General causes
  2. Institutional causes
  3. Technical causes
  4. Environmental causes

1) General causes:
i) Pressure of Population on Agriculture : Pressure of population on agriculture is heavy as a result of high growth rate of population and slow growth rate of other sectors of the economy. In 2011, about 263 million workers out of 348 million rural working populations are employed in agriculture. Increasing pressure of population on agriculture results, in the subdivisions and fragmentation of holding. Consequently, the productivity in agriculture sector remains low in India.

ii) Social Environment: The social environment of villages is an obstacle in agricultural development. The farmers in rural are illiterate, superstitious, conservative and unresponsive to new agriculture techniques. The decline of joint family system and land hunger are also discouraging the rural atmosphere. Peasants are not able to take proper care of their agriculture. Unless this atmosphere is changed, it is too difficult to enhance the productivity of agriculture.

iii) Lack of Infrastructural Facilities: Infrastructural facilities like transport, storage, credit and marketing are inadequate in rural areas to the growing population, due to lack of these adequate infrastructure facilities, the agricultural productivity in rural areas is very low.

iv) Impact of the British Regime : During British rule in India, they have not shown any interest in developing agriculture sector but made our economy as colonial one. Moreover, their policies like land tenure system, collection of land cess gave a deadly blow to the Indian agriculture.

2. Institutional causes:
i) Uneconomic Land Holding: According to the National Sample Survey, 52 percent land holdings had a size of less than 2 hectares in 1961 – 62. In 2010 -11,85 percent of total land holdings are less than 2 hectares. As a result of laws of inheritance and other reasons is a further divisions and fragmentation of land holdings. Hence, these small holdings are adversely affecting productivity of agriculture.

ii) Defects in Land Tenancy System : The Indian agriculture system was adversely affected before Independence because of defectives in Zamindari, Jagirdari, Mahalvari systems which exploited the farmers. In this system lack of certainty in rent, security of tenure and ownership right the tenants don’t show any attention to develop agriculture. Hence, India has become less productivity.

iii) Lack of credit and marketing facilities : The cultivators are not able to invest requisite sources in agriculture due to lack of marketing facilities and required credit at fair rate of interest. Even support price policy and subsidies to inputs of agriculture fired by the Government are unsatisfactory. Hence, peasants follow traditional methods which results in low productivity.

3. Technical causes:
i) Outmoded Agricultural Techniques : T. W. Schultz of famous economist opined that the peasants in India are still using traditional or outmoded techniques. Indian farmers are still using wooden ploughs, bullock carts, sickles etc. Use of fertilizers and new high yielding varieties of seeds is also extremely limited. Hence, the productivity in agriculture is low.

ii) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities : Gross cropped area in India in 2010 – 11 was 198.97 million hectares but only 89.36 million hectares of land had irrigation facilities. It implies that’55 percent of the gross cropped area continues to depend on rains. Rainfall is often insufficient, uncertain and irregular. In such atmosphere it is difficult to extend the new agricultural technology all over the country.

iii) Scarcity of Agricultural Inputs : The supply of modem agricultural inputs like fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid seeds, farm machinery etc., are inadequate to meet the requirements of our country. In order to achieve high production in agriculture requisite supply of inputs is essential.

4. Environmental causes : Environment also plays a vital role in affecting the productivity of agriculture, increase in the temperature. Degradation of soil, changes in temperature, pollution of water and air etc., adversely affect the productivity of agriculture are

  1. Global warming.
  2. Soil Degradation.
  3. The intensive cultivation of high yielding variety crops.
  4. The reckless use of fertilizers.
  5. Shifting cultivation.
  6. Displacement of the traditional practies of crops.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 6.
Examine the present pattern of land utilization.
Answer:
Land is the most important resource of natural resources of any country. Land has the characteristic of inelasticity in supply. The economic development of a nation is directly depends on the supply of land. Hence, certain modifications can occur in the existing pattern of land utilization. The total area land is about 306 million hectares. The total cropped area is about 192 million hectares. The total area under fallow lands is about 26 million hectares and the area under forests is 70 million hectares. Asa result of increased irrigation facilities culturable waste land has been declined to 12.85 million hectares. The Government has provided loans and subsidies to the farmers for land reclamation.

Question 7.
Consolidation of land holding.
Answer:
Consolidation of holdings is a proper solution to the problems of scattered holdings. Consolidation means all the holdings of the village are pooled together into one compact block. The owners of scattered land holders may voluntarily exchange their pieces of land into one compact block. The State Governments have adopted coercive methods to the cosolidation of holdings. It was started in 1951 – 52. The States are Punjab, Haryana, M.P, U.P implemented this programme. But the States of A.P, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Assam have not enacted the laws of consolidation. According to annual report of Ministry of Rural Development 2004, total area brought under consolidation was 163.3 million hectares.

Question 8.
Creation of Economic land holding.
Answer:
Creation of economic holdings is another important method to solve the problems of small size land holdings. To develop and strengthen Indian agriculture sector is inevitable to create economic holdings. The economic holdings also termed as ‘Family holding1 or ‘Optimum holding’.

According to Dr. Mann the economic holding as “one which will provide for an average family the minimum standard of life”.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 9.
Need for land reforms. [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:

  1. Agriculture development : Agricultural development takes places when land reforms are entrusted in agrarian sector to avoid the hindrances to agricultural development. In such atmosphere technical reforms will be fruitful in agricultural sector.
  2. Economic. Development : Agrarian sector influences largely the economic development of our country. In order to attain sustainable growth rate in Indian agriculture, it is inevitable to implement land reforms.
  3. Social Justice: Land reforms are aimed at alleviating rural poverty by distributing land among the landless, providing security to tenant, protecting the interests of tribals. Land reforms aim at achieving social justice in the economy by eradicating poverty and disparities in income.
  4. Increase in Agricultural productivity: Land reforms are essential to increase the production and productivity in Agriculture.

Question 10.
Abolition of intermediaries.
Answer:
The first act to abolish intermediaries was passed in Madras in 1948. Later state after state enacted legislations abolishing intermediaries. As a result 30 lakh tenants and share croppers acquire ownership rights over a total cultivated area of 62 lakh acres. Compensation was paid to all the intermediaries on installment basis in our country unlike communist countries.

The Effects of Abolition of Intermediaries :
The following are the advantages of the abolition of Intermediaries.

  1. As a result of abolition of intermediaries, tenants became owners of the land and the exploitation came to an end. This helped to secure social justice in agraian structure.
  2. The ownership right to the tillers of the land enabled them to have a direct contact with Government which resulted in agriculture development in India.
  3. The Government provided infrastructure facilities for the development of farm sector as the land revenue increased substantially.
  4. A considerable area of cultivable waste land and private forests belonging to the intermediaries have been brought under cultivation.

Question 11.
Ceiling on land holdings.
Answer:
Ceiling on land is an important land reform. This is more essential not only to build rural economy on the basis of socialistic pattern of society but also imperative to save the rural masses from the exploitation. The ceiling on land holdings means statutory absolute limit on the amount of land which and individual cultivator or a household may possess. The supply of land is limited and the claimants for it possession are numerous. Therefore, it is unjust to allow exploitation by single individual over a large surface of land. Hence, the Government will take over the land beyond the limit of ceiling and redistributes it among landless labour and marginal farmers.

Objectives of celling of land:

  1. To reduce inequalities in agrarian sector.
  2. To enlarge the sphere of self employment.
  3. To eliminate exploitation and to provide equal opportunities to all..
  4. To meet the desire that land must belong to the tiller.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 12.
Reasons for poor performance of land reforms.
Answer:
Land reforms were implemented with good objectives, aiming at the development and empowerment of rural poor. However, in practice they were internally rejected. The following reasons can be mentioned for the poor performance of land reforms.

  1. Lack of political will.
  2. The rural poor are unorganised.
  3. Absence of updation of land records.
  4. Legal hurdles in the way of implementation.
  5. Weak administrative set up.
  6. Very little surplus lands were talan into possession.
  7. Provision of exemptions were used for evading the ceiling on land holdings.
  8. Laws were challenged on number of other grounds like rates of compensation, calculation of standard holdings etc.
  9. Reforms were given a low priority in development strategy.

Question 13.
Describe the impact of Green Revolution on Indian Economy. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
Impact of Green Revolution on Indian Economy :
1. Increase in Foodgrain production: The rice production from 35.0 mts in 1960-61 increased to 99.37 mts in 2008-09. The production of wheat was 11.0 mts and rose to 77.63 mts. The production of pulses was only 12.7 mts in 1960-61 which has increased to 14.2 mts. Totally production of food grains was 82.0 mts in 1960-61 and that has increased 229.9 mts by the year 2008-09.

2. Boost to employment generation : Green revolution is the small farm revolution. Labour intensive crops like rice, sugarcane, potato, vegetables, fruits have increased the employment opportunities in agriculture sector. The entry of corporate houses has generated more employment opportunities in retailing business of fruits and vegetables.

3. Improvement in incomes: The impact of green revolution revealed that the farmers in Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh had good chances of improving their increases. It facilitates the farmers to follow simple but scientific and technical ways like grading the produce in the field itself selling directly to the corporate retail companies by avoiding middlemen. Organised retailers have provided better remunerations to the farmers. So the consumers were benefited in the form of quality produce at lower prices.

Therefore the green revolution has also widened the inequalities between big and small farmers in rural areas.

4. Forward and backward linkages strengthened: Agriculture supplies raw material to industries which is known as forward linkage. The new technology in agriculture has strengthened the backward linkage. This way the linkage between agriculture and industry has got strengthened.

5. Decrease in Poverty : The result of green revolution surplus in the production of food grains is actived.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 14.
Role of Regional Rural Bank in rural credit.
Answer:
Regional Rural Banks : According to the recommendations of the working group on Rural Banks headed by prof. M.Narasimham, the Government of India issued an ordinance country establish Regional Rural Banks in our country on October 2, 1975. Five Regional Rural Banks were started. Later the number rose to 196. The Government of India amalgamated Regional Rural Banks in order to consolidating and strengthening them. As on March, 2013, the total member of branches of RRBs were 17,856 across 635 districts in 26 states and one Union Territory.

The Nationalized commercial banks are sponsoring the RRBs. Each Regional Rural Bank had an authorized capital of ₹ 1 crore and paid up capital ₹ 25 lakhs. The share capital has subscribed by the Central Govt. 50% the State Govt, concerned 15% and sponsoring commercial banks 35%.

The main objective of RRBs is to provide credit and other facilities to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, so as to develop commerce, agriculture and other productive activities.

Question 15.
Primary Agricultural Co – operative Credit Societies.
Answer:
Co-operative credit societies : Co-operative credit system was successfully implemented in Germany by providing cheap credit. Keeping it in view this co-operative movement was started in India in 1904. These societies were organized to relieve the indebtedness of rural people and to promote shift.

The co-operative credit institutions in India have been organized into short term and long term structures.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector 3
PACSs are organized at village level. They can be formed by any ten or more than ten persons. In order to strengthen PACSs financially the Reserve Bank of India, in collaboration with State Governments had been taking a series of steps. Commercial banks in India introduced a scheme of financing through PACSs for disbursing agricultural loans. The StCB advances loans to DCCBs in order to augment their capacity to advance loans to the village PACSs. PACSs are organized at village level. The management of the society is under an elected body consisting of a president, secretary and treasurer.

The total volume of credit supplied by these co-operative banks for agricultural sector has reached to ₹ 87,963 crore by 2012. The co-operative credit system is organizationally and financially weak to meet the credit needs of agricultural sector. Hence, co-operation has failed, but co-operation must succeed.

Question 16.
Commercial banks and Rural credit.
Answer:
The commercial banks started a vital role after nationalization of 14 banks in 1969 and 6 banks in 1980. As far as rural credit is concerned, the role of commercial banks is highly appreciable. These banks are supplying credit to the rural areas in the following manner. –
1) Commercial banks are supplying credit for short term and long term requirements of the needy farmers in rural areas. They are providing short term crop loans which accounted 42 to 45 percent of total loans disbursed by commercial banks. Long term loans are extended by commercial banks for purchasing pump sets, tractors and other agricultural machinery which accounted 35 to 37 % of total loans disbursed by commercial banks.

2) Commercial banks are extending credit facilities to agricultural allied activities like dairying, poultry, farming, piggery, fisheries etc.

3) Commercial banks working for the implementation of various rural development programmes like IRDP ; JRY etc by sanctioning and disbursing credit to the beneficiaries.

4) Commercial banks are indirectly helping the rural farmers by extending credit for fertilisers and pesticides companies. Central warehousing Corporation and Regional Rural banks.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 17.
Role of Reserve Bank of India in Rural Credit.
Answer:
RBI was established in 1935 and was nationalized in 1949. It has been rendering viable services for the development of rural areas. It has started agriculture credit department and two separate funds in 1956 to supply to the agriculture sector. They are 1. National Agriculture Credit Fund. 2. National Agricultural Credit Stabilization Fund.

R.B.I provides credit to the farmers through State co-operative banks in the following ways.
a) Short Term Credit: RBI provides short term credit facilities to State co-operative banks at a lower interest rate for a period of 15 months by providing rediscounting facilities on Govt, securities and debentures of land development bank.

b) Medium Term Credit: R.B.I has been providing medium term credit to the State co-operative banks for a period of 15 months to 5 years.

c) Long term Credit: R.B.I provides long term credit to the State Govt, for agricultural development activities. The term credit varies from 5 years to 20 years.
Other services:

  1. It provides credit to all the institutions which are engaged in rural credit.
  2. It provides loans for small farmers development agency and marginal farmers development agency.

Question 18.
Defects in the Agricultural marketing in India.
Answer:
No doubt, agricultural markets are operating efficiency in India, being influenced by the reforms and the process of globalization. However, the position of agricultural markets is deplorable in our country. The farmer is poor illiterate and ignorant. He does not have facilities to store his produce. He has caught in the evil hands of the middlemen. He has been suffering from the following defects of Agricultural marketing.

1. Inadequate storage facilities: There is lack of proper and sufficient storage facilities for the produce in rural areas. The available facilities are so bad and unscientific that more than 20 percent of the produce is eaten away by the rats.

2. Absence of proper Grading: The farmers are not getting a relevant price according to the equality of their products. They are not properly graded. They are sold in one common tot in heap of all quantities of produce consequently. The farmer producing products of better quality in not assured of a better price.

3. Inadequate transport facilities: Even today the farmers are using traditional means of transportation to move his produce to the markets. Railways and roadways are not properly connecting the village. Bullock carts are used to move the products. As a result, the farmer is forced to domp his produce at nearby weekly or daily markets. This is true particularly in the case of perishable commodities.

4. Existance of middlemen : More number of middlemen are operating in the agriculture marketing. As a result, the share of farmers is reduced in the prices realised for products sold in the market. Many studies observed that middlemen are grabbing almost 60 to 70 percent of the market price.

5. Malpractices in the markets : In the markets, the farmer is defective by the use of wrong weights and measures. He is also cheated by brokers and traders. The farmer has to pay weighing charge unloading charges, separation of impurities in the produce charges and many other miscellaneous undefined and unspecified charges.

6. Lack of adequate market information : The farmers are not having proper information about the prices existing in the markets. They are deprived of getting reasonable price for their products due to the inadequate information.

7. The farmers are unorganised : The farmers in India belong to different places, different languages and dialects and unorganized. The middlemen are strong and well organized. As a result, the farmers are unable to get proper price for their products.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 19.
Various stages of agricultural marketing.
Answer:
Farms cannot sell away all the their products instaniously after harvesting. These products must go through a series of stages before they are actually marketed. Such stages in agricultural marketing.

  1. Assembling: The total produce of various farmers from various places should be brought to one place. The process of pooling up of small surpluses of individual farmers in the market of the producing area is called assembling.
  2. Transportation : All the farm products must be transported from the producer markets to consumer markets. Transportation facilitates the availability Of goods in the market.
  3. Grading: All the assembled products should be graded and standardized according to their quality and durability.
  4. Processing : All the agricultural products assembled and graded cannot be used directly. So those products should be made useful for consumption.
  5. Sampling: Samples are to be made from the graded, standardized and processed produce. This sampling process enables the consumer to choose the best goods from the market.
  6. Packing: All the farms products whether processed or not must be packed to ensure better quality.
  7. Storing: All the farms products processed and packed cannot be sold immediately. They have to be preserved in store houses until they are sold.

Question 20.
Regulated markets. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Regulated markets have been started with view to ensure remunerative price .to the products of farmers reduce the price spread between the producers and consumers. It check all unfair practices in the market. Most of the States implemented Act of agriculture marketing. In India 1951, 200 regulated markets were started. In 2005 the number of regulated markets increased 7521.
Functions :

  1. Fixation of charges for weighing and brokerage.
  2. Enforcing the use of standardized weights.
  3. Providing up to date information of market prices.
  4. Prevention of unauthorised deductions and under hand dealings.
  5. Market licenses are given to the middle men and their number is to be minimized.
  6. Setting of disputes among the parties arising in market operations.
  7. Warehouses and cold storages should be provided to the farmers wherever necessary.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 21.
Co-operative marketing.
Answer:
The first co-operative marketing society was started in India in 1915 which was implemented in Denmark. It was started with the purpose of giving credit to the farmers and marketing their surplus products. According to this system all the farmers of a village form together into a co-operative marketing society to sell their products at a fair price. The members of the society sell their products to the society. These societies are maintained by efficient paid staff. These societies sell their products at high prices in order to provide remunerative prices to their members.
Advantages: .

  1. Prices of farm produces will be remunerative.
  2. The co-operative marketing has its own storage and warehousing facilities. Thus it can avoid damage to agriculture products through rain, rats etc.
  3. These markets provide grading and standardizing facilities.
  4. Co-operative marketing control the flow of supplies and influences the price.
  5. These markets advance loans to the farmers and ensure them wait for better price.
  6. Co-operative marketing reduces cost of transportation.

Question 22.
Contract farming.
Answer:
Contract farming means that farming in which sale contract is made between fanners and users of farm products. Industries sugar, cotton, jute etc., have sale contracts with the farmers. The. following are the advantages of contract farming.

  1. Collective sale contracts of farmers provide better result than individual contracts.
  2. Fluctuations in the prices of farm products can be minimized and income of farmers can be maximized.
  3. Farmers will receive credit and technological support from the industries with whom they have sale contract.
  4. Prices of these products are fixed well in advance the farmers and put to effort to maintain quality of the products which have sale contracts.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Agriculture sector.
Answer:
It is the sector which includes forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying and allied activities like animal husbandry etc., along with agriculture.

Question 2.
Agro based industries.
Answer:
Industries which depend an agriculture products for their raw materials are called agro based industries. Ex : Cotton, textile, flour mills, sugar etc., directly depend on agriculture for raw materials.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 3.
Food security.
Answer:
Food security is such a security which enables the people to have all time enough food for an active and healthy life.

Question 4.
Land reclamation.
Answer:
It means regaining the ownership on land after abolition of Zamindari system to make the land useful.

Question 5.
Cropping pattern.
Answer:
It is the pattern of utilisation of total farm land for producing different crops in a country at a point of time.

Question 6.
Perennial canals.
Answer:
These canals supply water through the year to irrigate lands as they are connected to the dams or rivers.

Question 7.
Drip irrigation.
Answer:
It is the system where water is deliver at or near root zones of plants, drop by drop.

Question 8.
Sprinkler irrigation.
Answer:
This is also called overhead irrigation system, water is piped to one or more central locations within the held and distributed by overhead high pressure sprinklers or guns.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 9.
Land reforms.
Answer:
Land reforms are the introduction of economic and non-economic changes relating to land in order to achieve social justice and agriculture development.

Question 10.
Organic farming. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
It is the farming which uses natural fertilizers and pesticides.

Question 11.
Economic holdings.
Answer:
Economic holdings is the size of holdings which provides a decant standard of giving of the members of the family.

Question 12.
Farm mechanization.
Answer:
It is the implementation of machines like tractors, pumpsets, harvesting, machines etc, in agriculture operations.

Question 13.
Consolidation of holdings.
Answer:
Consolidation of holdings means all the holdings of the village are pooled together into one unit. .

Question 14.
Co-operative farming. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Co-operative farming means where the total land of village pooled into one unit and farmed together.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 15.
Objectives of land reforms.
Answer:
Land reforms facilitates the redistribution of land with a view to safe guard the interests of small and marginal farmers.

  1. Establishment of social justice.
  2. To provide security for the filler of soil.
  3. Assurance of equality Of status and opportunity for all sections of the rural population.

Question 16.
Zamindari system.
Answer:
Lord Comwalls introduced this system in Bengal in 1793. In this .system, the land was held by a few zamindars. They were entrusted with the responsibility of collection of revenue fixed by the British Government.

Question 17.
Ryotwari system. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Thomas Manro introduced this system in Tamil Nadu in 1792. In this system had full rights regarding sale, transfer and leasing of land. Under this system no middle man exists between farmer and Government.

Question 18.
Occupancy tenant.
Answer:
Occupancy tenants are those tenants whom cannot be evicted by land lords until they pay rent.

Question 19.
Green Revolution.
Answer:
William S. Gand is the first economist who used the term green revolution. It was also called a “new strategy of agriculture development”. It is the result of the technological break through composed of improved irrigation facilities, better agricultural practices and mechanisation of agricultural operations.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 20.
IADP.
Answer:
Intensive Agriculture District Programme. This was introduced oh the basis of recommendations of Ford team. The Govt, provide fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid seeds etc., to all the farmers of the selected districts at a subsidize rate. Ex: West Godavari in A.P.

Question 21.
IAAP.
Answer:
Intensive Agriculture Area Programme. This was introduced in the year 1967. Under this system intensive cultivation has extended to other districts in various states.

Question 22.
HYVP.
Answer:
High Yielding Variety Programme. This was introduced in the year 1965.

Question 23.
RIDF.
Answer:
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund was created in 1995 – 96 from out short form of commercial banks landing priority sectors and agriculture.

Question 24.
Kisan Credit Cards. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
It was introduced in 1998 to facilitate the flow for crop loan by providing adequate, timely cost, effective short term loans. It also enables the farmers to purchase agriculture inputs and to draw cash for their production needs.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 25.
SGSY.
Answer:
Swama Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana started on 1999. It is sponsored scheme. SGSY is a credit – cum – subsidy programme.

Question 26.
Micro Finance.
Answer:
It is the provision of finance on a small scale to the rural and urban poor.

Question 27.
Assembling.
Answer:
The process of pooling up of small surplus of individual farmers in the market of the producing area is called assembling.

Question 28.
Processing.
Answer:
Processing is the conversion of agriculture products into consumption.

Question 29.
AGMARK. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
It is simply an abbreviation for agriculture marketing which is the symbol of quality of produce.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 4 Agriculture Sector

Question 30.
Marketable suplus. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
Marketable surplus is the available surplus for marketing after meeting all the requirements of the farmers.

Question 31.
Rythu Bazar. [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:
It is a market where there is no existence of middle men between farmer Vs buyer.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 3rd Lesson National Income Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 3rd Lesson National Income

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the National income trends in India.
Answer:
National income means the total amount of goods and services produced in a country in a year. In order to understand in impact of planning in India, a study of trends in national income necessary. Therefore better if the trend in national income and changes in the structure of national product are analysed over the last 60 years of planning.
a) The increase in the production of real goods and services.
b) The rise in price.

If the increase in National income is due to the first factor. It is an indicator of real growth because it implies that more goods and services became available to the people. If it is due to the second factor, it represent and unreal inflation of National income in terms of money. National income figure is deflated at constant prices, therefore, it becomes comparable but it conceals the population effect. To eliminate the effect of growth of population or percapita income is calculated.

C.S.O. has provided a series of National income data of 1999-2000 prices from 195051 to 2013-14. Although this indicates slightly different growth rates for different periods, this was inevitable because of the coverage and change in procedure.
Net National Product at Factor Cost and Per capita NNP
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income 1
The growth rates of both Net National Product and Per capita NNP at factor cost from 1950-51 to 2013-14 for a period of more than 6 decades. Per capita NNP at current prices in 1950-51 is ₹ 264, which rose to ₹ 5,621 and in the same period the per capita NNP at 2004-05 prices increased from ₹ 7,114 to ₹ 14,330.

Net National Product at current prices increased to ₹ 91,71,045 crore in 2013-14 from ₹ 4,71,619 crore in 1990-91 & at 2004-05 prices it was 49,20,183 crore and ₹ 12,02,305 crore respectively. Per capita NNP at 2004-05 prices rose to ₹ 74,380 in 2013-14 from ₹ 17,381 in 2000-2001.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 2.
Briefly explain the sectoral contribution to the National income.
Answer:
Avery important aspect of the national income of a country is its sectoral composition i.e., the contribution made to it by the different sectors of the economy. The development mainly depends upon sectoral contribution. If the contributional from agricultural sector is high, generally a country is said to be underdeveloped one.
1) Contribution of the primary sector to GDP: The share of the primary sector in the Gross Domestic Product has varied from the maximum of 55.4% in 1950-51 to the minimum of 13.9% in 2013-14. The main cause of the decline is a rapid fall in the share of agriculture alone. There is a decline in the share of forestry to GDP. Transport and trade, banking and insurance and other service sectors have grown faster than agriculture still the agricultural’ sector remains an important sector in the Indian economy.

2) Contribution of the secondary sector to GDP: The share of industry which includes mining, quarrying, manufacturing, construction and electricity, gas & water supply has shown a steady increase from 15 percent in 1950-51 to 26.2 in 2013-14. Two major components of industry and manufacturing and construction increased from 8.9 percent in 1950-51 to 14.9 percent in 2013-14. Similarly, the sharerof construction increased from 4.4 percent in 1950-51 to 7.4 percent in 2013-14.

Tertiary sector contribution to GDP: The share of the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financing, insurance, real-estate, banking, social and personal services and business services) indicated a sharp improvement from 29.6 percent in 1950-51 to about 59.9% in 2013-14. There was a significant increase in share of trade, transport & communications from 11.3% in 1950-51 to 26.4% in 2013-14. This shows a good sign which is essential for an under developed country like India.

Question 3.
What are the causes for inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth ?
Answer:
Inequality in the distribution of National Income is one of the major problems which our planning process and economic policies have attempted to tackle. .
1) Inequalities in land ownership : There was concentration of landed property in India during the British period on account of Zamindari system. Minhas, Dandekar and Rath and Bardhan have clearly stated that all agricultural workers and marginal and small farmers with less than 2 hectare holdings are poor. Big and large farmers not only have capacity to save, they also have an access to institutional finance. Naturally, they are attempting to improve the farm techniques. This causes income inequalities.

2) Inflation : Since the mid -1950’s prices have been rising continuously eroding the real income of the working class, while the industrialists, traders and farmers with large marketable surplus have benefited a great deal from this inflationary process. In India, very little has been done to offset this redistributive effect of inflation and as a result, it has greatly accentuated income inequalities.

3) Inequality in credit facilities : In India, there is inequity in credit facilities which accentuates the inequalities arising from an unequal distribution of wealth. Business firms and individuals having an access to the formal capital markets manage to obtain finance on very favourable terms, while vast mass of small and marginal farmer agricultural labourers and artisans depend heavily on money lenders who charge an exorbitant rate of interest and also exploit these poor people in a number of ways.

4) Urban Bias in Private Investment: While 70 percent of the population in India lives in rural areas, about 70 percent of the private investment goes to industries in urban areas. Therefore, there is a distinct “urban bias” in the pattern of Private investment. This urban bias taken the form of highly mechanized projects in which the share of wages in value added is relatively low. This naturally leads to inequality in income distribution.

5) The Role of the Government: The public investment essentially plays a supportive role to private investment. The Govenment is no longer serious about reducing income inequalities.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 4.
Briefly explain the measures to reduce income inequalities in India.
Answer:
The main objective economic planning is to reduce income inequalities and to maintain social justice. To achieve this the government of India initiated the following measures.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income 2
i) Land reforms: Agricultural land was not property distributed among farmers. Thus, legislative measures were undertaken to abolish landlords and their intermediaries and ceiling on holdings were fixed. The implementation of land reforms in West Bengal states causes 18 percent increase in agricultural output and also reduced the income inequalities.

ii) Control over monopolies and restrictive trade practices : The monopolies and restrictive trade practices Act was passed in December 1969, which came into force on June 1st, 1970. The Act provides for the control of monopolies and for the prohibition of monopolistic and restrictive trade practices.

iii) Cooperative enterprises: Another instrument to balance the undue growth of big business in private sector is the decentralised sector in the farm of cooperative enterprises. This sector works for common good rather than for private and personal gain. Profits earned by cooperative sector are shared by very large number of members. This leads to reduce income inequalities.

iv) Encouragement of new enterprises: Special concessions and incentives provided to the new entrants in an industry can restrict the Concentration of economic power. If the government strictly implements the rule not to give licenses to start industries by the already existing farms, it would definitely reduce concentration of economic power.

v) Social security: The government has repeatedly declared that it aimed at “Growth with social justice”. The government undertook so many social security measures such as workmen’s compensations and maturity benefits, fixation of minimum wages, the employees Provident Fund, security for the old and disabled and family pension scheme for industrial workers and workers in mines and plantations.

vi) Taxation : Indian tax system is progressive and has been designed to prevent concentration of wealth in a few hands.

vii) Control over capital issues: Already the new capital issues are under government control. But it seems the control has not been effective checking monopolistic tendencies. In India many industries with monopolistic power yield huge incomes which are the cause for. income inequalities. As a result of this, the capital Issues Act 1956 was replead in May 1992.

viii) Employment and wage policies : The Government of India started many employment generation programmes to reduce income inequalities. For example, Integrated Rural Development Programme, National Rural Employment Programme etc. The wage rates allowed to the employees working in unorganized sector is very low. Implementation of minimum wages act leads to reduce income inequalities.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 5.
What are the causes for poverty in India ? [A.P. Mar. 18, 17]
Answer:
Poverty can be defined as a social phenomenon in which a section of the society is unable to fulfill even its basic necessities of life.
There are two types of poverty.

  1. Absolute poverty
  2. Relative poverty

1) Absolute poverty : Absolute poverty of a person means that his income or consumption expenditure is so meager that he lives below the minimum subsistence level.

2) Relative poverty : Relative poverty merely indicates the large inequalities of income. Those who are in the lower income groups receive less than those in the higher income groups.

Causes of poverty: Poverty cannot be attributed to any one single set of causes. It is a complex phenomenon and as such is the outcome of interaction of diverse factors, economic and non-economic.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income 3
1) Underdevelopment: The root cause of poverty is the underdevelopment of Indian economy. Dandekar and Rath have argued that unviable and unprofitable farms with little capacity for capital accumulation have been responsible for rural poverty in India. Small and scattered holdings, lack of adequate inputs, lack of credit facilities and insecure tenancy system are all responsible for backwardness of Indian agriculture which causes rural poverty. Industrial development has failed to make any dent on poverty.

2) Unemployment and low levels of wages: Poverty is caused by under-employment or unemployment coupled with low rates of wages. This is because supply of labour is more than that of demand for labour. Due to shortage of capital, the industrial sector is not in a position to absorb more number of people. This causes poverty.

3) Population explosion : In India population has increased from 361.09 millions in 1951 to 1210.19 millions in 2011. Due to scarce capital and low level of technology, it is not possible to provide sufficient goods services to the fast growing population. Rapid growth of population is another important cause for the prevailing poverty in the country.

4) Inequality in Assets and Income Distribution : The relative poverty is to be attributed to inequality in the distribution of National Income. Most of the agricultural labourers are in a states of poverty because; they have less than one hectares land to cultivate. Likewise, inequality in the ownership of industrial and commercial capital is one of the reasons of urban poverty in India.

5) Low availability of essentials : Another important cause for poverty in India is the low availability of essential commodities. The country is not able to produce sufficient goods and services as needed by the rapid growing population. The consumer goods shortage is responsible for low level of standard of living. There is a wide disparity in the consumption levels of the top rich and the bottom poor.

6) Inflation : Continuous rise in prices is another cause of poverty. When the prices rise, the purchasing power of money falls and it leads to improverishment of the lower middle and poorer sections of the society. Inflation affects the living standards of the people having low incomes.

7) Failure of five year plans: The main objective of the planning is to provide minimum level of living to all its citizens. It was felt that growth rate achieved during the five decades of planning would not be sufficient to remove poverty.

8) Social factors : Economic development depends not only on available resources but also on social factors. Indian people lack initiative and resourcefulness. In short, dogmatic and fatalistic attitude is responsible for inertia, lack of initiative and dynamism. Thus, Indian social institutions and attitudes hamper economic progress and are responsible for perpetuating poverty. The caste system and joint family system and the laws of inheritance are a great obstacle to economic progress.

9) Political Factors : Being under foreign rule, India was exploited under the British regime. Since Independence, the other political factors have adversely affected the economic progress. We have political leaders who have placed self before service and who do not hesitate to enrich themselves at the cost of the country. The Indian administration is known to be corrupt and inefficient. The legislators would not pass laws which may help the poor. Some times they may hit their interest.

10) Institutional factors : There are certain institutional factors operative in rural areas as well as urban area having a strong bearing on ownership, management and work. Semi-feudalism is an institutional factor responsible for rural poverty. The social and political institutions in rural areas have not allowed the land reforms and technological reforms to make a dent on rural poverty. The government is providing agricultural inputs like electricity seeds fertilizers and credit facilities at subsidized prices to be farmers. But these facilities are not catering the needs of poor farmers having small holdings and also the tenants. The institutional rigidities have not allowed equitable sharing of public goods such as education and health.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 6.
Write about the remedial measures to reduce poverty in India.
Answer:
In recent years, a two-pronged strategy was introduced by the government toward a solution to the problem of poverty in India.

  1. The expansion of sectors which promise higher level absorption and
  2. Empowering the poor with education, skill formation and health, so that they can enter sectors which require higher competence and provide better remuneration which enable the poor to cross the poverty line. The problem solving strategies are :

i) Adoption of a strategy of proper growth instead of emphasizing liberalization and GDP growth : Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in his Independence Day Message (15th August 2001) stated “The fruits of liberalization have not adequately reached the poor and the people living in rural areas, inequalities have increased. “The government has to pay attention to improve the economic conditions of 92 percent work force employed in unorganised sector. Government should give priority to the removal of unemployment in urorganised sector. “Right to work” should be made a basic human right. In this model emphasise should be laid on development of irrigation and watershed development with peoples participation. Agricultural cooperative should be strengthened.

ii) Stimulation Agricultural Growth: The growth rate of agriculture was 2.7% in the 9th plan and only 1.7% in the 10th plan. To overcome this type of slow growth rate, the Government of India appointed a high power commission under the chairmanship of Dr.M.S.Swaminathan which suggested the following 5 point action plan for the fanners.

  1. To undertake enhancement of soil health programmes.
  2. To promote water-harvesting, conservation and equitable use by empowering panchayats.
  3. To reduce the crop loan interest to 4 percent.
  4. To set up Krishi Vigyan Kendras for training the farmers.
  5. To reduce the gap between what the rural producer gets and the urban consumer pays should be reduced.

iii) Increasing the productivity and job quality of unorganized sector: The National Democratic Alliance Government appointed special group on targeting 10 million employment opportunities under the chairmanship of S.P. Gupta in 2002 to emphasize the growth of unorganized sector as surest method to reduce unemployment and poverty.

iv) Empowerment of the poor through education and skill formation : The development of a huge educational structure of 378 universities and 18,064 colleges, 152 lakh secondary and higher schools and 10.43 lakhs of primary and upper primary schools helps to enrich the human resources that leads to reduce the poverty.

v) Empowerment through provision of Better health : The strong link between poverty and health needs to be recognized. Long term illness and expensive illness can drive even the non-poor into poverty. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) are the two major initiatives to help the poor in the availability of health facilities. There is a need to extend health insurance for workers in the unorganized sector, in order to overcome from poverty trap.

vi) Empowering the poor through provision of housing : House is the basic needs for both rural and urban poor. The country must launch a massive programme to provide housing in the form of Indira Aawas Yojana and basic civic amenities in a period of 20 years.

vii) Empowerment through skill formation for expanding IT sector : The development of Information and Technology sector provides number of employment opportunities which enable to reduce the poverty. This will be possible through the following measures.
a) Governments should provide subsidized higher education and vocational training to the poor.
b) Sanction a large number of merit scholarships for the poor.
c) Government should help the educational institutions both financially and infrastructure-wise to provide education to the poor.

viii) National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme : The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act came into force in 2006 in India. For removal of poverty, we need two sets of measures
a) We must accelerate economic growth by increasing substantially our National income.
b) Our efforts of re-distributing National Income in favour of the poor should be more pronounced. Thus, accelerated economic growth and reduction of inequalities are both indispensable for a successful attack on mass poverty.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 7.
What is the role of Micro Finance in reducing the poverty in India ?
Answer:
Micro Finance institutions in India exist as non-governmental organizations. A section of 25 companies and Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC’s) and Commercial banks, Regional Rural banks, Co-operative societies and other large lenders have played an important role in providing refinance facility to Micro Finance Institutions.

“Micro Finance is the provision of Financial services to low income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and self-employed, who rationally lack access to banking and related services”. It covers a wide range of services like credit, savings, insurance, remittance and also non-financial services like training and counciling.

Micro Finance and Poverty reduction :
1) As an intervention to allieviate poverty, micro finance is viewed as the practice of extending small loans and other financial services such as savings and insurance to the poor for empowering them to protect themselves from economic setbocks.

2) Poverty can also be understood as vulnerability to downward in income. Such fluctuations may results from unexpected shocks such as crop failure, illness, funeral expenses or loss of assets such as livestock through theft or death. Micro Finance are the promise to reduce such vulnerable and protect livelihoods also reduce poverty.

3) An important dimension of poverty is powerlessness. Powerlessness can be experienced in a variety of situations, within the households, as a result of differences in gender and age and within the community, between socio economic groups, as a result of cost, electricity and wealth. Intervention with micro finance can influence the power relations of the society by fastering salidarity among the vulnerable through its group-based mechanism.

4) In most parts of the country micro finance services are being provided through group based systems that are advantageous of using peer pressure as social collateral.

5) These group-based systems can be broadly classified into two systems. They are Grameen, Group system, pioneered in Bangladesh and Self Help Group (SHG) system, Nurtured in India. Both these systems are widely replicated all over the world.

6) With the globalization and liberalization of the economy, opportunities for the unskilled and illiterate are not increasing fast enough, as compared to the first of the economy. This leeds to a lopsided growth in the economy thus increasing the gap between the rich and poor. It is in this context, the institutions involved in microfinance have a significant role to play to reduce this disparity and poverty.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 8.
Explain the causes for unemployment and remedial measures to reduce unemployment. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
A man is willing to work but he is not getting work. Therefore he is called unemployed. Unemployment is too serious an evil to be ignored. Widespread and growing unemployment is not due to any single factor.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income 4
1) Rapid rate of population growth :The most fundamental cause of widespread unemployment in India is the rapid rate of population growth which leads to increase in labour force. The rate of population growth rose to 2.2 percent per annum during the 1960s. As the population increased from 718.2 millions in 1983 to 1227.4 millions in 2011-12, corresponding the labour force also increased from 261.33 millions to 440.4 millions respectively. This is too big a number to be provided gainful employment at the present rate of growth of the economy.

2) Jobless growth : During the first three decades of economic planning, the GDP growth rate was as low as 3.5 percent per annum. In this period, employment increased at a moderate rate of 2 percent per annum. The rate of growth of employment picked up considerably to 2.90 percent per annum during the five year period 1990-00 to 2004-05 but again declined to almost zero present over the next five years i.e., from 2004-05 to 2009-10. Thus, the country could create only one million jobs during 2004-05 to 2009-10.

3) Inappropriate Technology.: In India, while capital is a scarce factor, labour is available in abundant quantity. Under such circumstances, if market forces operate freely and efficiently, the country would have adopted labour – intensive techniques of production.

4) Lack of Rural Industrialization : With regard to large rural unemployment and under employment, the underlying cause is the very heavy pressure of population on land and the backward nature of our farming. As a result, agriculture cannot provide employment opportunities for the far too numerous rural population.

5) Inappropriate Educational system : The educational system in India is defective. According to Gunnar Myrdal, India’s educational policy does not aim at development of human resources. It merely produces clerks and lower cadre executives for the government and private concerns. Any educational system which fails to develop human resources properly will not be able to provide employment to all those who have received it.

6) Lack of Manpower planning: The intake into various courses is not being plannned on the basis of the projections of the demand for skilled manpower in future.

7) Social factors : Since Independence, education among women has changed their attitude towards employment. Many of them now compete with men for jobs in the labour market. The economy has, however failed to respond to these challenges the net result is continuous increase in unemployment backlog.

8) Lack of self-employment opportunities : The rural marginal and landless households continue to remain unemployed (or) underemployed due to lack of self employment. The well educated youth lacking entrepreneurship qualities waiting for years together to get government jobs at meager wages.

9) Decline of cottage industries : In rural India, village (or) cottage industries are the only means of employment particularly of the landless people. They depend directly on various cottage industries for their livelihood. But, now-a-days, these are adversely affected the industrialisation process.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain the incidence of unemployment in India.
Answer:
The size of unemployment in any country depends on the level of development. Therefore when a country makes progress and its production expands the employment opportunities grow. In India, during the past six decades production has expanded in all the sectors of the economy. Most of the developing countries face an acute problem of unemployment and underemployment.

The basic reason for this that the rural areas have failed miserably to generate adequate employment opportunities for the rapidly increasing population.

Unemployment as measured by UPs orientation declined from 4.23 percent in 1977-78 to 2.81 percent in 1999-2000, but indicated an increase to 3.06 percent in 2004-05. In 2011-12 unemployment on UPs criterion is estimated to be 2.7 percent.

Unemployment in Current Daily Status (CDS) declined from 8.18 percent in 1977-78 to 6.09 percent in 1987-88, but the declining trend reversed to 8.28 percent in 2004-05, in 2011-12, rate of unemployment on CDS basis is estimated to be 5.6 percent.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 2.
What are the different concepts of poverty ? [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
Poverty can be defined as a social phenomenon in which a section of the society is unable to fulfill even its basic necessities of life.

When a substantial segment of a society is deprived of minimum level of living and countries at a base subsistence level, that society is said to be played with mass poverty.
Concepts of poverty:
1) Absolute poverty : The population whose level of income or expenditure is below the figure considered to be the absolute poverty or a person whose income or consumption expenditure is so meagre that he lives belows the minimum subsistance level is called absolute poverty.

2) Relative poverty : According to the relative standard, income distribution of the population in different fractile groups is estimated and a comparison of the levels of living of the top 5 to 10 percent with the bottom 5 to 10 percent of the population is called relative poverty, or those who are in the lower income groups receive less than those in the higher income groups.

3) Poverty line : According to the planning commission a person who is not having monthly percapita total expenditure of ? 49.9 in rural area and ? 56.64 in urban area at 1973-74 prices is called as a person living below the poverty line.

Question 3.
What are the different types of unemployment ? [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Types of unemployment: Unemployment is broadly defined into two types.
A) Unemployment in Urban areas and
B) Unemployment in Rural areas.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income 5
A) Unemployment in Urban areas :
i) Educated unemployment: The large number of educated unemployed shows, “a measurement between the kind of job opportunities that are needed and that are available in the job market”. The defective educational system, with its theoretical base, lack of aptitude and technical qualifications for various types of working among job-seekers and Maladjustments between demand on supply of education workers are some well-known causes of educated unemployment.

ii) Industrial unemployment: In India, the manufacturing sector has indeed expanded and employment in it has steadily increased. One of the reasons for this is the low employment elasticity in the manufacturing sector. As a result, industrial unemployment increased.

B) Unemployment in Rural areas :
i) Seasonal unemployment: If in agriculture is a normal phenomenon in India. In India farmers cultivating approximately 75 percent of their land remain involuntarily unemployed for 3 to 4 months in a year and most of them fail to find some temporary employment in this period. The main reason for its unemployment is lack of irrigation facilities.

ii) Disguised unemployment: Indian agriculture is characterized by the existence of considerable amount of surplus labour. In technological language, it is said that marginal productivity of such labour is zero. The kind of disguised unemployment is also comes underemployment.

Other types of unemployment:
1) Cyclical Unemployment: If unemployment occurs as a result of trade cycles, if it
is called cyclical unemployment. Trade cycles refers to the frequent booms and depression, up swings and low swings. Keynes said that cyclical unemployment is the result of the deficiency in efficient demand. Therefore, if effective demand increased, the level of employment can also be increased.

2) Structural Unemployment: It is one of the main type of unemployment within an economic system. If focuses on the structural unemployment within an economy and inefficiencies in labour markets. Structural unemployment occurs when a labour market is not able to provide jobs for everyone who is seeking unemployment.

3) Under employment: Labour that falls under the underdevelopment classification includes those workers that are highly skilled but working in low paying jobs.

4) Frictional Unemployment: It is another type of unemployment within an economy. It is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for or transistioning from one job to another. Frictional unemployment is always present to some degree in an economy. It occurs when there is a mismatch between the workers and jobs.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 4.
Write briefly about employment Guarantee Act.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme) This scheme was launched from 2nd October 2009, MGNREGS seeks to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to at least one number of every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. At least 33% of the beneficiaries are to be women under MGNREGS wage disbursement through bank and post office is mandatory. This is to help in ‘financial inclusion” of the poor. It provides a wage rate of ₹ 100/- per day to a worker. The focus of MGNREGS is an workers relating to water conservation, drought proofing, land development, flood control and rural connectivity etc. Panchayats have a key role in planning, implementation and monitoring of MGNREGS. This Act is useful for decentralization and deepening gross root democratic structure.

Question 5.
Explain briefly about Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameena Kaushal Yojana. [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
Deen Dayal Upadhaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana was launched on 25th September 2014 in view of 98th birth anniversary of Pandit Deenadayal Upadhyaya. Earlier the Yojana was known as Aajeevika Skills Development Programme (ASDP).

The Rational launching the yojana : The Yojana was launched in light of solving huge problem of unemployment among the rual youth despite the fact that they have merits. In order to correct this match, Union Government decided to launch skill development programme scheme.

Status of skilled workers In India : In India as against 12 million people entering the work force every year during the last 10 years only 1 million youth were trained. Further out of 12 million people, only 10 percent were skilled ones, while the percentage in European Unions is 75 percent and in China 50 percent.

Main features of DDUGKY : The main features of the Deena Dayal Upadhyaya Kaushal Yojana are :

  • The Yojana aims to give training 10 lakh rural youth for jobs in three years, that is by 2017.
  • The minimum age for entry under the Yojana is 15 years compared to 18 years under the Aajeevika skills programme.
  • Skill Development training centre’s to be launched. So as to address the unemployment problem in rural area.
  • The skills imparted under the Yojana will now be bench marked against international standards and will compliment the Prime Minister make in India compaign.

This scheme was launched to enhance the employability of rural youth which is the key to unlocking India’s demographic dividend. A sum of ₹ 1500 crores was allotted for this scheme in the 2015-16 budget.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 6.
Micro finance .
Answer:
Micro finance is the provision of Financial services to low income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and self employed, who rationally lack access to banking and related services”. It covers a wide range of services like credit, savings, insurance, remittance and also non-financial services like training and counseling.
Features of Micro Finance:

  1. Borrowers are from the low income groups.
  2. Loans are of small amount (Micro loans).
  3. Short duration loans.
  4. Loans are offered without collateral securities.
  5. High frequency of re-payments.
  6. Loans are generally taken for income generation purpose.

Need for Micro finance : Micro finance plays a major contributor to provide credit facilities. In the past few decades it has helped out remarkably in eradicating poverty. Reports show that people who have taken Microfinance have been able to increase their income and thereby their standard of living.

Micro finance institutions serve as a supplement to banks and in some sense better one too. These institutions not only offer micro credit but they also provide other financial services like savings, insurance, remittancé and non-financial services like individual counseling, training and support to start own business. But all this comes at a cost and the interest rates charged by these institutions higher than commercial banks and vary widely from 10 to 30 percent.

Question 7.
MGNREGS
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme) This scheme was launched from 2nd October 2009, MGNREGS seeks to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to at least one number of every rural household whose adult members voluntar to do unskilled manual work. At least 33% of the beneficiaries are to be women under MGNREGS wage disbursement through bank and post office is mandatory. This is to help in ‘financial inclusion” of the poor. It provides a wage rate of ₹ 100/- per day to a worker. The focus of MGNREGS is an workers relating to water conservation, drought proofing, land development, flood control and rural connectivity etc. Panchayats have a key role in planning, implementation and monitoring of MGNREGS. This Act is useful for decentralization and deepening gross root democratic structure.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
Answer:
The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act came into force in 2006. It helps to reduce the poverty.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 2.
Relative poverty
Answer:
The people with lower income are relatively poor compared with higher incomes, eventhough they may be living above the minimum level of subsistance is called relative poverty.

Question 3.
Absolute poverty [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
A person whose income or consumption expenditure is so mearge that he lies below the subsistance level they can called absolute poverty.

Question 4.
TRYSEM [A.P. Mar 16]
Answer:
This was initiated in 1979 with the objective of tackling unemployment problem among the rural youth. It aimed at training about 2 lakh rural youth every year to enable to become self employed. The TRYSEM was merged into Swamajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana in April 1999.

Question 5.
Disguised unemployment
Answer:
A person whose marginal productivity is zero or when more people are engaged in a job than actually required.

Question 6.
Poverty Gap Index
Answer:
The poverty gap index is defined by the mean distance below the poverty line expressed as a proportion of that line. The poverty gap index is insensitive to the extent of inequality among the poor. If income is transferred from a person to someone who is poor, the poverty gap index will not change.

Question 7.
Usual status concept of unemployment.
Answer:
This concept is used to measure chronic or long-term unemployment. It measures the activity status i.e., a person who remains unemployed for most of the time in the year. Thus, it appropriately measures open unemployment.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 3 National Income

Question 8.
Micro Finance [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
The provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products of very small quantity to the poor in rural, semi-urban and urban areas for enabling them to raise their incomes and improving living standards.

Question 9.
Percapita income
Answer:
It is estimated dividing National income by population of the country as per the formula given below.
Percapita income = \(\frac{\text { National income }}{\text { Population }}\)

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 2nd Lesson Population and Human Resources Development Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 2nd Lesson Population and Human Resources Development

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the theory of Demographic Transition.
Answer:
The theory demographic transition postulates a three stages sequence of birth and death rates as typically associated with economic development.
1. First Stage : According to this theory, death rates are high in the first stage of an agrarian economy on account of poor diets, primitive sanitation and absence of effective medical aid. Birth rates sire also high in this stage as a consequence of widespread prevalence of illiteracy, absence of knowledge about family planning techniques, early age of marriage, social beliefs and customs about the size of the family etc. In this stage, the actual growth rate of population is not high birth rate is balanced by high death rate.

It is a stage of high growth potential but of low actual growth. This stage was prevailed in India before 1921.

2. Second Stage : Rise in income levels enables the people to improve the diet. Economic development also brings about an all – around improvement including the improvement in transport which makes the supply of food regular. This stage is characterized by rapid growth of population because substantial reduction in the death rate as there is no corresponding decline in the birth rate. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people- improve the education expands, medical and health facilities increase and government makes special efforts to check small pox,.malaria, cholera and plague etc. These developments generally bring down the mortality rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the society towards the size of family does not change radically and birth rate remains high.

In this situation, population increases at an alarming rate. Economists call it population explosion. This stage has been prevailing in India since 1921.

3. Third Stage : A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompained by urbanisation grows fast and education becomes wide spread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall. Life in a city is not the same as in village. Industrialisation results overcrowding in cities and the housing problems compel people to revise their attitudes towards size of family. When the process of economic development gets accelerated, women seek all kinds of employment in order to supplement family earnings for working women, up bring of children is not an easy task consequently.

The birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 2.
What are the causes of high birth rate and low death rate in India ?
Answer:
Population increases because of high birth rate, low death rate and immigration. The birth rate has not declined significantly in India during the last five decades because of a number of economic and social factors.
Causes of the high birth rate :
I. Economic factors :
a) Predominance of Agriculture : India is a predominantly agriculture economy. In an agrarian economy, children are considered assets and’ not burdens as they help in agricultural fields and also other sectors.

b) Slow urbanization process and Predominance of villages : The process of urbanization has been slow in this country and it has failed to generate social forces, which usually bring down the birth rate. The social system and family structure of rural life seem to survive transplantation to the town or city quite remarkably. According to sociological studies.

c) High incidence of Poverty : There is high incidence of poverty in India. Poor people tend to have large families as they consider every child as earning hand. In a poor country like India children are considered as an asset of generating income.

II. Social factors:
a) Compulsory Marriage : Marriage is both a religious and social necessity in India. Presently in India by the age of 50 only 5 out of 1000 Indian women remains unmarried. More marriages means more population.

b) Early Marriage : Not only marriages are almost compulsory, they take place at quite young age in India, which provides more time for women to give birth to children.

c) Religious beliefs and Superstitions : Most Indians due to their religious and superstitions desire to have more children having no regard to their economic conditions. Every child is considered as “Gift of God”.

d) Joint family system: Joint family system in India also encourages people to have large families.

e) Illiteracy: Lack of education among people especially among women causes people to have irrational attitudes and hence big families.

Causes of the low death rate :
a) Control over famines : Famines, which were widespread before independence have not occurred on a large scale since independence.

b) Control over epidermics : Cholera and smallpox often resulted in epidemics before independence. Now smallpox is completely eradicated and cholera is very much under control. Similarly there has been decline in the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis. These have resulted in reducing the death rate.

c) Other factors : Other factors which have reduced death rate are :

  • spread of literacy and education.
  • expanded medical facilities and health care awareness.
  • improved supply of safe drinking water.
  • improvement in the nutritional level.
  • improvement in sanitation.
  • agricultural development in terms of HYVR

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 3.
What are the measures to control population explosion ?
Answer:
Population explosion is one of the obstacles for the development of the economy. Therefore it is not something to be welcomed and praised. Hence an attempt must be made to control population explosion.
Measures:

  1. Economic measures
  2. Social measured
  3. Family planning programmes

1. Economic Measures : The size of population in India is large and it is neither desirable nor possible to reduce it. Under these circumstances, vigorous efforts are to be taken on the economic front. As a matter of fact, only economic measures can ensure a permanent solution to the problem. The following measures are suggested by the economists, to reduce the intensity of population explosion.
i) Expansion of industrial sector : The family size of the people employed in the industrial sector is smaller than that of the people who are employed in the agricultural sector. In the country side any number of people can work on the family farm, through some of them will hardly make any contribution to the output. Most of the operational holdings in India are not economic and can thus provide only subsistence living. Most of the peasants think that the benefits from an additional child is greater than the cost of its upbringing. Industrial workers are aware of the difficulties in getting employment and interested in restricting the size of the family. Moreover, higher productivity in the industrial sector makes industrial worker’s conscious of their standard of living. They realise that in order to raise their standard-of living they must restrict the size of their family.

ii) Creation of employment opportunities in urban areas : Industrialisation in the country, there can be many other factors which contribute to the growth of urban centres. In order to check and reduce the people to migrate from the country side to cities, the Government has to create job opportunities in these places. If this programme is carried out in an effective manner and the migration of rural population to urban areas stops in a big way, it may prove to be a powerful check on the growth of population.

iii) Equitable distribution of income and removal of poverty : Poor people have virtually no interest in limiting the size of family. They have little stakes in their lives and are thus unconcerned about their families. While living in poor conditions, they often lose human qualities and at times get alienated even from themselves. Once the poor people get basic needs of life, they will have no economic compulsion to have more children and their attitude towards the size of family will undergo a change. In the change of situation not only will they become conscious of the number of children they should have, but will also undertake every possible effort to make the life of their children as comfortable as they can.

2. Social Measures : Population explosion is as much as a social problem as much it is a economic problem many of its causes are deep-rooted in the social life of the country. Literacy, superstitions and orthodoxy contribute to population explosion in the country. In order to bring down the birth rate, which is still very high, all the social evils must be removed.
(i) Education: Contribution of education in bringing down the birth rate is significant. Education often changes the attitude of person towards family, marriage and number of children he should have. Most educated people delay their marriage and prefer to have small family. Education, by making a frontal attack on orthodoxy and superstitions, induces people to family planning. When education is wide spread both boys and girls are sent to schools and colleges this automatically delays marriages and thus automatically reduces reproductive span of women.

(ii) Improving the status of women: Although the constitution of India has guranteed equality between men and women, there is discrimination in social life and position and status of women is inferior to that of men both socially and economically. This is perphaps the most important reason education is less among women and its absence, they are quite indifferent to family planning, however the discrimination between the men and women in the society leads to growth in family size. In backward society women are not generally allowed to exercise their discretion in respect of number of children they should have.

(iii) Raising the minimum age of marriage : Since fertility rate depends to a great extent on the age of women at the time of marriage. So it is necessary that every possible social, legal and educative measures in undertaken to raise it. In 1978, the child marriage restraint act was amended to raise the marriage to 21 years for men and 18 years for women, National population policy was amended to raise 21 years for men and 25 years for women with a view to restrict the rate of growth of population.

3. The Family planning programme: Importance of the family planning programme as a device to control population explosion is universally recognized.
(i) Public information programme: Under public information programme, couples in the reproductive age are explained the usefulness of family planning. Hence the Government has decided all media of publicity, including cinema, video, T.V to publicize the importance of family planning.

(ii) Incentives and Disincentives: The Government has introduced various schemes under which incentives are being given to those who accept family planning. The system of cash prizes has given some inducement to the people to go in for sterilization.

(iii) Family planning centres: Establishment of family planning centres is an integral part of any family planning programme. These centres provide various clinical facilities needed for family planning.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 4.
Bring out the main elements of population policy, 2000.
Answer:
National population policy : The national population policy, 2000 has outlined immediate, medium term and long-term objectives. The immediate objective is to meet needs of contraception, health infrastructure, personal health and to provide integrated service for basic reproductive and child health care. The medium term objective is to lower down the total fertility rates to the replacement level by 2010. The long term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045. In this broad frame work, the national population policy, 2000 aims at the following:

  1. Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 1 lakh live births.
  2. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per one thousand live births.
  3. Achieve immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
  4. To achieve 100 percent deliveries in hospitals and dispensaries.
  5. Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
  6. Achieve universal access to information and counseling and services for fertility regularization and contraception with a wide basket of choice.
  7. Facilities for safe abortions to be increased.s
  8. Promote delayed marriage for girls, not .earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
  9. Promote the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of total fertility rates.

In pursuance of the National Population Policy 2000, a National Commission of Population has been set up. The commission will review the implementation of the National Population Policy in due time.

Question 5.
Explain the occupational distribution of population in India.
Answer:
The occupational structure of a country refers to the distribution or division of its population according to the different occupation. We can divided various occupations into three catagories.
1. Primary occupations: Primary occupation also called agriculture sector. Agriculture and allied activities it includes forestry, fishing, animal husbandary, poultry farming etc. Because their products are essential for human existence. They are carried with the help of the nature. In the developing countries a large portion of the population is engaged in these activities.

2. Secondary occupations : Secondary occupation also called industrial sector. It includes mining and quarrying, electricity, gas and water etc. This sector is invariably small in the third world countries and absorbs only a small section of the labor force.

3. Tertiary occupations : Tertiary occupation is also called service sector or third sector. It includes trade and commerce, transport, storage and communications, banking, insurance, real estate, education and health. Tertiary activities help primary and secondary activities in the country.

There is a close relationship between the development of economy and changes in occupational distribution of population.

According to Hans Singer Economic development can be achieved by transforming a 85% agricultural dependent country into a 15% agriculturally dependent country.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development 1
Trends in occupational structure during 1951 – 2011 : 2011 census reveals that 48.9% of the labour force was employed in the primary sector. It indicates in predominance of agriculture in the economy. Secondary sector in India still remains small inspite of all the attention that heavy industries got under the various plans. In 2011 secondary sector accounted 24.3% of the labour as against 10.7% of labour force employed in the manufacturing sector during planning period. The tertiary sector in India accounts for a little more than one fifth of the labour force.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 6.
Define Human Resource Development. How do you improve it ?
Answer:
Many statistical investigations carried out in the western countries have shown that out put increased at a much higher rate than can be explained by an increase in physical inputs like labour and physical capital. This has been consistently improving due to improvement education skills, availability of health services etc. Therefore, along with physical capital formation, human development has also been playing a vital role in economic development.

The term human resource development refers to the “Process of acquiring” an increasing the number of persons who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and political development of a country. Human resource development is thus associated with investment in man and his development as a creative and productive resource. According to Schultz, there are five ways developing human resources.

  1. Health facilities and services, broadly conceived to include all expenditure that effect the life expectancy, strength and stamina and vigor and vitality of the people.
  2. And the job training, including old type apprenticeship organised by firms.
  3. Formally organised education at the elementary, secondary and higher levels.
  4. Study programmes for adults that are not organised by firms, including extension programmes notably in agriculture.
  5. Migration of individuals and families to adjust to changing job opportunities.

Importance of Human resource development: Human resource development plays an important role in economic development. Infact, effective use of physical capital itself is dependent on human resources. This is due to the reason that if there is under investment in human resources the rate at which additional physical capital can be productively utilised will be limited since technical, professional and administrative people required making effective use of material resources. Modem economists in recent years have pointed out that many third world countries have remained underdeveloped on account of under¬development of human resources. Therefore, large scale investment in human resources are needed if physical capital available in these countries is to be exploited more fully and in a more efficient way.

Question 7.
Explain the role of education in economic development.
Answer:
The expenditure on education in India is not considered an investment. Most of the people and particularly the decision makers in government think that education is just a social service and is meant only to improve the quality of mans life. The importance of education in production is rarely recognized.

Role of Education in Economic development:
1. Education and Economic growth : According to Todaro and Smith, education contributes to economic growth in the developed and developing countries in the following way.

  1. It helps in creating a more productive labour force and endowing it with increased knowledge and skills.
  2. It helps in providing wide spread employment and income earning opportunities when more schools, colleges and universities come in to existence.
  3. It helps in providing basic skills and encourages modem attitudes in the diverse segments of the population.

2. Education and Reduction in Income Inequalities : Though the linkages between education and economic growth are very much in evidence in both, developed and developing countries, those between education and reduction in income inequalities and poverty are difficult to establish.

Despite universal education and educational reforms carried out by the Governments, it is rich and middle income groups that have benefited most. This is due to the reason that the institutional and social structure within which the educational system has to function is unegalitarian and perpetuates inequalities. The childhood of the poor children is characterized by poor nutrition and illiterate home environment which has negative mental effect. Even if they are able to complete their education, they find it difficult to procure jobs which are covered by children belonging to the relatively rich classes on account of the better social contacts and influences.

3. Education and Rural Development: Education can contribute significantly to rural development in variety of ways. By widening the horizons of knowledge of the rural people, it can enable them to overcome ignorance and superstitions. Adoption of new agricultural techniques and new methods of production is rendered easier if the farmers are educated. Education can be oriented as to import skills such as health and nutrition, and improvement, family planning and child care etc. In labor surplus economies like India, education can help rural people in acquiring skills to set up cottage industries on their own so that, the disguised unemployed people can be faithfully employed in the villagers themselves.

4. Education and Family planning : Education helps in modernizing and revolutionizing the way of thinking of the people. It enlightens them of the need to improve their standards of living and for purpose to restrict the size of their families. Therefore, education serves as the best method of their families also as more and more women become literate and seek employment, the fertility rates show a tendency to decline because up bring of children is a comparatively a difficult task for working women.

5. Other benefits of Education :

  1. The current spillover income gains to persons other than those who have received extra education.
  2. The spillover income gains to subsequent generations from a better educated present generation.
  3. The supply of convenient mechanism for discovering and cultivating potential talents.
  4. The meeting of the skilled man power requirements of growing economy.
  5. The provisiory of an environment that stimulates research in science and technology.
  6. The tendency encourages lawful behaviour and promotes voluntary responsibility for welfare activities.
  7. The tendency to foster political stability by developing an informed electorate and competent political leadership.
  8. The supply of certain measures of “Social control” by the transmission of common cultural heritage. .
  9. The enhancement of the enjoyment of leisure by widening the intellectual horizons of both the educated and the uneducated.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 8.
Explain the importance of health in economic development.
Answer:
Efficiency of workers depends on their health. Workers whose health is not good and who fall sick quite often cannot do their job efficiently and thus there efficiency is bound to remain low and improvement in the health of the workers automatically raises the national output. World development 1993 stated “improved health contributes economic growth in favor of ways.

  1. It reduces production losses caused by worker illness.
  2. It permits the use of natural resources that had been totally or nearly inaccessible because of diseases.
  3. It increase the enrolment of the children in schools and makes them better to learn and it frees for alternative uses of resources that would otherwise have to be spent on treating illness.
  4. The economic gains are relatively greater for poor people who are typically most handicapped by ill health and who stands to gain the most from the development of under utilised natural resources.
    1. Balanced and nutritional food
    2. Medical care

Health goals set by 12th plan 2016 -17:

  1. Reducing Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 75 per 1,00,000 live births.
  2. Reducing Infant Mortality Rato (IMR) to 19 per 1,000 live births.
  3. Reducing Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to 2.1.
  4. Providing safe drinking water to all. ‘
  5. Prevention and reduction of under weight children in under 3 years is expected to be 29 percent by 2015 and 27 percent by 2017.
  6. Reducing anemia among women and girls by 28 percent.
  7. Raising sex ratio of age 0 – 6 years from 914 to 935.

Question 9.
What are the different indexes to measure Human Development ?
Answer:
Human Development Index: In recent years the search for an alternative to GNP as a measure of economic development has led to computation of the Human Development Index (HDI). The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) introduced the HDI in its first Human Development Report prepared under the able stewardship of Mohbub UI Haq and published in 1990.

The measure has been enlarged and refined over the years and many related indices of human development like Gender Related Development Index (GDI), Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) and Human Poverty Index (HPI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) have been developed in subsequent human development reports published annually by UNDP.

  1. A longevity of life is measured in terms of life expectancy at birth.
  2. Knowledge is measured interms of education.
  3. A standard of living is measured in terms of GDP percapita (PPPUS$).

Human Development Index measures the average achievement in three basic dimensions of Human Development.

Before calculating HDI, an idex for each of three dimensions is calculated. For this purpose, maximum and minimum values are chosen for each indicator.
Maximum and Minimum values for calculation of HDI.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development 2
Performance in each dimension is expressed as a value between 0 and 1 by applying the following formula.
HDI = \(\frac{\text { Actual value }-\text { Minimum value }}{\text { Maximum value }-\text { Minimum value }}\)
HDI report 2014 has classified the selected countries into four categories.

  1. Countries with the HDI value of 0.8 and above are grouped as the Very High Human Development Countries.
  2. Countries with the HDI value ranging from 0.7 to 0.8 are grouped as High Human Development Countries.
  3. Countries with the HDI value ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 are grouped as Medium Human Development Countries.
  4. Countries with the HDI values of less than 0.5 are in the Low human Development Countries. India has improved its HDI index from 0.42 in 1980 to 0.554 in 2012.
  5. India was ranked among 177 countries improved from 138 in 1994 to 128 in 2005, but now it has declined to 132 in 2007, 134 in 2008, 136 among 187 countries in latest report 2013.

Gender Related Development Index (GDI) : While HDI measures average achievement, the GDI adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women, the three components used for the purpose are

  1. Female life expectancy.
  2. Female adult literacy and gross enrolment ratio.
  3. Female percapita income.

If gender inequalities did not exists, the value of GDI and HDI would be the same, but if the gender inequality exists, the value of GDI would be lower than that of HDI. The greater the difference between HDI and GDI, the more in the inequality.

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) : The Gender Empowerment Measure was also introduced by the human development report 1995. The GEM indicates whether women are able to actively participate in economic and political life. It focuses on participation, measuring gender inequality in key areas of economic and political participation and decision making. There are three components, which are used for measuring GEM.

  1. Participation of women in economic and political activities.
  2. Gender inequality in economic and political participation.
  3. Female empowerment.

Human Poverty Index (HPI) : The human development report 1997 introduced the human poverty index, which concentrates on deprivation in three essential elements of human life already reflected in HDI longevity knowledge and a decent living standard.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 10.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of population ?
Answer:
Population of India means the total number of people living in India. Population is very essential for the growth of country.
Advantages of Population :

  1. Population provides work force to produce goods and services.
  2. Population provides market for the products that are produced.
  3. Population promotes innovative ideas.
  4. Population promote division of labour and specialisation.

Disadvantages of Population:

  1. Population put pressure on means of subsistance.
  2. Population leads to unemployment if there are no adequate jobs.
  3. Population put pressure on social overheads like hospitals, schools, roads etc.
  4. Population may result in increased consumption and reduced savings and capital formation.
  5. Population may increase dependency.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Trends of world population.
Answer:
In 1830, the total population of the world was one billion but it was doubled in 1930. By 1960 again population of the world increased by one more billion. By 1974 i.e., in 14 years the population increased 400 crores and it took only 13 years to reach the 500 crores mark in 1987. Therefore, the 12th July is known as World Population Day. In 2011 it was estimated 7.3 billion. Probably within next 3 to 4 decades by 2050 world population expected to be around 9.20 billion. 98% of world population growth will be developing countries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 2.
Top 10 populous countries in the world. [A.P. Mar. 16]
Answer:
The following shows that the list of top 10 populous countries in the world.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development 3

Question 3.
Causes of high birth rate in India.
Answer:
Population increase because of high birth rate, low death rate and immigration. The birth rate has not declined significantly in India during the last five decades because a number of economic and social factors continue to favour high fertility.

  1. Economic factors :
    1. Predominance of agriculture
    2. low urbanisation process
    3. High incidence of poverty
  2. Social factors :
    1. Compulsory marriage
    2. Early marriage
    3. Religious belies and superstitions
    4. Joint family system
    5. Illiteracy

Question 4.
What are the family planning programmes in India ? [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
Importance of the family planning programme as a device to control population explosion is now universally recognised. In China, the state approved of one child norm and has succeeded in bringing down the birth rate 21.6 per thousand as against 26 per thousand in India in 2012. China is successful in bringing down the birth rate because of wide spread use of contraceptives.

The following aspects of the family planning programme in this country deserve particular mention.
1. Public Information Programme: Under public information programme, couples in the reproductive age are explained the usefulness of adopting family planning. Hence, the Government has decided to use all kinds of publicity, including cinema, radio, television and newspapers to propagate the importance of family planning.

2. Incentives and Disincentives : The Government has introduced various schemes under which incentives are being given to those who accept family planning. The system of cash prizes has given some inducement to the people in it for sterilisation. Family planning is completely voluntary’ in this country, coercive methods have been generally avoided. During the emergency period, forcible sterilisation was done. The Govt, take policy of decision that preference for employment will be given to the people who accept small family norm and those who reject family planning may be denied certain facilities.

3. Family planning centres: Establishment of family planning centres is an integral part of any family planning programme. These centres provide various clinical facilities needed for family planning. In addition to these, clinical centres, a large number of contraceptive distribution centres should also be located in both urban and rural areas.

4. Research : Research in the field of demography, communication action, reproduction biology and fertility control has to be given a high priority in any family planning programme.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 5.
Importance of human resource development.
Answer:
Human resource development plays an important role in economic development. In¬fact, effective use of physical capital itself is dependent on human resources. This is due to the reason that if there is under investment in human resources the rate at which additional physical capital can be productively utilised will be limited since technical, professional and administrative people required to make effective use of material resources. Modem economists in recent times have pointed out that many third world countries have remained underdeveloped an account of underdevelopment of human resources.

Therefore, large scale investment in human resources are needed if physical capital available in these countries to be exploited more fully and in a more efficient way. It has also been observed that the development of human resources is intricately related to the process of the economic development. But proceed together and reinforce one another.

Question 6.
What is the role of education in rural development ? [A.P. Mar. ’18]
Answer:
Education can contribute significantly to rural development in a variety of ways. By widening the horizons of knowledge of the rural people, it can enable them to overcome ignorance and superstitions. Adoption of new agricultural techniques and new methods of production is rendered easier if the farmers are educated. Education can be oriented as to import skills and attitudes useful in improving the quality of family life. For example, through education on subjects such as health and nutrition and improvement, family planning and child care etc.

India, education help rural people in acquiring skills to setup cottage industries as their own. So that, the disguised unemployed people can be fruitfully employed in the villagers themselves.

These observations point to the necessity of reorienting the educational system to the requirements of rural population. If such a thing can be accomplished, there is redoubt that education will contributes significantly to the process of rural development in the country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 7.
Explain the education system in India.
Answer:
The expenditure on education in India is not considered an investment most of the people and particularly the decision – makers in the Government think that education is just a social service and is meant only to improve the quality of man’s life. The importance of education in production is rarely recognized.

The present education system in India is not qualitatively different from the one introduced by macauley, a person who introduced British education system in India.

This system of education simply produces Clerks and Junior officers. Since independence this education system has not been changed much and therefore an educated person in India even now is for useful to society than could be. Infact, most of the so called educated people are just literate but are not helping much in improving the productivity.

Recognizing the importance of education, public expenditure on education was increased during the 11th plan. It is 4% of G.D.P. in 2011 -12 about 43% of public expenditure an education was incurred for elementary education, 25% for secondary education and balance 32% for higher education.

Question 8.
Health programmes in India.
Answer:
The Government of India have been making continuous efforts to provide universal access to comprehensive health and family welfare services of acceptable standards of quality human capital.
The family planning programme was started in 1951 as a purely demographic initiative.

  1. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was started in 2005 to provide accessible, affordable and quality health services to rural areas. In the rural areas the Government extended National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to towns as National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in 2013. By combining NRHM and NUHM Government renamed it as National Health Mission (NHM).
  2. Accredited Social Health Activities (ASHAs) have been selected and trained in health care for various villages.
  3. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) was started to bring down Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). According to this scheme nearly 3.5 crore women have been covered.
  4. Pradhan Mantri Swasthiya Yojana (PMSY) has been launched with the objectives of correcting regional imbalances in the availability of reliable health care services in the country.
  5. Rogi Kalyan Samitis.
  6. Village Health and Sanitation Committees.
  7. Mobile Medical Units.
  8. Ayurveda Yunani Siddha Homeo (AYUSH) Services.
  9. Janani Sishu Suraksha Karyakramam (JSSK) was launched for mother and child care.

The 12th plan main aim is Universal Health Coverage (UHQ for all in the countiy. UHC broadly means ensuring equitable access to affordable and quality health services to all the people in India. Regardless of Income level, Social status, Gender, Caste or Religion.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 9.
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQU).
Answer:
The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is an attempt to measure the quality of life or well being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics : basic literacy rate, infant mortality and life expectancy at age one, all equally weighted on a 0 to 100 scale. It was developed for the overseas development council, in the mid 1970s by Morris David Morris, as one of a number of a measures created due to dissatisfaction with use of GNP as an indicator of development.

PQU might be regarded as an improvement but shares the general problems of measuring quality of life in an quantitative way. It has also been criticized because there is considerable overlap between infant mortality and life expectancy. The UN Human Development Index is a more widely used means of measuring well-being.

Steps Calculate Physical Quality of Life:

  1. Find percentage of the population that is literate (literacy rate).
  2. Find the infant mortality rate (out of 1000 births)
    Indexed Infant Mortality Rate = (166 – Infant mortality) × 0.625
  3. Find the life expectancy. Indexed Life Expectancy
    (life + MO expectancy – 42) × 2.7
  4. Physical Quality of Life
    = \(\frac{\text { Literacy Rate + Indexed Infant Mortality Rate + Indexed Life Expectancy }}{3}\)

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Population Explosion. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
Answer:
When the birth rate exceeds death rate during particular period of time.

Question 2.
Great dividing year of population.
Answer:
The year 1921 is regarded as great dividing year of population because both birth and death rates were high before 1921, later death rate has been decreasing more rapidly than birth rate in India.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 3.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR).
Answer:
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of death among the 1000 born children in a year.

Question 4.
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR).
Answer:
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of delivery deaths among the 1,00,000 women in a year.

Question 5.
Birth Rate.
Answer:
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of births among the 1000 population in a year.

Question 6.
Death Rate.
Answer:
It is calculated at a ratio of the number of deaths among the 1000 population in a year.

Question 7.
Urbanisation.
Answer:
The proportion of urban population in India in 2001 was 27.8 percent as against 17.3 percent in 1951. If the economic development is going on people are migrate backward areas to urban areas. So the population density will be increase in urban areas, facing number of problems like high cost living sanitation, drainage, housing problems and high male – female ratio.

Question 8.
Joint family System.
Answer:
Joint family system in India is very much common in rural areas. The joint family system induces young couples to have children since taking care of their bringing up at home is not a problem in a joint family their economic burden is carried and shered by the earning members.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 9.
Occupational Distribution of Population.
Answer:
Occupational Distribution of Population refers to the number and ratio work force participation in the total population. The working population of the country is engaged in three different kinds of occupations known as primary occupation, secondary occupation and tertiary occupation.

Question 10.
Primary Sector.
Answer:
The primary occupation include all these essential activities such as agriculture and allied activities like animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, poultry etc., changes in occupational structure are very much associated with economic development.

Question 11.
Tertiary Sector. [A.P. Mar. ’18]
Answer:
Tertiary sector is also called service sector. Trade, transport, communications, banking, insurance, education, health etc., are included in service sector. Tertiary activities help primary and secondary activities in the country.

Question 12.
Human. Resource Development.
Answer:
The term human resource development refers to the process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have the skill education and experience. Which are critical for the economic and political development of a country.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 13.
Literacy Rate.
Answer:
Literacy Rate = AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development 4 × 100

Question 14.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
Answer:
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been introduced during 2001 – 2002. With an aim to provide universal elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. SSA has now been renamed as Rajiv Vidya Mission in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 15.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY). [A.P. Mar. 18]
Answer:
The scheme has dual objectives of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institial deliveries. JSY has started in the year 2005 – 2006.

Question 16.
Human Development Index (HDI).
Answer:
Human Development Index measures the average achievement in the three basic dimensions of human development. They are life expectancy adult literary rate and decent standard of living.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 2 Population and Human Resources Development

Question 17.
Gender Related Index (GDI).
Answer:
Gender related index adjusts the average achievement to reflect the inequalities between men and women. The three components used for the purpose are

  1. Female life expectancy
  2. Female adult literacy
  3. Female percapita income.

Question 18.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).
Answer:
The Gender Empowerment Measure was also introduced by the human development index report 1995. There are three components, which are used for measuring GEM.

  1. Participation of women in economic and political activities.
  2. Gender inequality in economic and political participation.
  3. Female empowerment.

Question 19.
Human Poverty Index (HPI).
Answer:
The Human Development Report 1997 introduced the human poverty index, which concentrates on deprivation in three essential elements of human already reflected in HDI longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living.

Question 20.
Total Fertility Rate. [A.P. Mar. 17]
Answer:
The number of live births by a woman during the entire reproductive period.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 1st Lesson Economic Growth and Development Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material 1st Lesson Economic Growth and Development

Essay Questions

Question 1.
Explain the characteristic features of developed countries.
Answer:
The developed countries are also referred to as high-income countries, industrialized countries, and advanced countries. USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada, and Japan are some of the developed countries.
1) High per capita income: The income per head per year is called per capita income.
The main feature of the developed countries is high per capita income.
The per capita GNI of developed countries is far higher than the per capita GN1 of developing countries like India and China. In the year 2012 the per capita GNI of the U.S.A ($ 50.120) at the official exchange rate was nearly 33 times and at purchasing power parity ($ 50.610) was 13 times that of India ($ 1.530). So there is high differences in the per capita incomes of developed and developing countries.

2) Importance of Non-agricultural sectors: The developed economies are non¬agriculture in nature. The industry and service sectors are well developed in these economies. The contribution of these sectors to income and employment generation is very high when compared to the agriculture sector.
The developed countries are industry and service sector-oriented whereas the developing countries still depend on the agriculture sector. In the USA the proportion of people engaged in agriculture sector is just 1.6 percent and its contribution to GDP is 1.3 percent.

3) Abundance of capital and technology : The most important feature of developed countries is high rate of capital formation and wide spread use of modem and sophisticated technology. As the developed countries are high income countries their capacity to save is also very high. The banking system and financial institutions efficiently mobilize the savings.

4) Low level of unemployment: The unemployment in the developed countries is caused by the shortage of effective demand. The unemployment in these economies is cyclical and frictional.
The rate of unemployment is marginal and the skills and mobility of labour are higher in the developed countries.

5) Better quality of life : A better quality of life is ensured in the developed countries due to the effective social security system, better compliance of pollution standards, availability of safe drinking water, well organized health care system and sanitation. The expenditure on education, research, training, skill formation and health is more in these countries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Question 2.
India is a developing country – Discuss.
Answer:
The nature of the Indian economy is underdeveloped before the advent of planning. The pace of development has quickened since 1951. The following facts will prove that Indian economy is passing through a crucial phase of economic development.
1) National income trends : Over the four and half decades of economic planning, the economy registered significant advance. In 1950 – ’51 India’s net national product at factor cost at 1980 – ’81 prices was ₹ 40,454 crores. Since then it had increased to ₹ 91,71,045 crores in 2013 – ’14 from 4,71,619 crores in 1990 – ’91.

2) Rise in per capita income : A rise in per capita income is considered to be a better index of growth than the growth of net national product. In 1950 – ’51 India’s percapita net national product at 1980 – ’81 prices was ₹ 1,127. Since then it has raised by $ 1,070 to $ 1,530 in 2011.

3) Changing sectoral distribution of domestic product : An important index of development is a stealy decline in the contribution of agriculture and allied activities to gross domestic product. In 1950 – ’51 the share of agriculture and allied activites in the gross domestic product was 56.5%. The output of agriculture sector is 13.9%, secondary is 26.2% and tertiary sector is 59.9% in 2013 – ’14.

4) Occupational distribution of population : In India the occupational distribution of population has not changed significancy during plan period. In India where agriculture and allied activities accounted for 68.8% of work force in 1991 as against 72.1% in 1951. It is 48.9% in primary sector 24.3% in industrial sector 26.8% in tertiary sector in 2011.

5) Growth of production : The index of agriculture production increased by 100%. There is now in evidence much larger area under irrigation greater use of fertilisers and of improved agricultural practices. Indian agriculture has been greatly stabilised by the adoption of modem technology in farming.

6) Growth of basic capital goods industries : During British rule the share of basic and capital goods industries in the total industrial production was nearly one-fourth. From 1956, a large number of basic and heavy industries have been set up to make the country’s industrial structure strong.

7) Expansion in social overhead capital: Infrastructural facilities often referred to as economic and social overhead Indian planners were fully aware of the link between infrastructural facilities and general economic development. Their development can also be assured for better human-living. Tremendous amount of. progress achieved in the transport, banking, irrigation, education and communications. There has been a spectacular progress in the field of education and public health. The rate of literacy increased to 52% of population.

8) Science and Technology: For rapid economic progress, the application of science and technology to all economic and non-economic activities has become essential. 1958 the science policy resolution was adopted to provide positive incentives for the development and utilisation of science and technology in nation building activities. Our achievements in nuclear energy and in space technology have put India in the small select company of scientifically most developed countries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Question 3.
Explain the features of developing countries with special reference to India. [A.P. Mar. 18, 17, 16]
Answer:
Developing economies are distinguished from developed economies on the basis of their per capita income. Most of the economies are agarian in nature and their present rate of capital formation is low and inadequate to meet the requirements of their development.

According to United Nations ‘The countries which have real per capita income less than a quarter of the per capita income of the United States are developing countries”.
The following are the characteristic features of developing countries with special reference to India.
1) Low per capita income : One of the basic features of developing countries is low per capita income. The low income and middle income countries combined together are called developing countries.
The per capita G.N.I. of India has increased from $ 1,070 to $ 1,530 (2011) entered into the group of lower middle income countries.

2) Scarcity of capital :,The rate of capital formation is low in most of the developing countries. In the most of developing countries the saving rates range between 15 to 20%.
According to C.S.O estimates the growth of gross domestic saving was 27-9% and capital formation was 24% in the year 2011 – ’12.

3) Unemployment: Wide spread unemployment is one of the important features of developing countries. In India unemployment is due to the deficiency of capital. There is disguised unemployment in rural areas. Around 60% of the population is depending on agriculture for employment. The planning commission estimated that there was a back logo of 37 million unemployed at the beginning of 11th plan and it was expected that 82 million by the end of the plan.

4) Demographic characteristics : The developing countries are facing the problem of heavy population. They are successfully reducing the mortality rates by improving the medical facilities but failed to control the birth rates, this led to population explosion. India is also facing the problem of heavy population. It’s population was 1210 million in 2011 and it increased to 1278 million in 2015.

5) Predominance of agriculture : One of the basic features of developing countries is that they are predominantly agrarian economies. The share of agriculture in G.D.P is between 20 to 30%.

According to Indian economic survey 2013 – 14, 54.6% of the working population is engaged in the agriculture sector and it contributes 13.9% of the G.D.P.

6) High incidence of poverty: The another important feature of developing countries is the prevalence of mass poverty. The people in these countries suffer from low level of income, malnutrition, ill health and illiteracy.

India is also facing the problem of poverty. As per Tendulkar committee reports, the planning commission has updated the poverty line. Based on this; The percentage of population living below the poverty line was 29.8% in 2009 – 10.

7) Income inequalities : The most important feature of developing economies is the disparities in income and wealth. Compared to the developed countries, the income inequalities are larger in the developing countries.

According to 68th round of NSSO for the year 2011 – ’12 the monthly per capita consumption expenditure of the poorest 10% of the rural population rise by 11.5% in 2011 – ’12 compared with the 66th round for the year 2009 – TO. In urban areas, the growth was 17.2% and 30.2% respectively over the same period.

8) High density of population: The density of population is veiy high in the developing countries due to the large size of population. The density of population of the world was 50 per sq.km in 2011. It is in India was 382 per sq.km in 2011, where it was 3 in Australia, 33 in USA, 145 in China etc.

9) Low quality of life : The quality of life in the developing countries is very low in comparison with developed countries. These countries people suffer from malnutrition, high population, safe drinking water and lack of sanitation etc. The life expectancy at birth is below 65 years.

10) Technical backwardness: In the developing countries the production techniques backward due to lack of research and development. These countries use labour intensive technique because high population and capital deficiency.

Indian economy is also technically backward. Modem and traditional techniques are used side by side in different sectors of the economy. It has affected the productivity in the economy.

11) Dual economy: Economists talk of various types of dualism existing in developing economies. They are
(a) Social dualism
(b) Technological dualism
(c) Financial dualism.

Indian economy also characterised by the dualism, the product and factor markets in India are divided with different degree of imperfections. Technological dualism is existed in India. There prevailed two kinds of economic sectors i.e., organised and unorganised sectors. The industrial sector uses the modem technology and agriculture sector still follows old method of production.

12) Price instability : The price instability is also basic feature of the developing countries. In India there is continuous price instability because of shortage of essential commodities and gap between consumption and production.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate between economic growth and development.
Answer:
The terms of Economic Growth and Economic Development are used synonymously, there exists some differences.

According to C.P. Kindle Berger “Economic growth means more output and economic development implies more output and changes in the technological and institutional arrangements by which it is produced”.

According to United Nations expert committee “Development concerns not only man’s material needs but also the improvement of the social conditions of his life. Development is therefore not only economic growth, but growth plus change social, cultural, institutional and economic”.

The following are the main differences between Economic Growth and Economic Development.

Economic growth

  1. Economic growth refers to an increases in a country real output, of goods and services.
  2. Economic growth is a single dimensional phenomenon.
  3. Economic growth is mainly related to developed countries.
  4. It is a narrow concept.
  5. It does not require governmental intervention.
  6. It denotes quantitative changes in the economy.
  7. Economic growth does not indicate the distribution of income and wealth in the economy.
  8. Economic growth can be compared with the physical growth of a person.
  9. It can be measured.

Economic development

  1. Economic development refers to not only economic growth but also progressive changes in the social economic structure of a country.
  2. Economic development is a multi dimensional phenomenon.
  3. Economic development is generally related to developing countries.
  4. It is a wider concept.
  5. It is not possible to achieve economic development without the intervention of the government.
  6. It denotes qualitative changes in the economy.
  7. Economic development indicates the distribution of income and wealth in the economy.
  8. Economic development is like overall improvement of a person. (Both physical as well as intellectual).
  9. It cannot be measured.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Question 2.
Explain the determinants of economic development.
Answer:
Economic development is a complex process. It is influenced by both economic and non-economic factors. Broadly the factors determine economic development are classified as follows.
AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development 1
1) Natural resources : The development of any country on the availability of natural resources. Jacob Viner, WilliamJ.Baumol and W.A. Lewis attached great importance to natural endowments of a country for its development. The availability of quality and quantity or size of the natural resources can induce the development of agriculture and industrialisation.

2) Economic factors :
(a) Capital formation: Economic development depends on capital formation. Capital formation depends on savings. It enlarges a country’s capacity to produce goods. Capital formation helps the formation of sound infrastructure.

(b) Marketable surplus : Marketable surplus raises the incomes in the rural areas which in turn stimulates the demand for goods and services. So the development of other sectors in an economy depends on the marketable surplus.

(c) Foreign trade : Foreign trade helps the countries to increase the production of goods and services through division of labour and specialisation. It will expand the output and employment in the economy. It also facilitates the developing countries to import capital, technology from the developed countries.

3. Non-economic factors :
(a) Human resources : Population is an important factor in economic development. If a country can manage to use its man power properly. But in case, human resources remain either unutilised or underutilised it will be a burden on the economy.

(b) Technical progress : Technology plays an important role in the economic development. The use of modem and sophisticated, technology enhances the productivity and production is all sectors of the economy. It minimizes the cost of production.

Political freedom : Majority of the developing countries were under the British rule in the past. After they got independence all these countries have initiated planning strategy to achieve faster economic development. Hence political freedom is necessary to take strong and independent decisions regarding the development process.

Social organisation : Development process requires the active participation of all sections of people in a country experiences suggest that the defective social organisation helped the rich to gamer the benefits of development. This has led to wide spread disparities among the people.

Corruption : The rampant corruption at various levels in the developing countries has become a negative factor in the process of development.
The factors like tax evasion, misappropriation of public funds and connivance of the officials are the major hindrances in the way of development.

Desire to develop : The development process in any country depends on the people desire to develop. According to Richard T. Gill “Economic development is not a mechanical process. It is a human enterprise. It’s outcome will depend on the skill, quality and attitudes of the people”.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Economic growth.
Answer:
Economic growth refers to an increase in a country’s real output of goods and services. It related to developed countries.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Question 2.
Economic development.
Answer:
Economic development refers to not only economic growth but also progressive changes in the socio-economic structure of a countiy.

Question 3.
Per capita income.
Answer:
The income per head per year is called per capita income. It is obtained by dividing the national income with population of the country.
Per capita income = \(\frac{\text { National income }}{\text { Population }}\)

Question 4.
Planning commission’s definition of a developing country.
Answer:
“An under developed economy is characterised by the existence, in greater or lesser degree of unutilised or underutilised man power on the one hand and of unexploited resources on the other”.

Question 5.
Human capital.
Answer:
Expenditure on education, training, skill formation research and improvement in health is called human capital.

AP Inter 2nd Year Economics Study Material Chapter 1 Economic Growth and Development

Question 6.
World Bank’s classification of world countries.
Answer:
The World Bank in its world development report (2014) classified the countries on the basis of Gross National Income (G.N.I) per capita. Countries are divided into

  1. Low income countries : With G.N.I per capita of $ 1.045 and below.
  2. Middle income countries : With G.N.I per capita ranging between $ 1.046 and $ 12.746. The Middle income countries are again divided into
    a) Lower middle income countries with G.N.I per capita ranging between $ 1.046 and $4.125.
    b) Upper middle income countries with G.N.I per capita ranging between $ 4.126 and $ 12.746.
  3. High income countries : With G.N.I per capita of $ 12.747 or more

Question 7.
Dual Economy. [A.P. Mar. 17, 16]
Answer:
An economy where both technically advanced and technically primitive sectors exist side by side is called as dual economy.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 12 Government

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 12th Lesson Government Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 12th Lesson Government

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is Parliamentary Government and explain its features?
Answer:
Governments are classified into (1) Parliamentary and (2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A Parliamentary system of Government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India.

Definition:
Prof. Garner defined Parliamentary Government as “a system in which the real executive-the cabinet or ministry is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (ii) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

The main features of Parliamentary Government are :
1) Two types of executives :
There are two types of executives in the Parliamentary Government. They are 1) Nominal executive and 2) Real executive. The nominal executive is the head of the State and the real executive is the head of the Government. The King of Britain and the President of India are nominal executives. Both enjoy a position of glory without any real power. In both the countries, the Prime Minister with his council of ministers is the real executive.

2) Membership of the Parliament:
The ministers in this system are the members of legislature (Parliament). Ministers who are not members of the legislature must become its members within a stipulated period. Otherwise they have to leave the cabinet.

3) Political homogeneity :
The ministers in this system belong to the same political party. They have similar political views and ideals. They run the Government as a team. In case if no party gets absolute majority, coalition governments are formed.

4) Collective responsibility:
The council of ministers is collectively held responsible to the lower house of Parliament for its decisions, policies, failures and success. By collective responsibility we mean that if the lower house rejects the decisions of the cabinet, it has to resign. In the same way if the lower house passes ho confidence motion, it has to submit its resignation.

5) Indefinite tenure of the real executive :
The tenure of the council of ministers is not definite in this system. The cabinet remains in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house of Parliament. The council of minister resigns when it loses its confidence.

6) Leadership of the Prime Minister :
The Prime Minister is central to the life and death of the cabinet in this system. The council of ministers works under his leadership. He chooses his ministers, distributes portfolios to them and dismisses them. If he resigns, the whole government resigns.

7) Party discipline :
Party discipline is greatly found in a real Parliamentary Government. Every party in this system imposes discipline on its members by asking them to strictly adhere to its ideology, principles and programmes. Such a policy makes the members both in the party and government to fulfil their respective obligations with honesty, impartiality and sincerity. It ultimately secures political stability in the State.

Question 2.
Explain about the merits and demerits of Presidential Government.
Answer:
Presidential Government is one in which the executive is net responsible to the legislature for its acts. It is also known as single executive government, fixed tenure government and non-responsible government. Under this system a single person, namely, the President exercises all executive powers. The President as well as the legislators assume their office and continue in power for a prescribed tenure as stipulated in the constitution. The President is directly elected by the people who form into an ’electoral college.’ Further the President or the legislators are not responsible to others in exercise of their powers and functions. This system is based on the theory of separation of powers as proposed by Montesquieu. The United States is a classical example of this system.

Definition :
Prof. Garner defined Presidential Government as “one in which the executive is constitutionally independent of legislature in respect of its duration of tenure and political policies”.

Merits of Presidential Government:
The following merits are claimed for the Presidential system over the Parliamentary system.

1) Ensures stable Government:
This system ensures stability because the President is elected for a fixed term. His tenure is not dependent on the support of the legislature.

2) Efficiency in Administration:
Under this system, the President rales with the help of the secretaries and advisers who are experienced and efficient. They are appointed on the basis of their ability and efficiency but not on political considerations. They do not belong to any political party. They do not bother about the problems of their constituencies. They devote their time to administration. This promotes efficiency in administration.

3) Suitable for Emergencies:
This system is more suitable for emergencies. Since all powers are in the hands of the President, he can take any action and face any situation. He administers the country keeping in view the welfare of the people.

4) Suitable for diverse interests :
This system is best suited for countries which are inhabited by different communities with diverse interests. The President can meet the needs of diverse group of people by taking suitable decisions.

5) Consistent Policies:
The president enjoys fixed term of office. He cannot be removed before the end of his term very easily. This enables him to follow continuous and consistent domestic and foreign policies.

Demerits of Presidential Government:
The above merits are counter balanced by the following defects:

1. Scope for Disputes:
This system is based on the theory of separation of powers. Both the legislative and the executive organs are kept apart. Hus leads to frequent deadlocks and disputes between the two organs.

2. No Flexibility :
This system is very rigid. It is difficult to replace the President before the expiry of his term, even though he is weak, corrupt and inefficient.

3. Irresponsible and Autocratic :
This system provides scope for the President to rule irresponsibly and autocratically. It is so because he is independent of the control of the legislature and not accountable it for his actions. He ignores the criticism of the opposition. This makes him to misuse and abuse his powers.

4. Division of Responsibility :
This system leads to division of responsibility which affects the smooth working of government. When the relations between the legislature and the executive are not cordial, each may try to shift the responsibility on the other. This leads to inefficiency and division of responsibility in administration.

5. Public opinion is not reflected:
This system does not promote political consciousness because there is no significance for the legislature. The President and his secretaries are not the members of the legislature. So, they do not participate in its debates and discussions. As a result, the discussions in the legislature become formal and diy. They do not have much significance and reflect public opinion.

Despite the above defects, the Presidential system has been highly successful in the United States of America. It has become very popular with the Americans. In recent years, there has been a debate in India also on its relevance.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 3.
Describe the merits and demerits of Unitary Government. [A.P. Mar. 18. A.P. & T.S. Mar. 15]
Answer:
On the basis of distribution of powers between the Centre and the States, Governments are classified into Unitary and Federal. A Unitary Government is one in which all powers are vested in the Centre. For administrative convenience, the country may be divided into regional units which may be called as States. The units are mere agents of the Centre. They have no autonomy. The Centre transfers some of its powers to the units and they can be withdrawn by the centre at any time. Herman Finer defined Unitaiy Government as “a Government in which all authority and power are lodged in a single centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”. This type of Government exists in Britain, France, China, Japan, Italy etc.

Meaning:
The word ‘Unitaiy1 consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Taiy, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definitions of Unitary Government:
1. A.V. Dicey :
“Unitaiy Government is one in which one central power habitually exercises the supreme legislative authority”.

2. Herman Finer:
“Unitary Government is one in which all powers and authority are lodged with a centre whose will and agents are legally omnipotent over the whole area”.

3. Prof. J.W. Gamer :
“Unitary Government is one in which the whole power of the Government is conferred by the Constitution upon a single central organ or organs from which the local governments derive their authority”.

Merits of Unitary Government:
Unitary Government has many merits. Some of them may be identified in the following lines as below.

1. Powerful Government:
Unitary Government brings uniformity in administrative and legislative matters. As there is only one central government having single legislature, executive and judicial wings, the central government will remain most powerful in its working. So this government provides stable and integrated rule.

2. Efficient Rule :
In a unitary set up all the regional or Provincial Governments strictly.follow the instructions of the Central Government. The Central Government tackles all issues efficiently and effectively. This is due to the concentration of governmental powers in the Central Government.

3. Less expensive and time saving:
These will be only one Government in a Unitary, System. Provincial units may or may not exist. As a result, the formation and maintenance of Unitary Government requires less amount of finances. There will be no duplication of institutions. As a result public money and time are saved in Unitary System.

4. Administrative Uniformity :
In unitary system the entire country is placed under the direct rule and control of the Central Government. As a result there will be uniform laws, rules and regulations throughout the country. This secures uniformity in law-making and administrative process.

5. Quick decisions possible:
Unitary system comprises one government for the entire State. That Government takes decisions quickly and promptly. As a result Unitary Government will tackle any unforeseen events in times of emergency.

6. Single citizenship :
The citizens in a unitary state will have single citizenship. So, there will be no discrimination between them within the four corners of the country. Ultimately, single citizenship promotes national unity, integraty and solidarity among the people.

7. Useful for small countries:
Unitary Government is suitable to the small countries having limited population and geographical area. Moreover, it embodies the element of homogeneity in respect of culture, language, race, religion etc.

Demerits of Unitary Government:
Unitary Government has several demerits. They may be listed out as follows.

1. Scope for Despotism :
As all the powers are vested with the Central Government in a Unitary System, the persons at the helm of affairs may adopt despotic policies thereby affecting the freedoms of individuals.

2. More burden on Central Government:
There will be no distribution of powers between the Central and State Governments in this system. Only the Central Government carries on all the functions. As a result, there will be a scope for more burden on Central Government leading to negligence and delay.

3. Growth of inefficiency :
The local or regional governments do nqt have much autonomy and independence in this system. So the former depend upon the Central Government. People too lose their political initiative at local levels. This leads to the growth of inefficiency in administration.

4. Not suitable for large countries :
Unitary Government is not suitable to large countries having extensive population, vast territory, diverse cultures and religions. So unity in diversity is difficult to achieve in large countries.

5. Irresponsibility:
The Central Government is not responsible to anybody in a unitary set up. The units cannot dictate terms to the Central Government. So there is a scope for the Central Government to behave irresponsibly.

Question 4.
What are the functions of Legislature? [A.P. Mar, 15]
Answer:
Legislature is the law-making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :
Functions of Legislature:
1) Legislative functions :
The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Law-making is the most important activity of legislature.

2) Deliberative functions:
The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.

3) Executive functions :
In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessary, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.

4) Financial functions :
The legislature controls the national finances. It passes the annual budget and allots the funds for various departments. It suggests the ways and means of raising the revenue and spending it.’

5) Judicial functions :
The legislature, especially, the upper house, performs some judicial functions. In Britain, the House of Lords functions as the highest Court of Justice. In America and India the legislatures try cases of impeachment against the Presidents and the Justices of Supreme Court and High Courts.

6) Constitutional functions:
The legislature amends the constitution as per the needs of the country which change from time to time.

7) Electoral functions:
In some countries, the legislatures perform electoral functions also. Ex: The elected members of the Indian Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies elect the President of India. In Switzerland, the members of Federal Assembly elect the judges of the Federal Tribunal.

8) Other functions :
Besides the above, the Legislature performs functions like accepting or rejecting the ordinances issued by the Head of the State, electing the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, appointing enquiry committees etc.

Question 5.
Discuss the functions of the Executive.
Answer:
Of the three organs of government, the Executive occupies the most important place. Very often it is referred to as the Government. It refers to that branch of government which executes or enforces the laws of the State. It is used in two senses – narrow sense and broader sense. In its broader sence, it denotes all State officials who are concerned with the execution of laws and administration. In its narrow sense it refers to the heads of departments (ministers) who run the machinery of Government.

The President in America and the Prime Minister and other Ministers in India constitute executive in the narrow sense.

Functions of the Executive :
The functions of the executive differ from country to country depending upon the nature of Government and the ideology of the State. Apart from law – execution, it undertakes a number of functions which can be studied under the following heads :

1) Administrative functions :
The entire administration is carried on in the name of the executive. Its functions in this context include: appointment of highest officials, giving directions to different administrative departments, changing the rules and regulations from time to time, enforcing laws, maintaining order and peace etc.

2) Diplomatic functions :
These include functions like conducting foreign affairs, appointing diplomatic personnel to foreign countries and receiving them from other States, concluding treaties and agreements, sending peace missions for promoting friendly ties with other countries, arranging ceremonial welcome and tour programmes to the Heads of the foreign countries etc.

3) Military functions:
These include protecting the territorial integrity of the Country against external invasion, maintaining armed forces, declaring war or concluding treaty of peace with other countries and acting as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

4) Legislative functions :
Executive enjoys certain legislative powers also. In Parliamentary Government the executive guides the work of legislature. It summons, prorogues and dissolves the legislature, issues ordinances when the legislature is not session; gives approval to the bills passed by the legislature, vetoes any bill or sends it back to the legislature cannot directly participate in legislation. ‘Even then, it influences legislation by exercising veto power, sending messages to it.

5) Financial functions :
The executive prepares the Budget, raises the revenue and spends it on different items. Maintaining financial stability of the State is the responsibility of the executive. Levy or abolition of taxes, provisions of capital funds, reduction of prices etc., come under the purview of executive functions.

6) Judicial functions :
The executive in all countries under takes some judicial functions like appointing the judges to the highest courts of law, removing them on grounds of proved misbehaviour, granting pardons, reprieves and remissions of punishments, implementing the Judgement Qf the Courts of law etc.

7) Other functions :
Apart from the above, the executive also undertakes functions like framing plans for the development of the country; declaring emergency during war; granting titles and awards, implementing welfare programmes etc.

In view of the above functions, the executive is described .as “a multi – functional . organ”. It is the mainspring of the Government. It makes the wheel go round.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 6.
Point out the functions of the Judiciary.
Answer:
The Judiciary is the third organ of the government. It refers to those officers of Government whose function is to apply the existing law to individual cases. It consists of the magistrates and judges charged with the duty of administering justice. In brief, it is that branch of the Government which settles disputes and administers justice.

Functions of the Judiciary:
1. Interpretation of Laws:
The primary function of judiciary is interpretation of laws. Judiciary interprets laws and applies them to specific cases that come before it. It applies the elements of customs, statutes and constitutional provisions to specific cases.

Whenever the existing law is inadequate for delivering justice, it applies the principles of justice, equity and morality. As Gettle remarks, “Constitution and laws are always rigid. Flexibility must be given to them by judges”.

2. Custodian of the Constitution :
Judiciary acts as guardian of the Constitution in federal system. It protects the spirit and sanctity of the constitution. Judiciary, in a federation, is empowered to declare a law as unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

3. Guardian of Civil Liberties :
Judiciary acts as guardian of civil liberties of the people. It protects individual liberties by punishing those who encroach upon it. It also protects the people against the arbitrary actions of the government.

For instance, in the case of India, the Constitution under Articles 32 and 226 empowered the Supreme Court and High Courts to act as the guardians of fundamental rights of the citizens. These courts can issue injunctions to prevent the arbitrary acts of some individuals and organisations. Such injunctions include Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo- warranto and Certiorari.

4. Federal equilibrium :
Judiciary plays a key role in the federal system. It solves disputes between the Centre and the State Governments and also between States. It sees that neither the Central Government nor the State Government exceed the constitutional limitations.

5. Advisory Functions:
Judiciary renders advice on the request of the executive or the legislature. For instance the President of India may seek the advice of. the Supreme Court on any question of Constitutional Law. In England, the practice to request a court to give declaratory judgement is very common. The Crown sometimes asks the judicial committee of the Privy Council to give its advisory opinion upon questions of law.

6. Appellate Jurisdiction :
The highest court of justice hears appeals over the judgements of the lower courts. At times, it ratifies the judgements pronounced by the lower courts. Sometimes, it may reverse some of their judgements.

7. Maintenance of records :
Judiciary maintains all the records of the cases along with their judgements. These records will help the advocates and judges in the trial of similar cases that may occur in future.

8. Acting as Head of the State :
In some countries, under certain conditions, the Chief Justice of the highest Court assumes the powers of the acting head of the State in the absence of President and Vice-President in office.

9. Administrative Functions :
The Supreme Court and High Courts are entrusted with some administrative functions. They make suggestions to the executive head in appointing the judges of the lower courts. The higher courts supervise the functioning of the lower courts. For instance the high courts in India are given the obligation of supervising the activities of the subordinate courts in their jurisdiction.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the traditional form of Governments.
Answer:
The ancient Greek political philosophers like Aristotle held detailed deliberations on the classification of States. The modem political scientists prefer to call such classification as ‘classification of governments’. On the whole, governments are classified into three types namely monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Some of the traditional and modern classifications are mentioned below.
Aristotle’s classification of Governments

Number of persons having ruling power End of the State
Normal form Perverted form
One Monarchy Tyranny
Few Aristocracy Oligarchy
Many Polity Democracy

Aristotle classified Governments on the basis of two elements, namely, (i) Number of persons holding power and (ii) end of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms.

He mentioned monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, Oligarchy and Democracy are the perverted form of Governments. According to him monarchy is a rule by one person, who exercises powers himself. When that person rules the state with good intensions, such government is known as monarchy. Otherwise it will degenerate into tyranny. Aristocracy is a noble form of government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talents, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers.

When these persons exercise powers with selfish motivations, such a government is known as oligarchy. Polity is a form of government comprising many persons who have noble qualities such as set honesty impartiality, wisdom etc., on the other hand democracy is a perverted form of government in the sense that the rulers always assign priority to their self interests thereby ignoring popular wishes.

Question 2.
What are the features of Unitary Government? [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Definition :
A.V. Dicey “A Unitary Government is the habitat exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Features of Unitary Government:
The basic or essential features are as follows :
1. Single government:
A Unitary government consists of a single Central Government for the entire country. It has all the powers. The concentration of all powers in the Central Government is meant for uniformity and efficiency in administration.

2. Provincial government:
In a Unitary Government, the provisional governments are not created by constitution. They are created by the Central Government for the sake of administrative convenience. The Central Government has the power to destroy the provincial governments. The states are the agents of the Central Government.

3. Transfer of powers :
For the sake of administrative convenience, the Central Government may transfer some of its powers to the provincial governments. These powers can also be taken back by the centre at any time.

4. Constitution :
A Unitary Government may have an unwritten constitution. Ex : Britain has an unwritten constitution. However, all the unitary states do not follow the model of Britain. France, a unitary state has a written constitution.

5. Single citizenship:
In a unitary state, all the citizens will have only one citizenship. No citizen will have the citizenship of the state in which he lives.

6. Unicameral legislature :
A unitary state may also function with a unicameral legislature (one house only). It is possible because, in a unitary state, the states need not have representation in the upper chamber. However, all the unicameral states do not opt for it. Ex: Britain, France, China have bicameral legislatures.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 3.
Discuss the features of Federal Government. [A.P. 18]
Answer:
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning:
The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means “Treaty of Agreement”.

Definitions :
1. A.V. Dicey :
“A federal government is a political contrivance intended to reconcile national unity with the maintenance of State’s rights.

2. J.W.‘Garner:
Federal government is a system in which the totality of governmental power is divided and distributed between the Centre and the States by the National Constitution”.

3. Hamilton :
“Federation is an association of states that forms a new one”.

4. K.C. Wheare :
“A federal government is a method of dividing powers so that the regional and Central Government are each within their sphere, co-ordinate and independent.”

Features, of Federal Government:

Federal Government comprises several features. They may be denoted as follows :
1. Written Constitution:
A Federal Government normally has a Written Constitution. Such a Constitution is considered as the supreme law of the land. It defines, decides and devises powers between the Central and State Governments. Hence, it became a practical necessity of Federal Government.

2. Dual Citizenship :
Federal State provides dual citizenship to the citizens. Accordingly, the citizens will have membership in both the Centre and the. States simultaneously. As a result, they participate in the election of representatives to both the national and provisional bodies.

3. Division of Powers:
In a Federation, the Powers of Government are divided between the Centre and the States. The Central Government exercises control over matters of national importance like defence, external affairs, customs, exports and imports etc. On the other hand, certain matters like education, agriculture, health, irrigation etc., having provincial importance are allocated to the State Governments.

4. Bicameralism :
Bicameralism is another important feature of a federation. In a federal state, we observe two chambers in the union legislature and some of the provincial legislative organisations. The first or lower chamber represents the interests of the people. The second chamber or upper house comprises the members representing the States.

5. Rigidity:
Generally, the Constitution of a federation is very rigid. So it cannot be amended easily. The Concurrence of the Centre and States is required for amending some of the important provisions. So, neither the Centre nor the states unilaterally can amend the constitutional provisions.

6. Independent Judiciary :
Independent judiciary is another essential feature of a Federal Government. Such an organisation will settle disputes between the Centre and the States. The Judges in Judiciary constitutionally enjoy independent position. Once appointed, they could not be removed by any body under normal conditions. They will be there to safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens. They can check the misuse of powers by the executive and legislative authorities.

Question 4.
What are the Merits of Parliamentary Government?
Answer:
Merits :
The merits of the Parliamentaiy Government may be explained as follows :
1) Co-ordination between the Legislature and Executive Organs:
Executive is chosen from the Legislature in this system. Hence, there is greater opportunity for good Co-ordination and harmonious relationship between the legislature and executive organs.

2) No scope for despotism :
All the powers of the State will be equally distributed between the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The executive is responsible to the Parliament and it can be removed by ‘no confidence motion’. Hence, there is no scope for the executive to become despotic in this Government.

3) Scope for distribution of powers :
Parliamentary Government stands for the distribution of political power and administrative authority. The constitutional machinery of this system allocates Governmental powers among several persons who have commitment, commonsense, public spirit etc.

4) Easy to form alternative Government:
Parliamentary Govemmentfenables easy formation of Government. Normally, that party or those parties which securejnajority seats in the lower house of the legislature, during general election, will be able to form the Government. Similarly, changes in governmental policies could be initiated op easy lines. Whenever the party in power resigns or is removed from power, the opposition parties will make efforts to form alternative government.

5) Adequate representation :
Parliamentary Government provides adequate representation to the various sections and regions. The executive and legislative branches in this system comprise members representing various walks of life. No one including the minorities is ignored in this system. As a result, it embodies national spirit and unity among the people.

Question 5.
Explain the Theory of Separation of Powers.
Answer:
Montesquieu is the main proponent of this theory. Montesquieu explained this theory in his book “The Spirit of Laws” (1748). He visited England and made a comparative study of the French despotism and the British Parliamentary democracy He came to the conclusion that the Britishers enjoyed greater liberty because of the separation of powers among the three branches of British Government.

Montesquieu stated that concentration of powers in one person or a body of persons would result in despotism and negate individual liberty. He suggested separation of powers among the three organs of government in a balanced manner. Every organ must check the misuse of powers of other organs. Then only individuals enjoy their liberties without fear from the governmental interference. His theory became the basis of American Constitution. It is aptly said that the American Constitution is an essay on the theory of separation of powers propounded by Montesquieu. The constitutions of many countries including India have incorporated the ideas of Montesquieu.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 6.
Discuss any three functions of Legislature.
Answer:
Legislature is the law – making branch of the government. Its functions may be discussed under the following heads :
1) Legislative functions :
The legislature frames new laws, changes or revises or cancels them as per the circumstances. Law-making is the most important activity of legislature.

2) Deliberative functions:
The legislature discusses various matters of public concern and formulates domestic and foreign policies. It ventilates public grievances and offers solutions to different problems of the people.

3) Executive functions :
In a Parliamentary Government, the legislature exercises control on the Council of Ministers through different resolutions and questions. If necessaiy, it can pull down the Government through a no-confidence motion.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Government.
Answer:
Prof. J.W. Gamer defined “Government as the agency or machinery through which common policies are determined and by which common affairs are regulated and common interests are promoted.”

Question 2.
Write about Aristotle’s classification on Government.
Answer:
Aristotle classified governments on the basis of two elements, namely, i) Number of rulers ii) Aims of the State. He again classified Governments into normal and perverted forms. He says monarchy, aristocracy and polity as the normal form of governments. Tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are the perverted form of Governments.

Question 3.
Write the meaning of Aristocracy. [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Aristocracy is a noble form of Government in which few persons by virtue of their birth, talent, status, wealth etc., will act as rulers. When these persons exercise their powers with selfish motivations, such a Government is known as oligarchy.

Question 4.
Define Democracy. [T.S. Mar, 15]
Answer:
i) Aristotle defines “Democracy as a perverted form of Government of many rulers”.
ii) Abraham Lincoln defines “Democracy is a Government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

Question 5.
What is a Unitary Government?
Answer:
Meaning:
The word ‘Unitary’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Uni’ and Tary’, uni means one and tary means ‘rule’. Unitary Government is a single integrated government with all executive powers. The Constitution vests all powers in the Central Government.

Definition :
A.V. Dicey “A Unitary government is the habital exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power”.

Question 6.
What do you mean by Federal Government? [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Governments are classified into Federal and Unitary on the basis of the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States. A federal system is one in which the powers* of the government are distributed constitutionally between the Centre and the State Governments. Ex : America, Switzerland etc.

Meaning:
The term “Federation” is derived from a Latin word “Foedus” which means ‘Treaty of Agreement”.

Question 7.
Write briefly about the theory of separation of powers.
Answer:
Theory of separation of powers is propounded by Montesquieu in his5 famous book The Spirit of Laws’. The powers among the three organs of the Government In presidential executive will be distributed on the basis of the theory of separation of powers. Its main feature is ‘Checks and Balance’, which means the three organs of the Government possess equal powers and each organ checks the other two organs from crossing their limits.

Question 8.
How many orgam of government are there? Name them.
Answer:
There are three organs of Government.
They are :

  1. Legislature,
  2. Executive and
  3. Judiciary.

Question 9.
What do you understand by Parliamentary Government?
Answer:
Governments are classified into (1) Parliamentary and (2) Presidential on the basis of the relationship between the legislature and the executive. A Parliamentary system of Government is one in which the executive is a part of the legislature and held accountable to it. It is also called ‘Cabinet’ or ‘Responsible form of Government’. It originated first in Britain and later was adopted by many countries including India. ‘

Definition:
Prof. Gamer defined Parliamentary Government as “a system in which the real executive-the cabinet or ministry – is (i) Immediately and legally responsible to the legislature for its political policies and acts and (8) Immediately or ultimately responsible to the electorate.”

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 10.
What are the other names of Presidential Government?
Answer:
The other names for Presidential Government are :

  • Single Executive Government,
  • Fixed Tenure Government and
  • Non Responsible Government’

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Andhra Pradesh BIEAP AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 11th Lesson Constitutions Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material 11th Lesson Constitutions

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Constitution and explain its features of the Constitution.
Answer:
Introduction :
The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a constitution. A Constitution is a condition of modem state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

Meaning:
The term constitution is an English word. It was derived from a Latin word “Constitution, which means to Establish”.

Definitions:
1) Aristotle :
“Constitution is the arrangement of offices in a state, especially the highest of all”.

2) Lord Bryce:
“Constitution is a set of established rules embodying and enacting the practice of Government”.

3) Stephen Leacock:
“Constitution is the form of Government”.

4) K.C. Wheare :
“Constitution is that body of rules which regulates the ends for which governmental power is exercised”.

Features of the Constitution:
1) Preamble :
Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2) Clarity:
Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights :
Every Constitution includes some funda-mental rights. These fundamerital rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4) Brevity :
Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confussion among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included in the Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5) Flexibility:
The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modem state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6) Permanence:
Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

7) Mode of Amendment:
The Constitution specifies the mode of amendment. It will be relevant to the contemporary conditions of the state. It contains a special chapter on the constitutional amendment procedures. Usually the constitutional amendments are of three types, namely (i) Rigid (ii) Flexible and (iii) Half rigid and Half flexible. On the whole, the constitution of every state comprises both rigid and flexible elements.

8) Explanatory:
The Constitution is explanatory in nature. It denotes and discusses almost all elements relating to the People, Government and State. It contains separate provisions on the structure, powers and limitations of state activity.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
Define Constitution and point out the differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitutions.
Answer:
Definition :
The age of Democracy led to political civilisation. Now-a-days every civilised state possess a Constitution. A constitution is a condition of modem state. The constitution is a living text of a political system. It represents the political character of the state and its constituents.

Flexible Constitution:
Flexible constitution is one whose provisions can be amended easily. It requires no special procedure for changing its provisions. It can be amended by the authorities by adopting the same procedure of ordinary laws. So we do not find differences between ordinary and constitutional laws. Flexible constitutions were prevalent in the ancient period. Ex : British constitution.

Rigid Constitution :
Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. Ex : United States.

Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Not appropriate to a federal state. 2. Appropriate for a federal state.
3. Highly unstable. 3. Highly stable.
4. Constitution can be easily amended. 4. Constitution cannot be easily amended.
5. Provides no scope for judicial review. 5. Provides scope for judicial review.
6. Only one type of law is found. 6. Two types of laws are found, constitutional and ordinary. Constitutional laws precede ordinary laws.
7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people may not be safeguarded by the Judiciary. 7. Rights, freedoms and liberties of people will be better safeguarded by the Judiciary.
8. No scope for revolutions. 8. Scope for revolutions.
9. Possibility of unlimited legislative power. 9. Possibility of a limited legislative power.
10. More suitable to the politically advanced states. 10. More suitable to the developing nations.
11. It makes no differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws. 11. It makes differentiation between constitutional and ordinary laws.
12. Appropriate to small states. 12. Appropriate to large states.

Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Define Constitution. Explain its features. [A.P. 19]
Answer:
Features of the Constitution:
1) Preamble :
Every Constitution will have a preamble. The preamble denotes the aims and aspirations of the Constitution. It is like the soul of the Constitution. Hence, preamble is considered as an important feature of the Constitution.

2) Clarity:
Clarity is another important feature of the Constitution. The Constitution clearly explains about the different policies and methods of governance. It is written in a simple and clear language.

3) Incorporation of Fundamental Rights :
Every Constitution includes some fundamental rights. These fundamental rights are meant for safeguarding the freedoms of the citizens. They enable the citizens to realise their personality in various spheres. They help the citizens for leading a happy and honourable life in the state.

4) Brevity :
Brevity is another feature of a Constitution. Brevity avoids confession among the individuals in understanding and interpreting provisions. Unnecessary elements are not included inf he Constitution. It should be precise. It must not contain large number of clauses.

5) Flexibility:
The Constitution must be flexible for adapting the wishes are aspirations of the people from time to time. There must be a scope of amending the provisions of the Constitution if necessary. Frequent changes in the Constitution tend to weaken the spirit of the Constitution. But, at the same time, the Constitution of a modem state should be adaptable to the progressive changes.

6) Permanence:
Permanence is one more feature of the Constitution. The Constitution must have everlasting values for the welfare of the whole nation. It represents the actual structure of the state and its political institutions. It obliges the customs of the people.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
Explain the various bases of classifying constitutions.
Answer:
Political Scientists classified the constitutions into various types on the basis of (i) Evolution (ii) Nature (iii) Amendment. They are mentioned in the following table.
AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions 1

1) Evolution of Constitution:
On the basis of evolution, constitutions are divided into two types, namely (a) Evolved Constitution (b) Enacted Constitution.
a) Evolved Constitution :
Evolved Constitution is also called as Cumulative Constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material. It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. It is not made as it grows with the roots in the past. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions etc act as the sources of this consitution. E.g. Britain.

b) Enacted Constitution :
Enacted Constitution is also known as Conventional Constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially convened for that purpose. It is promulgated by the sovereign authority – King or Parliament. The provisions of this constitution are incorporated in a document or a series of documents. E.g. United States, India.

2) Nature of Constitution:
Constitutions are classified into two types on the basis of the incorporation of the various provisions. They are
a) Written Constitution and
b) Unwritten Constitution

Question 3.
What are the merits and demerits of a Written Constitution?
Answer:
Written Constitution :
A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Merits:

  1. A written constitution carries more simplicity. It gives no scope for confusion and ambiguity among the people in understanding the structure and organization of various institutions.
  2. It protects the fundamental rights of the people.
  3. It puts limitations on the powers of the Government.
  4. It renders political stability due to its rigid nature.
  5. It embodies the aspirations of the people. It cautions the Government about the importance of the accomplishment of popular needs.
  6. It maintains equilibrium between the centre and the states by allocating powers in a judicious manner.
  7. It safeguards the sanctity and spirit of a federation.

Demerits:

  1. A written constitution cannot provide a better Government as it impose some . stipulated conditions on the party in power.
  2. It makes the judiciary a predominant one.
  3. Its provisions cannot be changed according to the needs and wishes of the people. So, the progress of the nations lags behind.
  4. Its rigid nature is not helpful to the development of the state.
  5. It gives scope for conflicts among the governmental organs.
  6. It may not be conductive to the formation of a welfare state.

Question 4.
Explain the merits and demerits of Unwritten Constitution.
Answer:
Unwritten Constitution: Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws.

The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Merits:

  1. An unwritten constitution paves the way for progressive legislation. It has development orientation.
  2. It always undergoes the process of evolution as it aims at ‘bettering the best’.
  3. It gives no scope for revolutions and such other agitations. It concedes to the popular demands.
  4. It can be amended according to the popular needs and aspirations.
  5. Its provisions are elastic in nature. So, changes in the constitution are easily made.

Demerits:

  1. An unwritten constitution may be changed frequently by the party in power for its political gains. This affects the political stability of the nation.
  2. It fails to protect the rights and freedoms of people.
  3. It is more informal in nature.
  4. It is also not suitable for federal states.
  5. An unwritten constitution is considered as a play tool of judges. This may lead to judicial manipulations.
  6. It is prone to frequent amendments.
  7. It is not suitable to democratic states.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 5.
Distinguish between Written and Unwritten Constitution.
Answer:
Written Constitution :
A written constitution is formulated and adopted by a Constituent Assembly or a Convention. It comprises several principles and rules of the Government in a written form or document. The Constitution of India is an example of written constitution. The American Constitution is the first written constitution in the world.

Unwritten Constitution:
Unwritten constitution is one whose provisions are not written in a single document. It includes several customs and traditions which are manifested in the form of the laws. The Constitution of Britain is the best example of unwritten constitution.

Differences between Written and Unwritten Constitutions

Written Constitution Unwritten Constitution
1. Written constitution implies a document or few documents in which the rules regulating the main institutions of Government are written down. 1. Unwritten constitution denotes a sum of customs, conventions and usages which have not been systematically documented.
2. All the basic principles of the State are clearly written. 2. All the basic principles of the State exist in the form of customs and traditions.
3. Written constitution is framed by a special assembly convened at a particular point of time. 3. Unwritten constitution contains some written elements also in the form of enactments of fundamental charters made from time to time.
4. It is suitable to the educated and literate people. 4. It is suitable to the uneducated and illiterate people.
5. Courts of law protect the liberties of the citizens. 5. Courts of law cannot provide much protection.
6. It is formulated at a particular time. 6. It is evolutionary in nature.
7. It provides political stability. 7. It could not ensure political stability.
8. It cannot be easily amended. 8. It can easily be amended.
9. It is useful to federal states. 9. It is advantageous to the unitary states.

Question 6.
Explain the merits and demerits of a Rigid Constitution.
Answer:
Rigid Constitution :
Rigid constitution is one whose provisions cannot be changed easily. In this system the constitutional amendment methods are different from those of ordinary’ laws. There will be a special procedure for amending the provisions of the rigid constitution. The rigid constitution will have firmness due to its special procedures of amendment. The Constitution of the United States is the best example of a rigid constitution.

Merits:

  1. Rigid constitution secures political stability.
  2. It is a product of political experience.
  3. It avoids hasty and ill-considered legislation.
  4. It protects the fundamental rights of the citizens.
  5. It preserves and enhances the interests of the provinces in a federal state.
  6. It is suitable for all kinds of people.

Demerits :

  1. Rigid constitution cannot be easily amended to suit the changing needs.
  2. It may affect the nation’s progress and growth.
  3. It is not suitable for tackling the issues arising during emergencies.

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by Constitution?
Answer:
The term constitution implies a written document embodying the provisions relating to the powers and functions of the Government organs, the rights and duties of the citizens.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 2.
What is an Evolved Constitution?
Answer:
Evolved constitution is also called Cumulative constitution. It is the result of evolutionary changes. It may be the product of collected material; It acts as the basis to the political institutions of a country. Several customs, usages, traditions, principles and judicial decisions are the major sources of this Constitution. Ex : British Constitution.

Question 3.
What is an Enacted Constitution?
Answer:
Enacted constitution is also known as Conventional constitution. It is consciously made. It is the outcome of the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly specially constituted for that purpose. It is promulgated by the Sovereign Authority i.e., king or queen or Parliament. Ex: The Constitutions of India and the U.S.A.

Question 4.
Write any three merits and demerits of the Flexible Constitution.
Answer:
Merits of Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is elastic and adaptable in nature. Its provisions can be easily amended from time to time.
  2. It is responsive and responsible to popular wishes.
  3. It protects the people from the dangers of revolutions.

Demerits of the Flexible Constitution are :

  1. It is not suitable to the federal states, having a rigid constitutions.
  2. It is not suitable to democratic states.
  3. It is highly unstable.

AP Inter 1st Year Civics Study Material Chapter 11 Constitutions

Question 5.
Mention any two differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitutions.
Answer:
Differences between Flexible and Rigid Constitution

Flexible Constitution Rigid Constitution
1. Constitutional matters are not clearly mentioned. 1. Constitutional matters are clearly written.
2. Constitution can be easily amended. 2. Constitution cannot be easily amended.