AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 3 Matter Around Us

AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 3 Matter Around Us

AP State Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions 3rd Lesson Matter Around Us

8th Class Physical Science 3rd Lesson Matter Around Us 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is CNG?
CNG means Compressed Natural Gas.

Question 2.
Does the smoke of incense stick diffuse in a room without air?
Smoke of incense stick is a gas. Gas diffuses in air only. So the smoke cannot diffuse in the absense of air.

Question 3.
Write decreasing order of the distance between the atoms of solid, liquid and gas.
Gas > Liquid > Solid.

Question 4.
What is the temperature where water expands?
When temperature is reduced from 4°C to 0°C, water expands instead of compression.

Question 5.
What is dry ice?
Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice.

Question 6.
What is Kelvin scale equivalent to 0°C?
273 K.

Question 7.
What are the factors influencing the change in state of a matter?

1. Temperature
2. Pressure.

Question 8.
What is humidity?
The amount of water vapour present in air is known as humidity.

Question 9.
What is meant by sublimation?
When a substance is heated its state changes from solid to vapour directly without changing into liquid. This is called sublimation.

Question 10.
How do acquatic animals and plants survive under water?
The gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide will diffuse in water. The acquatic animals under water will survive by inhaling these gases.

Question 11.
What are the different states of matter?
Matter exists in three states. They are solids, liquids and gases.

Question 12.
Why are the liquids called fluids?
Answer: Liquids can flow easily from one container to another. Hence they are called fluids.

Question 13.
Why is the solid carbon dioxide called dry ice?

1. Solid carbon dioxide converts directly into gaseous state when the pressure is decreased to 1 atmosphere.
2. Due to this reason solid carbon dioxide is also known as dry ice.

Question 14.
Why is the rate of diffusion in gases high?
The rate of diffusion in gases is very high than liquids and gases, because

1. Higher speed of gas particles.
2. Greater space between the particles of gas.

Question 15.
Which will decide the change of state of substance?
Pressure and temperature decides the state of the substance.

Question 16.
What is the principle involved in ice skating?
Pressure is applied on ice with skating boots. As the pressure increases melting point ice decreases. So ice melts at a lower temperature than 0°C. Therefore skating is possible on ice.

Question 17.
What is compression?
The volume of gas can be decreased by applying pressure. This process is called compression.

Question 18.
What are fluids?
The substances which can flow from one place to other place are called fluids. Generally liquids and gases are fluids.

8th Class Physical Science 3rd Lesson Matter Around Us 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is matter? Give some examples from your day-to-day life.
Anything in this world that occupies space and has mass is considered as matter. Examples:
The water we drink, our food, clothes, chairs, tables, air we breath, etc. are the examples of matter.

Question 2.
Compare the following properties of solids, liquids and gases,
a) Shape b) Volume c) Compressibility d) diffusion

 Property Solid Liquid Gas Shape Fixed Attains the shape of container No shape Volume Fixed Fixed No fixed volume Compressibility Very less Intermediate Maximum Diffusion Minimum Intermediate Maximum

Question 3.
Give the order of rate of diffusion in solids, liquids and gases.
The order of rate of diffusion in solids, liquids and gases is
Gases > Liquids > Solids (or) Solids < Liquids < Gases

Question 4.
Give some experiences with evaporation in your daily life.

1. We feel cooler after sweating.
2. Drying of wet clothes when exposed to the sun.
3. Paddy, cereals, etc. will be exposed to the sun to remove moist.
4. Water stored in earthen pots is cooler than the water stored in a metal pot.
5. Fog, which is formed early in the morning during winter season will disappear after sunrise.

Question 5.
Why do we feel cool when nail polish is applied to nails?
Nail polish contains acetone which absorb heat energy from our body and evaporates. So the body temperature decreases. So we feel cool when nail polish applied to nails.

Question 6.
Why do we store water in earthen pots?
The earthen pots have small pores in it. From that pores water tends to evaporates by gaining heat energy from the pot. So water in pots is cool. So water is stored in earthen pots.

Question 7.
Why do clothes dry faster on a sunny and windy day compared to rainy season ?
If the amount of water vapour is high in air the rate of evaporation will decrease. So clothes dry slowly during rainy season but fast on a sunny and windy day.

Question 8.
Why do we require pressure cookers at higher altitudes?
At higher altitudes the atmospheric pressure decreases. So the boiling point of water decreases. So, the heat energy supplied is not sufficient to cook food. Therefore we require a pressure cooker to increase the pressure. Thus the boiling point of water inside the cooker increases to 120°C and heat energy is sufficient to cook food.

Question 9.
Two pieces of cotton rolls one is soaked in ‘A’ chemical, and other one is soaked in ‘B’ chemical are inserted in a glass tube as shown in the figure.

a) If ‘A’ is HCl, what would be ‘B’?
b) In which state the rate of diffusion is high?
a) If ‘A’ is HCl, then ‘B’ should be Ammonium solution. Because it formed Ammonium chloride.
b) Rate of diffusion is high to ‘B’ than ‘A’.
Because the product Ammonium chloride formed nearer to ‘A’ chemical.

Question 10.
One part of the substance was boiled in water at 100°C. Other part of the substance was boiled in water vapour at 100°C.
a) Which one would be boiled fast?
b) Guess the reason.
a) Substance boiled in water vapour at 100°C is boiled fast.
b) Particles in water vapour at 100°C have more energy than the particles in liquid water at the same temperature. This is because of particles in water vapour have absorbed additional energy in the form of heat of vaporization.

Question 11.
Balaraju hanged his washed clothes under fan which is rotating.
Venu Gopal hanged his washed clothes under shadow.
a) Which one dries early? Why?
b) Write the name of the process that involved in drying.
a) The clothes hanged by the Balaraju were dried faster, because, evaporation increases with wind speed.
Due to increase of wind speed, water vapour particles move away with the wind, decreasing the amount of water vapour in the surroundings.
b) The process involved in drying up the clothes is evaporation.

Question 12.
Observe the given graph and answer the following :

1. What is the melting point in the graph?
2. What is the boiling point in the graph?
3. Guess the substance.
4. What is the maximum temperature that hold the substance?

1. The melting point is 0°C.
2. The boiling point is 100°C.
3. The substance should be water.
4. We can rise the temperature of the substance upto 100°C.
The maximum temperature that hold by the water is 100°C.

8th Class Physical Science 3rd Lesson Matter Around Us 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How can you prove that the solids have definite shape and a fixed volume ?

1. Take two solid objects, say a pen and a book.
2. Put them in different containers.
3. We observe that there is no change in their shape or volume.
4. Drop a book on the floor.
5. If will not flow like a liquid, but remain rigid.
6. These activities prove that solids have definite shape and a fixed volume.

Question 2.
What are the general properties of matter ?
The general properties of matter:

1. Matter is made up of tiny particles. Their size is beyond our imagination.
2. Matter exists in three states i.e. solid, liquid and gas.
3. There exists space between the particles of matter.
4. There exists some force of attraction between the particles of matter.
5. Matter can change its state from solid to liquid, liquid to gas and vice versa, by changing temperature and pressure.
6. Matter has the properties of compressibility and diffusion.
7. Particles of matter move continuously in liquids and gases.

Question 3.
Define: a) Latent heat b) Latent heat of fusion c) Latent heat of vaporisation.
a) Latent heat: The amount of heat energy that is required to overcome the attraction
energy among the particles is given by the latent heat of the substance.
b) Latent heat of fusion: Latent heat of fusion is defined as the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of a solid, completely into liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point.
c) Latent heat of vaporisation : Latent heat of vaporisation is defined as the amount of heat energy required to change 1 / of a liquid, completely into vapour at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.

Question 4.
How is marine life possible in extremely cold areas ?

1. The volume of water between 0°C to 4°C shrinks.
2. Same amount of water in solid ice occupies more volume than liquid water.
3. So ice floats on water rather than shrinking.
4. In extremely cold weather, the water at the top becomes colder and colder, until it freezes.
5. While the ice floats on the top, the animals continue to live in the water below, which does not freeze and remains at 4°C.
6. The ice on the top of the pond insulates the water, below it as it stops the water from losing the heat to air.
7. This is very important for survival of marine life which lives in ponds in the colder areas.

Question 5.
How does diffusion helps to survive the animals and plants in daily life ?

1. It is clear that solids and liquids diffuses into liquids and gases diffuses into gases.
2. Certain gases from atmosphere particularly oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse and dissolve in water and support the survival of aquatic animals and plants.
3. Diffusion therefore is a very important process for living things.
4. During respiration oxygen diffuses from lungs into blood. Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into lungs.

Question 6.
How do you appreciate the process of diffusion ?

1. Diffusion is a very important process for living things.
2. Oxygen diffuses into air and available for every human beings and animals.
3. CO2 diffuses into air and available to plants.
4. Oxygen and CO2 diffuse and disolve in water and support the survival of aquatic animals and plants.
5. During respiration oxygen diffuses from lungs into blood.
6. Smell of flowers, scents diffuses and reaches to our nose to give happiness to us.
7. We can recognise leaking of L.P. Gas in our house by diffusion process.
8. Diffusion of sugar and salt, give taste to drinks.
9. In this way diffusion is useful in our daily life.
So, I am appreciating the process of diffusion.

Question 7.
How do you appreciate the process of evaporation ?

1. The process of change of a liquid into vapours at any temperature below its boiling point is called “evaporation”.
2. It is very useful in our daily life.
3. Drying of wet clothes in air is the result of evaporation.
4. Drying of sweat from the human body and giving cooling is also result of evaporation.
5. After washing the floors, dishes evaporation takes place and dries up.
6. Water cools when it store in matkas (earthen pots). Evaporation process involved in it.
7. Water evaporate from the sea and forms clouds to rain.
8. In this way evaporation process is helpful to us.
9. So, I am appreciating it.

Question 8.
Find out the process involved in given situations.

a) evaporation
b) melting
c) evaporation
d) diffusion
e) diffusion
f) boiling
g) diffusion
h) evaporation

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 8 Industrial Revolution

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 8th Lesson Industrial Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 8th Lesson Industrial Revolution

7th Class Social Studies 8th Lesson Industrial Revolution Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Correct the false sentences:
Under the putting-out system:
a) Spinners took cotton to the weavers.
Correct statement: A cloth trader purchased cotton from a supplier and carried it to the spinners.

b) Unlike in the guild system traders controlled what product was to be made.
Correct statement: Unlike in the guild system the capitalists controlled what product was to be made.

c) All work was done by the same group of people.
Correct statement: Different activities could be done in different parts of the country by different groups of people.

Under the Guild system:
a) All small farmers were allowed to learn to weave.
Correct statement: All small farmers were forced to learn to weave.

b) Weavers determined the prices and quality of the products.
Correct statement: Capitalists determined prices and quality of the products.

Question 2.
Putting out a system is better than factory-based production of textiles. Do you agree?
Every system has its own merits and demerits.
Inputting out system different activities of the production could be done in different parts of the country. It consumes a lot of time and it is very much expensive. But in factory system production is carried on in one place called factory. This factory system is time-saving and less expensive when compared to the putting-out system. Inputting – out system every worker and craftsman get employment. But in factory system machines can do the work of several workers at the same time and therefore lakhs of people are expelled from the factories. Thus it leads to unemployment and unrest among the people. In putting out a system the craftsmen and workers control the whole process of production. But in the factory system, the factories are owned and managed by the capitalists. This widens the financial gap between the capitalists and owners. Thus it leads to unrest among the labourers.

Question 3.
If Kruthika argues “Railways in India were built only for the benefit of the people by the colonial rulers”, how can you counter this statement?
No. It is not true. The English built railways not only for the benefit of Indian people, but to transport raw material to Indian ports and manufactured goods of England from Indian ports into the country. To transport cheap labour from villages to cities, and to transport their troops fast and easily to the nooks and corners of the country to link up all their trading centres in all parts of the country British established railways in India.

Question 4.
How will an increase in the wages of the workers affect industrial production?

1. The workers cannot work with complete skills if they are not paid properly.
2. They cannot satisfy their basic needs with meagre wages.
3. If their pay is increased they can work for more time with enthusiasm.
4.  It results in an increase in production.
5. Then the capitalists won’t mind the increase in their expenditures.
6. Thus the increase in wages leads to an increase in production.

Question 5.
Why did factory owners pay low wages and force workers to work for long hours?
Nowadays all facilities of production are owned and managed by capitalists. They invested money in workers, raw materials and machines. In this system, workers worked for wages. When the machines were introduced very few people were required to work on machines, all the rest would be expelled. So there are a lot of surplus workers available at hand for the capitalists. And the labourers are prepared to work even with meagre wages. Thus the capitalists who are aimed to get more and more profits to force the workers to work at low wages and they are forced to work for long hours under the whip.

Question 6.
Why do you think the working conditions in factories should be improved?
The following steps are necessary for labourers.

1. Working hours should be reduced.
2. Minimum wages should be fixed.
3. An insurance scheme should be launched.
4. Holidays must be given to the labourers and industrial workers. In 1881 steps were taken for the welfare of the labour class and industrial workers.
5. Major changes swept industries with the coming of machines.
6. Machines could be worked by even unskilled persons. Thus skilled artisans were no longer required.
7. In their place, a large number of women and children were employed and made to work for meagre wages.
8. These conditions should be improved.

Question 7.
Why is it necessary for the government to enact laws to improve the working conditions in factories?
The early factories were dreadful places of work. Industrial work had to face several hardships. They are

1. They had to work for more than 12 hours a day.
2. Machines could be worked by even unskilled people. So they were expelled from their jobs.
3. A large number of women and children were employed and made to work for meagre wages.
4. The children under 14 years of age were given hard jobs like pulling and pushing heavy loads and working near dangerous machines.
5. The workers were forced to live in makeshift houses and shelters.
6. Their areas of residence had little sanitation and their houses lacked proper ventilation and health facilities.
7. Accidents, diseases and epidemics were common in their slums.

So it is very much necessary for the governments to enact laws to improve the working conditions.

Question 8.
Why are children not allowed to work in factories?
The Indian Constitution provides the Right against exploitation as a fundamental right.
Article 24 prohibits the employment of children in hazardous work as in some factories and mines. The Directive Principles prescribe that

1. the tender age of the children shall not be abused.
2. children are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength.
3. children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and
4. childhood is protected against exploitation. Under the Children’s Right to Protection, the children are free from all forms of exploitation, abuse, inhuman or degrading treatment and neglect. So the children should not be employed in factories.

Question 9.
The transport system helps the industry justify this statement in the context of Industrialisation.
Yes. It is true. The transport system helps the industry. Cheap and proper transportation is one of the most necessary infrastructures for Industrialisation. After the Industrial revolution industrial production increased so much. They needed raw material in large quantities. The countries did not have the raw material needed for the industry. For example, the cotton needed for producing cloth was grown in India and America. So the English had to import the cotton. In the same way, industrial production increased so much that it had to be sold in other countries. Thus transport is needed to import raw materials and export the manufactured goods to other countries. To carry the cheap labour from the villages to the urban areas the transport is needed. Thus we can justify the above statement ‘Transport system helps the industry’.

Question 10.
Locate the following places on the world map.
a) England b) Portugal c) France d) Spain

Question 11.
Read the para ‘Urbanisation and slums on page 82 and comment on it.
Urbanisation and slums: Industrial revolution led to a gradual shift of people from villages to towns. Industries and other urban activities gave people livelihood. As people moved to towns that were newly emerging, they settled down in makeshift houses and shelters which were cramped and had little sanitation or other facilities. Accidents, diseases and epidemics were common. Most workers’ residential areas lacked proper ventilation, health and sanitation facilities. Slums became a common scenario in towns and cities, especially near the factories and mines. At the same time, distinct quarters came up for the rich and the powerful which were well provided in terms of open spaces, sanitation, water supply, roads and other facilities. Slowly people fought for civil rights and the conditions of the workers quarters also improved.
Industrialisation led to urbanisation. Slums are caused due to urbanisation. It is very difficult to provide health, sanitation and shelter facilities to the growing population in the urban areas. Public amenities like water, roads and education are also should be provided. The same condition is present in urban areas even today also.

Project Work

Question 1.
You may recall the lesson on agriculture and trade in Class VI. Compare the nature of farmers and traders in Andhra Pradesh with traders in Britain or Europe. You can use a few criteria and tabulate.
The traders in Europe were international traders. They earned many profits. They purchase raw materials and market finished goods.
But our traders are local traders. They earn small profits. They purchase the finished goods and sell them with a little margin.

Question 2.
Do you know any child working in a factory or shop? If you find, how do you respond?
Yes. If I find it, I will immediately respond to the concerned authorities to take action against child labour.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 2C The Brave Potter

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 2C The Brave Potter Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 2C The Brave Potter

10th Class English Chapter 2C The Brave Potter Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Question 1.
What did the tiger think the mysterious creature was? Why did he allow himself bound around the neck with a thick rope?
The tiger thought that the ‘leak’ was a mysterious creature. He also thought that it was terrible, dangerous and strong. While the tiger was sleeping, he was suddenly awakened by an angry voice shouting in his ear and felt heavy blows fall upon his head and shoulders. The voice warned him that he would kill him as he had run away. The tiger shivered with fright and thought that it must be the leak’ who had come out of the hut. So the tiger allowed himself found around the neck with a thick rope.

Question 2.
When the storm began, the drunken potter suddenly remembered that he had left his donkey tied under a tree. He rushed out of his hut to take the animal into the stable but the donkey was not there. This made the potter angry. The potter walked through the wet forest searching for the animal. It became dark and he often stumbled over roots and fallen branches. Each step of the potter made him angrier.

Question 3.
Why did the king make the potter the General of the army?
The king of the potter’s country gathered a large army when the war broke out between their country and a much stronger neighbour. But the king realized that it was not strong enough to save his country from defeat. So, he searched for a hero to lead his army. When he asked his ministers’ advice, one of them told him about the brave potter who had captured a tiger with his bare hands. The king sent for him and the potter went with his wife to the capital. The king was pleased to see him and ordered him to lead the army into battle the next day.

Question 4.
Why do you think the sentry feels that the potter is a giant?
The sentry saw the potter galloping towards the camp with a tree in one hand and his reins in the other. The sentry thought that he must be the General who had captured a tiger with his bare hands. Hence the sentry felt that the potter was a giant.

Question 5.
Do you think that the potter is really brave or lucky? Give your reasons.
I think that the potter is really lucky. The incidents of his catching the tiger and the enemy’s fleeing proved this.

Question 6.
What is the most humorous and thrilling incident in the story? Write the incident and say why it is humorous and thrilling.
The most humorous and thrilling incident in the story is the potter’s catching the tiger. One day he drank more wine after a hard day’s work. Then the storm began and he remembered that he had left his donkey tied under a tree. He searched for it and finally found a sleeping tiger under thatched roof of a hut and thought that it was his donkey. As he was drunk, he couldn’t find the difference between a tiger and a donkey. The incident of his riding the tiger is the most humorous and thrilling incident. The writer created humour by creating situations where the tiger took the word ‘leak’ to be ‘a more powerful and dangerous thing’, the potter didn’t notice the difference between his donkey and the tiger, the potter’s riding the tiger and people mistook the potter to be a brave man. All these things made the incident humorous and thrilling.

Project work

I. You have read the story ‘The Brave Potter’. It is a humorous story. The writer of the story created humour by creating situations where the tiger took the word ‘leak’ to be ‘a more powerful thing’ than him and people mistook the potter to be a brave man.
Work in groups and collect a humorous story. Analyse how the writer created humour in it.
Guru Govind had four disciples. One day he told them not to do anything without his permission. One day while they were on their way to a distant city Guru Govind fell asleep in the bullock cart they were travelling in. The Guru’s head rolled from side to side and suddenly his turban slipped from his head and fell onto the road. But the disciples did not make a move to get down and pick it up as their Guru had instructed them not to do anything on their own. After some time, the Guru woke up and his disciples told him about the loss of his turban. He was angry with them. He roared, “If anything falls of next time, pick it up at once !” After some time, the bullock dropped its dung and the four foolish disciples leaped down and picked the dung up. Guru was annoyed with them. Then he made a list of things that could fall off from a moving cart and said to them, “Pick up any of these things if they fall”. He also said, “Don’t pick up anything that is not in the list.” Just then the cart lurched violently and Guru Govind was thrown into a ditch. He yelled, “Pull me out; pull me out”. “We can’t, guruji,” said his disciples, “Your name is not in the list you have given to us.” Guru Govind pleaded with them to pull him but in vain. “We know you are testing us, guruji,” they said to him, “but we are not going to disobey your words. You have told us not to pick up anything that is not mentioned in the list and so we won’t do it.” “Give me the list!” yelled Guru. When they threw the Isit, he included his name among the other things. Then only the obedient disciples pulled out their beloved Guru out of the ditch. Here, the writer creates humour through the innocence and foolishness of the obedient disciples. He tries to produce humour by creating the situations where the obedient disciples misunderstood their guru’s words.

II. Writing anything funny or humorous is one of the hardest forms of the craft. You may have a great sense of humour, but capturing that in your writing takes skill and practice. Work in groups and recall incidents that made you laugh. Analyse the incidents to find out what made you laugh. It could be the use of some inappropriate word, the way a person is dressed up, an inappropriate timing of an action, etc. Also look at some cartoons and analyse what makes you laugh.
There are a lot of humorous incidents we may come across in the stories we read, the movies and cartoons we watch and in our day-to-day lives. If we observe the movements of the famous comedian Charlie Chaplin, we can understand how he created such a humour. His style of walking, using the slapstick, his dress, his hat, his moustache, his face all produce the humour. He is a gifted artiste.

‘Tom and Jerry’ is a series of animated cartoon films. We find humour with the rivalry between a cat (Tom) and a mouse (Jerry), Tom’s chasing Jerry and slapstick scenes. “Tom’s making numerous attempts to capture Jerry which leads to destruction” – it creates fun. The scenes such as slicing Tom in half, shutting his head in a window or a door, stuffing Tom’s tail in a mangle, kicking him into a refrigerator, plugging his tail into an electric socket, sticking matches into his feet and lighting them, etc. amuse all the viewers.

The Brave Potter Summary in English

‘The Brave Potter’ is a very popular Telugu folktale collected by Marguerite Siek. It is a humorous story. A potter is the hero of this story.
It was a dark evening and the sky was full of clouds. The rain was about to start. It was starting to rain and an old tiger ran through the rain for shelter. The tiger crawled under the thatched roof of an old hut and lay down by the door. It was an old woman’s hut which had a leak. When the tiger began to fall asleep, he heard a woman’s voice complaining the leak in her hut was very terrible. She also complained aloud that she would rather meet a tiger than have the leak in her house. When the tiger heard her words, he thought that the ‘leak’ was a very dangerous and strong animal. He was doubtful whether they were all not afraid of him. While these thoughts were lingering in his mind, he fell asleep.

On the afternoon of that day, a potter had drunk more wine and no longer felt tired. When the rain began, he suddenly remembered that he had left his donkey tied under a tree. He rushed to the spot but couldn’t find it. He started searching for it. While he was searching, he often stumbled over roots and fallen branches. He felt angrier and wanted to give the donkey a good beating when he caught it. He reached the old woman’s hut and mistook the tiger for his donkey. He couldn’t notice the difference between a donkey and a tiger as he had drunk. He kicked and beat the sleeping tiger. The tiger thought that it must be the ‘leak’ who came out of the hut. The tiger shivered with fright and wanted to do as the ‘leak’ said. The potter jumped onto the frightened tiger’s back, rode it home and tied it up with the iron chain.

The next morning, the news spread throughout the village that the potter had caught a tiger and tied it to a tree in his yard. All of them praised his courage. But the potter couldn’t understand how it all had happened! They didn’t believe him saying that he had only brought his donkey home. The villagers even praised him for his modesty. A few years later a war broke out. The enemy army was much stronger. The king was worrying how he could save the country. He wanted a brave man to lead the army. One of his ministers told the king about the brave potter. He called for the potter, made him the General of the army and ordered him to lead the army into battle the next day. But the potter was worrying very much as he never carried a sword, nor had he ever ridden a horse. Hence, he wanted to practise riding the horse. He woke up early the next morning and climbed onto the horse’s back with great difficulty. Then he asked his wife to tie his feet to the stirrups. His wife bound his feet tightly to the stirrups and tied the two stirrups together. She also tied him to the saddle. Suddenly, the horse jumped free and galloped out of the stable. The potter held to the horse’s neck tightly and prayed to all the gods to save his life.

The horse galloped through the streets, the city gates and began to head for the enemy’s camp. Though he tried to pull on the reins and control the horse, the horse didn’t stop. The potter grabbed a branch when they passed a young tree. When a sentry from the enemy camp saw him with a tree in one hand and the reins in the other, he thought that the horse-rider must be the General who captured a tiger with his bare hands. Immediately he made loud shouts warning his men about the famous Tiger-General who was rushing towards them to attack. The frightened soldiers fled. Even their king followed his soldiers leaving a letter in the tent. The potter was surprised to find the camp empty. He brought the letter and gave it to his wife. He requested her to take the letter to their king and tell him the enemy had run away. His wife gave the letter to the king and he read it. He praised the potter and rewarded the potter so well that he didn’t need to work again.

The Brave Potter About the Author

Marguerite Siek was a great story teller. He was very much interested in telling folk and mythological stories of Asia. He travelled across many Asian countries and collected interesting short stories from various countries and published them in English. He translated many famous Indian folk stories into English. The present short story The Brave Potter’ is a very popular Telugu one collected by him from India.

The Brave Potter Glossary

thatched (adj): covered with dried straw

nod off (phr.v): fall asleep

leak (n): a small hole that lets liquid or gas flow into or out of something

bound (v): tied someone so that they couldn’t move or escape

scream (v): to make a high loud noise with one’s voice because one is hurt, frightened, excited etc.

head (v): go to or travel towards a particular place

palm-wine (n): toddy/fermented palm juice drunk by village folk (kallu In Telugu)

stable (n): a building where horses are kept

grumble: to keep complaining in an unhappy way

stumbled: walked In an unsteady way and often almost Fell

muttered (v): spoke something that cannot be heard

groaned (v): made a long deep sound because one is in pain. upset or disappointed

saddle (n): a leather seat for a rider on a horse

stirrups (n): metal rings that hang down on each side of a horse’s saddle, used to support the riders foot

pawing (v): touching something repeatedly with a paw

hooves (n): the hard parts of the feet of some animals like horses (‘Hooves’ is the plural form of ‘hool.)

crashing: falling

reins (n): long leather bands held by a horse rider to control it

sentry (n): guard/a soldier whose job is to guard something

uprooted (v): pulled a tree or a plant out of the ground

deserted (adj): empty and quiet because flO people are there

cheering crowds (phr): a large gathering of people shouting in joy

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 7 Handicrafts and Handlooms

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 7th Lesson Handicrafts and Handlooms Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 7th Lesson Handicrafts and Handlooms

7th Class Social Studies 7th Lesson Handicrafts and Handlooms Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Do you think people have enough earnings from work like basket making and weaving?
No. I think people do not have enough earnings from work like basket making and weaving.

Question 2.
Prepare a list of goods that could have substituted the basket. Discuss with your parents before preparing the list.
List of goods which could have substituted the basket: Plastic basket, Plastic tray, Bamboo tray, Bamboo stand, Plastic bucket, Plastic bags, Woollen baskets and bags.

Question 3.
Many new products have replaced handicrafts – identify them and find out where they are produced. Discuss how this could affect the lives of handicrafts persons.

1. Baskets made of bamboo and eetha chettu leaves require simple investment.
2. Basket makers are using very few materials mostly made of natural sources.
3. But many plastic industries produce goods like baskets with cheap rates.
4. So the demand for such products has reduced considerably.

b) Handloom weavers in Dharmavaram :

1. Dharmavaram sarees one traditionally woven in the interlocked weft technique.
2. Dharmavaram silk sarees are a benchmark in the traditional craft industry.
3. They are very famous for striking colour combinations with contrast pallu and border woven with exquisite brocade gold patterns.
4. Dharmavaram weavers face stiff competition from power loom and mill made cloth.
5. These are cheaper as they are produced on machines.
6. So weavers are not getting many rates for Dharmavaram sarees.

Thus the lives of basket makers and handloom weavers are getting worse.

Question 4.
Why did Polaiah’s family come to Kandukuru? Why does he have no right to vote in Kandukuru?

1. Polaiah’s family came to Kandukuru to sell baskets and earn money.
2. a) Polaiah lives in a slum that does not have proper drainage, emits a foul smell and breeds mosquitoes and flies.
b) The Municipal Corporation officials sometimes evict Polaiah and another basket
maker families’ huts but they build them again.
c) So these people like Polaiah don’t have any identity or proof of residence.
d) In this way Polaiah have been denied voting rights and ration cards in this city

Question 5.
You may find crafts persons like Polaiah producing goods other than baskets. Meet two such persons, collect the following details and discuss them in the class. One sample is given for you.

 Name of the craftsperson Goods produced One or two important raw materials used Source of raw material Polaiah Baskets Spokes of data palm leaves Shankavaram- native village Pochaiah Bommalu Wood and paints Kondapalli-native village Mallesham Chairs, Tables, Stools Wood, nails and paints. Near forest village at Nandyala

Question 6.
Why do you think patenting Dharmavaram silk saree weaving would help weavers in and around Dharmavaram?

1. Dharmavaram is a small town in Ananthapur district in Andhra Pradesh.
2. The weavers here produce unique sarees called silk sarees, which are world-famous.
3. Dharmavaram Sarees are traditionally woven in the interlocked-weft technique.
4. Dharmavaram silk sarees are a benchmark in the traditional craft industry.
5. They are very famous for their striking colour combinations with contrast pallu and border woven with exquisite brocade gold patterns.
6. Recently Dharmavaram sarees received the patent right.
7. This means, no other handloom saree producers in the world can sell sarees in the name of “Dharmavaram silk sarees.”
8. Only those produced in Dharmavaram and its surrounding villages can be sold with this brand name.
9. These sarees are sold in India and abroad at high prices.

Question 7.
Should weavers procure raw materials, weave silk sarees and sell them directly to the people? What are the challenges in it?
(or)
Handloom weavers are facing a serious problem. They face stiff competition from power loom and mill made cloth, these are cheaper as they are produced on machines and also because they use synthetic yarn which is cheaper than cotton or silk even though it is popular due to its high quality and unique beauty, the Dharmavaram saree seems to be expensive. But weavers do not get a good rate due to middle men’s involvement.
Comment on the problems of weavers.
Handloom weavers are facing many problems.

1. They face stiff competition from power loom and mill made cloth. Because these are cheaper as they are produced on machines.
2. The weavers are not getting their cost rate due to middle men’s involvement.
3. Their buyers are spread all over the world and they do not have direct contact with them.
4. Fashions in the cities change fast.
5. It is difficult for the weavers to know what kind of design are in demand.
6. Therefore they have to rely on middlemen to know about the designs.
7. Raw materials like cotton or silk yarn are produced in faraway centres.
8. So the weavers have to depend on middlemen for getting raw materials.

Question 8.
Prepare the flow diagram depicting the organisation of production in basket making and handloom textile weaving.

1. The flow diagram for basket making:
2. The flow diagram for handloom textile weaving:

Question 9.
Compare the similarities and differences between basket making and Ikkat saree weaving and fill in the following table.

 Work Raw materials used Tools used How goods are sold Basket making Handloom weaving

 Work Raw materials used Tools used How goods are sold Basket making Wild date palm leaves, Knife Sells directly to the customers Handloom weaving Silk yarn, colour, zari Maggam, Stones, Punched Jacquard cards Sold to the middlemen

Question 10.
List various handicrafts with locations in Andhra Pradesh and prepare a chart.

 Handicrafts & Handlooms Location Handi Crafts Uppada, Pochampalli, Chirala, Siddipeta. Handlooms Industry Narayanpet, Guntur, Venkatagiri, Gadwal pullampet and Madhavaram. Carpets and blankets Eluru. Kalamkari Machilipatnam & East Godavari district. Coirgoods Konaseema in East Godavari district. Bangles Srikalahasthi, Simhachalam and Gajulapalli. Toys Kondapalli. Mats Nellore. Agarbathis Eluru, Vetapalem. Musical instruments Pithapuram, Bobbili, Jaggayyapet and Nuzividu. Laces Narsapur and Palakollu.

Note: Please prepare a chart above the matter.

Project Work

Question 1.
Invite a craftsperson to your classroom or visit their workplace. Make a wallpaper showing different processes of their production.
Student Activity

Question 2.
Meet different artisans in your village/locality fill in the following table and discuss in the classroom.

Student Activity

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 6 Africa

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 6th Lesson Africa Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 6th Lesson Africa

7th Class Social Studies 6th Lesson Africa Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
From Europe, which sea does one have to cross to reach northern Africa?
One has to cross the Mediterranean sea from Europe to reach northern Africa.

Question 2.
State three difficulties that the Europeans faced in reaching the interior parts of Africa.
The three difficulties that the Europeans faced in reaching the interior parts of Africa are:

1. Besides attempting to build their colonies in Africa, the Europeans continued to explore the interior of the continent.
2. They travelled to the source of the Nile in the north.
3. In the west, they explored the entire valley of the Niger and in the south, they moved northwards from Cape Town.
4. There they explored the region around the river Zambezi.

Question 3.
Name the two large deserts of Africa.

1. The Sahara Desert is in Africa. It extends to Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia and Somalia.
2. The Kalahari Desert extends in Namibia, Botswana and Angola in South – West of Africa. These deserts are not suitable for agriculture due to scanty rainfall and infertile soils.

Question 4.
a) The zone between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn is the zone of ………… climate.
Hot.

b) The main vegetation of Savanna lands is …………
Grass.

c) The two main rivers emptying themselves into the Atlantic ocean are ………. and ………….
Congo, Nigeria.

d) The regions in Africa to the north of the Tropic of Cancer and to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn are of …………. climate.
Cold.

Question 5.
Two political maps of Africa have been given in the chapter. Compare the two to find out which European country controlled the present day countries of Nigeria and Zimbabwe?
Britain controlled the present day countries of Nigeria and Zimbabwe.

Question 6.
Name two countries of Africa where equatorial forests are found.

1. Republic of Congo, Gabon
2. Cameroon.

Question 7.
What goods did Europeans trade with Africa? What kind of agricultural products did they promote for trade purposes?

1. Gold, copper and diamonds were the Europeans traded with Africa.
2. Tea, coffee, rubber, tobacco were the agricultural products they promoted for trade purposes.

Question 8.
Who benefited from the slave trade? Why did America need slaves?
In the 16th century, many Europeans began migrating to America and started cultivation there. There was plenty of land in America, but not enough people to work in the fields. It was to fulfil this need for additional working hands in America that the slave trade from Africa began. America benefited a lot from the slave trade.

Question 9.
How can you say that the slave trade is highly heinous?
The slave trace (Trans Atlantic Slave Trade) is one of the most heinous crimes committed against people over the course of more than 400 years. Millions of Africans were turned from their homes, were deported to the American continent and sold as slaves.
The slave trade resulted in the loss of human life. The savage nature of the slave trade led to the destruction of families, individuals and cultures and the vestiges of the immense loss of human capital to the African continent are still felt to this present day.

Question 10.
Read the last para of this lesson Africa and comment on it.
The foreign companies do bring in new technologies and investments into the mining and processing industries, thus creating employment for the local people. However; they use cheap labour to make huge profits which are taken away from the African people most of these companies are also careless about environmental protection and have caused immense damage to the natural environment. This has affected the quality of land and life of the people adversely.

1. Africa is very rich in minerals like coal, copper, tin, etc.
2. So many of the European countries and their companies to this day control much of the mineral resources of even the independent African countries.
3. The foreign companies do bring in new technologies and investments into the mining and processing industries, thus creating employment for the local people.
4. They are using their cheap labour to make huge profits and exploiting the mineral resources.
5. Most of these companies have caused immense damage to the natural environment which has affected the quality of land life of the local people adversely.
6. Thus, we can say that the foreign companies are exploiting the mineral wealth of Africa irrespective of the local people’s welfare.

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 5 Europe

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 5th Lesson Europe Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 5th Lesson Europe

7th Class Social Studies 5th Lesson Europe Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The Atlantic Ocean has a deep impact on the climate of Europe as well as on the life and livelihood of the people of Europe. Collect relevant information and write an essay on the theme.
Europe has four dominant types of climate-maritime in the south and mountain in the lands. The maritime climate has moderate temperatures in both summer and winter.
The climate of western Europe is far more moderate due to the marine influences of the relatively warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift, which are brought onshore by the prevailing Westerly winds. The major air pressure systems include the Icelandic. low, dominant in winter but influential all year, which is the origin of cyclonic storms. So impact in the changing weather conditions in western and northern Europe.
The North Atlantic drift brings warmer weather to Europe. Temperatures on the European continent are about 15°F warmer than other areas of the same latitude.

Question 2.
Answer these questions with the help of the maps given in the lesson:
a) Which of the following is not a landlocked (surrounded by land) country?
(Hungary/Romania/Poland/Switzerland)
Switzerland.

b) Which mountains lie between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea?
(Alps/Caucasus Mountains)
The Caucasus.

c) Which countries are on the shores of the Arctic Ocean?
(Russia/Germany/Sweden/Norway)
Norway, Sweden, and Russia.

d) Can a ship sail from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean? If yes, trace the route it will have to take.
Yes, a ship can sail from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. The route is – the Black Sea to waters between Turkey and Bulgaria → to the Mediterranean Sea → Atlantic Ocean.

Question 3.
Why are harbors built-in deep gulfs or bays?

1. Bays and gulfs are parts of the sea enclosed by land on three sides.
2. In a bay, the land curves inwards and the mouth of the bay is usually wide as in the Bay of Bengal.
3. A gulf is a narrow inlet of the sea and has a narrow mouth.
4. Since the bays and gulfs are protected from the storms of the high seas they are very useful for building harbors where ships can be safely anchored and cargo loaded or unloaded.
5. Deep gulfs or bays are preferred for building harbors as Large ships can be anchored in them.
6. Ships need deep waters so that their bottoms do not touch the seafloor.

Question 4.
Why are the winters less severe in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe?

1. Besides its distance from the Equator, the climate of Europe is influenced by another factor – the Atlantic Ocean and the winds blowing from it.
2. This impact is felt more by the regions along the Atlantic Ocean than the ones which are far inland.
3. In the winters it is quite cold in Western Europe but it is even colder in Eastern Europe,
4. Thus countries like Poland and Russia have severe winters while France and Great Britain are comparatively warmer.
5. Russians winters are so cold that the rivers and even the nearby seas freeze
6. However, this does not happen in the countries of West Europe along the sea coast.
7. This difference must be because of the nearness of Western Europe to the Atlantic Ocean.

Question 5.
Name four countries on the coast of the Black Sea.
The following are the countries on the coast of the Black Sea.

1. Ukraine
2. Romania
3. Bulgaria
4. Turkey

Question 6.
How do the Westerlies benefit the people of Western Europe?
The Westerlies, which blow throughout the year also bring ample moisture to Northern and Western Europe. Since these winds blow from the sea they carry a lot of moisture and regularly cause rainfall. This is why it rains throughout the year in Northern and Western Europe. While it rains only for a few months in our country, there are light showers all around the year in Western Europe. The skies there are usually clouded. While we, in India, eagerly await cool showers, the people of Western Europe long for bright sunny days.
Western Europe also benefits in other ways from the Gulf Streams. The warm currents are very good for fish breeding as they contain ample food materials ic’- the fishes. As a result, the fishery industry is very well developed in the North Sea near Britain. This part of the North Sea is called ‘Dogger Bank’. Fish is an important part of the food of the Europeans and fishing is a very important industry in Europe.

Question 7.
What are the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate? Name the countries which have a Mediterranean climate.
The countries of Southern Europe have the Mediterranean Sea to their south. They are called ‘Mediterranean Countries’. The lands along the Mediterranean Sea have a distinct climate called the ‘Mediterranean climate’.
The Mediterranean countries are the southernmost countries of Europe. As a result, the winters here are not too cold and summers are warm. It does not rain all through the year as in Western Europe. The Westerlies blow here during the winter months only. These winds bring rain to the Mediterranean countries. In other words, it rains here only in winter. Such rainy winters and dry summers are termed as a Mediterranean climate. Several regions in other continents too have a Mediterranean climate. This climate is very good for growing juicy fruits.
The Mediterranean type of climate is found in Portugal, Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Ukraine.

Question 8.
What are the factors that limit European agriculture?
A very large part of Europe is mountainous and not suitable for agriculture. In eastern and northern Europe, it is not possible to cultivate land in winter, due to extreme cold. As a result, it is possible to rain only one crop in a year.

Question 9.
Name the important crops of southern Europe.
Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sugar – beet, potato, and fruits are the important crops in southern Europe.

Question 10.
How can you say that trade and cultural relations have been developed among the countries due to the discovery of new sea routes by European sailors?

1. Europeans overseas expansion led to the contact between the old and new worlds producing the Columbian exchange, named after Columbus.
2. It involved the transfer of goods unique from one hemisphere to another.
3. It led to the age of Imperialism, where European colonial powers came to control most of the planet.
4. The European appetite for trade commodities, empires, and slaves greatly affected many other areas of the world.
So I can say that trade and cultural relations have been developed due to the discovery of new sea routes by European sailors.

Question 11.
Read the last para of this lesson and comment on it.

Industrial Revolution in Europe

The industrial revolution as you know started in England around 1750 and soon factory production spread to France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Russia, etc. Countries like England and Germany, which had large reserves of coal and other minerals, took lead in developing new industries.
However, as times changed, European countries began to use less and less of their own mineral resources and relied on imports from other countries. The old mining towns and old factories were closed down and new factories grew in new areas. Industrialization also enabled the European countries to import agricultural goods from other countries. Thus, they relied less on the agriculture of their countries for their food and raw material requirements. Hence, Europe became dependent upon trade with other countries. Initially, this trade was with their colonies in Asia, Africa, and America. However as the colonies became independent, they had to develop new ways of trading with them.

1. The industrial revolution started in England around 1750 and soon factory production spread to France, Holland, Germany, Spain, Russia, etc. Countries like England and Germany which had large reserves of coal and other minerals took lead in developing new industries. –
2. However, as times changed, European countries began to use less and less of their own mineral resources and relied on imports from other countries.
3. The old mining towns and old factories were closed down and new factories grew in new areas.
4. Industrialization also enabled the European countries to import agricultural goods from other countries.
5. Thus they relied less on the agriculture of their countries for their food requirements and raw material requirements.
6. Hence Europe became dependent upon trade with other countries.
7. Initially, this trade was with their colonies in Asia, Africa, and America.
8. However as the colonies became independent, they had to develop new ways of trading with them.

Question 12.
How is agriculture similar or different in Europe from that of our country?
(OR)
How are agricultural practices similar or different in Europe from those practiced in India? Explain.
Indian agriculture is quite different from European agriculture.

1. Seasons: In our country, we have three seasons winter, summer, and rain.
2. In Europe, they have four seasons winter, spring, summer, and autumn.

Agricultural seasons:

1. In our country, we have two agricultural seasons Rabi and Kharif mean winter and monsoon. Crops are grown nearly eight to 10 months a year.
2. Summer is the season of agriculture in Europe. There is no need for irrigation as the occasional showers are sufficient for the crops. The cultivation is possible only for 6 to 7 months.
3. A very large part of Europe is mountainous and not suitable for agriculture.
4. In India as much as 55% of the land is cultivable.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 2B The Dear Departed Part 2

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 2B The Dear Departed Part 2 Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 2B The Dear Departed Part 2

10th Class English Chapter 2B The Dear Departed Part 2 Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Question 1.
Justify the view that the husbands of Mrs. Slater and Mrs. Jordan are men with no individuality.
Henry and Ben are men with no individuality. They simply follow their wives’ instructions. When Mrs. Slater asks Henry to wear the old man’s slippers, he wears them even they are smaller in size. When she asks him to shift the bureau from her father’s room, he obeys her and does as she likes. He doesn’t say even a word against her will. In the same way, Ben too is a man with no individuality. Both Henry and Ben try to stop the quarrel between their wives but fail. Though they have concern for their father-in-law, they can’t express it.

Question 2.
Discuss the irony in the title ‘The Dear Departed’.
Irony is the use of words to express something other than what is said or meant and especially the opposite of the literal meaning. The title “The Dear Departed” conveys just the opposite as the main character of the play (Abel Merry weather) does not seem to be “dear” to his own daughters. The old man is not dear to anyone. They only want his property.

Question 3.
List the arguments the two sisters gave to keep their father in their care.
Mrs. Slater tells her father that it is quite time he comes to live with them again and they will make him very comfortable if he comes. But Mrs. Slater argues that he has not been with them as long as he was with the Jordans. Mrs. Jordan replies that she does not think their father will fancy living on with the Slaters after their stealing his things. They even say sorry for what they have done. Thus, both the sisters argue to keep their father in their care.

Question 4.
How does the spat between the old man’s daughters lead to father discovering the truth?
The spat happens between the two sisters when their father Abel asks Mrs. Slater why his bureau and clock are brought downstairs. Mrs. Jordan understands that her sister tries to steal those things before their arrival. This leads to a quarrel between the two sisters. Mrs. Jordan tells her father that Mr. and Mrs. Slater have shifted the bureau and the clock from his room to the sitting room because they think he is dead. They have shifted the things so as Mrs. Jordan can’t lay a claim on them. After discovering the truth, Abel becomes angry because he feels that his daughters don’t even wait till his funeral and have tried to divide things between them.

Question 5.
List the comic elements in the play ‘The Dear Departed’.
There are certain elements that make the play a comedy. The title itself is a comic one. A single person doesn’t make a comedy. It requires several who are in action and counter action. The main characters of the play, Abel Merry weather, Mrs. Slater, Mrs. Jordan, Henry and Ben all cause the comedy. The main comic thing is that both the sisters think that their father is dead. The other comic scenes in the play are :

1. Following his wife’s instructions, Henry wears the old man’s new slippers.
2. The Slaters hurry to steal the old man’s bureau and clock, thinking that the Jordans will arrive.
3. The Slaters and the Jordans are shocked to see Abel coming into the room.
4. Ben skips back and retreats with Mrs. Jordan to a safe distance when Abel thrusts his hand at Ben.
5. Abel announces that he will change his will and marry John Shorrocks.
6. Both the sisters argue that Abel should stay with them. (They want to own his property).

A termination must be made which springs necessarily from the preceding elements and this gives the comic solution. The arrival of Abel into the sitting room and his announcement of changing his will and marrying^ woman etc. produce such a comedy.

Question 6.
In what way is the play ‘The Dear Departed’ a commentary on the hollowness of human relationships?
Stanley Houghton, in his one act play, tries to bring out the qualities of the two daughters, Mrs. Slater and Mrs. Jordan towards their father. The author tries to show how the sisters are interested in the property of their father rather than their care and affection towards him. When the two sisters think that their father is dead they are complaining of what a burden he is to them. The moment Abel announces about his new will in which he will leave everything to the person he is living with when he dies, they both fight for him to live with them. Thus, this play shows us the hollowness of human relationships. This is a social play on the condition of the old people who are being neglected and abandoned by their own children. Here we see the degradation of moral values in respect and care within the members of the family itself.

Question 7.
What are the three things that the father plans to do on Monday next? What effect does it have on his daughters?
The three things that the father plans to do on Monday next are:

1. At first, he wants to go to the lawyer and alter his will.
2. Then he wants to go to the insurance office and pay his premium.
3. Finally he wants to go to St. Philip’s Church and get married.

If Mr. Abel does all these three things, the daughters will lose the chance of getting their share in their father’s assets.

II. Arrange the following sentences in sequence so that a continuous narrative of the story of ‘The Dear Departed’ could be made.
1. One day Mrs. Slater felt that Abel Merryweather had died.
2. Suddenly Victoria came into the room telling that grandfather was moving.
3. The Slaters and the Jordans wanted to ascertain if Abel Merryweather had paid his insurance premium.
4. Abel Merryweather found fault with the two daughters and wanted to change his will.
5. Before the arrival of the Jordans, the Slaters had pinched Abel’s bureau and clock.
6. Victoria was sent to Abel Merryweather’s room to bring the key bunch of the bureau.
7. Abel Merryweather informed that he was going to marry Mrs. John Shorrocks.
8. The Slaters sent a telegram to the Jordans about the death of Abel Merryweather.
The sequential order is:
1. One day Mrs. Slater felt that Abel Merry weather had died.
8. The Slaters sent a telegram to the Jordans about the death of Abel Merry weather.
5. Before the arrival of the Jordans, the Slaters had pinched Abel’s bureau and clock.
3. The Slaters and the Jordans wanted to ascertain if Abel Merry weather had paid his insurance premium.
6. Victoria was sent to Abel Merry weather’s room to bring the key bunch of the bureau.
2. Suddenly Victoria came into the room telling that grandfather was moving.
4. Abel Merry weather found fault with the two daughters and wanted to change his will.
7. Abel Merry weather informed that he was going to marry Mrs. John Shorrocks.

The narrative: One day Mrs. Slater felt that Abel Merry weather had died. The Slaters sent a telegram to the Jordans about the death of Abel Merry weather. The Slaters wanted to steal the old man’s things before the arrival of the Jordans. So, they had pinched Abel’s bureau and wall clock before their arrival. The Jordans arrived soon and they all thought about the announcement of the old man’s death in the papers. Then the Slaters and the Jordans wanted to ascertain if Abel Merry weather had paid his insurance premium. Victoria was sent to Abel Merry weathers room to bring the key bunch of the bureau. Victoria went into’the old man’s room and saw him moving and getting up. Being frightened, Victoria came into the room telling that grandfather was moving. Abel Merry weather came into the sitting room and both the sisters and their husbands were shocked. He found fault with the two daughters and wanted to change his will. He informed them that he was going to change his will leaving all bits of his things to whoever he was living with when he would die. He also declared that he was going to marry Mrs. John Shorrocks.

III. Here is a list of traits of a personality. Tick (✓) the traits that describe Mrs. Slater’s character.
a) Greedy
b) Overpowering
c) Honest
d) Sensitive
e) Dominating
f) Blunt
g) Straight talking
h) Humble
i) Impolite
j) Insensitive

a) Greedy (✓)
b) Overpowering (✓)
c) Honest
d) Sensitive
e) Dominating (✓)
f) Blunt (✓)
g) Straight talking (✓)
h) Humble
i) Impolite (✓)
j) Insensitive (✓)

The traits that describe Mrs. Slater’s character are:
Greedy: Mrs. Slater’s pinching her father’s bureau and clock before the arrival of her sister Elizabeth Jordan and her husband; her asking Henry to wear her father’s slippers.
Overpowering: Mrs. Slater’s asking Victoria to close the door if her aunt Elizabeth and uncle Ben come.
Dominating: Her dominating attitude towards her husband Henry.
Blunt: Her saying to her sister, “Be quiet, Elizabeth”; her asking Victoria to change her dress.
Straight talking: When Victoria says that perhaps grandpa didn’t go to pay his insurance premium, Mrs. Slater snubs her saying “He went out”.
Impolite:
i) Mrs. Slater’s talking to Henry, “Henry, why shouldn’t we bring that bureau down here now ? We can do it before they come,
ii) When Henry says to her, “I wouldn’t care to,” she says to him, “Don’t look so daft. Why not ?”
Insensitive:
i) When Victoria says to her, “That’s grandpa’s clock,” she replies, “Be quiet! It’s ours now.”
ii) When Mrs. Jordan says to her, “I’ll tell you what’s been going on in this house, father. Nothing short of robbery,” she says, “Be quiet, Elizabeth”.

IV. The following are the features of a one act play. Which of the following characteristics does the play ‘The Dear Departed’ have? Justify.
a) Minimal characters
b) Single setting or unity of place
c) One act with one or more scenes
d) Focus on one incident
e) Limited time
f) Twist ending
“The Dear Departed” is a one act play; so it naturally has all the above mentioned characteristics.

a) Minimal characters: The total number of characters we see in this play is only six. They are Mrs. Amelia Slater, Mrs. Elizabeth Jordan, Henry Slater, Ben Jordan, Victoria Slater and Abel Merry weather. Hence, the play has the feature of “Minimal characters.”

b) Single setting or unity of place: All the story takes place in the house of Mrs. Slater particularly in the sitting room and Abel’s bedroom. Hence, the play has the characteristic of “Single setting.”

c) One act with one or more scenes: All the story happens in one act and only one scene. Hence, it has this feature.

d) Focus on one incident: All the story moves around the death of Abel Merry weather. Hence, the play’s focus is on one incident only.

e) Limited time: The story lasts for only one or two hours. Hence, it has the feature of “limited time.”

f) Twist ending: In the end of the play, Abel announces that he will change his will and marry Mrs. John Shorrocks. This announcement was a real shock for the two sisters and their husbands. It is really an unexpected thing for them. Hence, it has the feature of “Twist ending”. Audience too can t guess this twist.

Vocabulary

I. Irregular Plurals

Now write the plural forms of the following nouns given in the table and say whether each of them is ‘Latin’ or ‘Greek’ word.

* Phenomenon – It is borrowed from Greek and ended in a’ in the plural in Latin.

II. Exclamations/Interjections

Now observe the sentences and decide which emotion is ex¬pressed in each context. Put a tick (✓) in the appropriate box. The first one has been done for you.

Make compound adjectives choosing one word from list ‘A’ and another word from list ‘B’ and fill in the blanks with them.

1. Sindhu is very clear-sighted about her choice.
3. The _______________________________ girl who is under the tree is my sister.
4. All the people were shocked at the sight of this _______________ murder.
5. After the terrible tempest, the _____________________ sailing boat was unusable.
6. Prasad booked a room in a ____________________ hotel for Srikanth.
7. Every week, ____________________ eggs are used by my mother to make some wonderful cakes.
8. This ______________________ coat is too large for me.
9. It was a _______________________ war between the English and the French.
10. I like to correspond with this ____________________ teacher. She speaks about interesting topics.
2. four-day
4. cold-blooded
5. half-sunk
6. five-star
7. new-laid
8. peacock-blue
9. long-lasting

IV. Words Often Confused

A. Write words that are likely to be confused with the words given. Find their mean¬ings and use them in sentences of your own to show the difference in meaning.

1. alter-
2. principal-
3. gait –
4. canvas –
5. check –
6. ceiling –
7. complement –
8. stationary –

1. alter (v) – altar (n)
alter (v) : to change, or to make someone or something change e.g.: No one can alter the rules and regulations of this society, altar (n) : a holy table or surface used in religious ceremonies e.g.: The priest reached the altar to perform a religious ceremony.

2. principal (n) – principle (n)
principal (n) : someone who is incharge of a university/college e.g.: Mr. Chaitanya is the principal of St. John’s College, principle (n) : a moral rule or belief e.g.: Vinoba is a man of high principles.

3. gait (n) – gate (n)
gait (n) : the way someone walks e.g.: She has an awkward gait.
gate (n) : the part of a fence or outside wall that you can open and close so that you can enter or leave a place
e.g.: They locked the front gate and went out.

4. canvas (n) – canvass (v)
canvas (n) : strong cloth used to make bags, tents, shoes etc. e.g.: I bought a bag made of canvas.
canvass (v) : to try to persuade people to support a political party, politician etc. e.g.: Mr. Varun is very busy canvassing for votes.

5. check (v) – cheque (n)
check (v) : to do something in order to find out whether something really is correct, true or in good condition
e.g.: The guards had checked him thoroughly before he came out.
cheque (n) : a printed piece of paper that you write an amount of money on, sign and
use instead of money to pay for things
e.g.: He issued me a cheque for Rs. 25,000.

6. ceiling (n) – sealing (n)
ceiling (n) : the inner surface of the top part of a room e.g.: All the rooms in our house are built with high ceilings, sealing (n) : the activity of hunting or catching seals e.g.: Sealing is his hobby.

7. complement (n) – compliment (v)
complement (n) : someone or something that emphasizes the good qualities of an¬other person or thing
e.g.: The cashew nuts were an excellent complement for the sweets, compliment (v) : to say something nice to someone in order to praise them e.g.: Our headmaster complimented me when I saved the little girl.

8. stationary (adj) – stationery (n)
e.g.: The teacher ordered his students to remain stationary.
stationery (n) : materials that we use for writing, such as paper, pens, pencils etc.
e.g.: I went into the shop to buy stationery.

already (adv) : used to say something has happened before the expected time e.g.: Is it 6 o’ clock already?

advice (n) : an opinion about what could or should be done about a situation or problem
e.g.: He gave me a good piece of advice.
e.g.: My aunt advised me to join navy.

B. Read the following paragraph. It contains errors in words often confused. Correct them and rewrite the paragraph replacing them with the right words.

It was one of those October daze when it was a pleasure to be alive. The sky was blew and the heir was cold and sharp with a cent of wet earth as the mourning sun warmed the chilled countryside. And then I caught site of a lonely be struggling to find the pollen of a final flour. Wear had he bean, this sad worker , doomed so soon to dye? I marvelled at his energy as he climbed along so many bear stalks. Finding nothing, he flue on and disappeared from cite. I continued my walk to a country in where, sitting outside, I contentedly sipped my beer, musing all the wile on the mixed fortunes of life.
It was one of those October days when it was a pleasure to be alive. The sky was blue and the air was cold and sharp with a scent of wet earth as the morning sun warmed the chilled countryside. And then I caught the sight of a lonely bee struggling to find the pollen of a final flower. Where had he been, this sad worker, doomed so soon to die? I marvelled at his energy as he climbed along so many bare stalks. Finding nothing, he flew on and disappeared from sight. I continued my walk to a country inn where, sitting outside, I contentedly sipped my beer, musing all the while on the mixed fortunes of life.

V. Idiomatic Expressions

Here is a list of idioms and idiomatic expressions used in the play, ‘The Dear Departed’. Guess their meanings. Then look them up in a dictionary, note down their meanings and use them in your sentences.

1. get one’s own way
2. for ages
3. set foot
4. drive a hard bargain
5. get rid of
6. give way
7. at length
8. on purpose
9. took by surprise
10. at a loss
1. get one’s own way: persuade other people to allow you to do what you want e.g.: Parents want to get their children into their own way.

2. for ages: for a long time
e.g.: I haven’t seen you for ages.

3. set foot: to enter some place
e.g.: I would not like to set foot in your house.

4. drive a hard bargain : work hard to negotiate agreements in one’s own favour e.g.: Although he has driven a hard bargain, he couldn’t get what he wants.

5. get rid of: to throw away or destroy something you do not want any more e.g.: Finally, Sekhar got rid of his old shoes.

6. give way: to stop agreeing or fighting against someone or something ; to abandon oneself.
e.g.: Don’t give way to your fears.

7. at length: in detail
e.g.: At length, they have discussed the matter.

8. on purpose: intentionally
e.g.: He entered the sitting room on purpose.

9. took by surprise: to surprise someone (took someone by surprise)- e.g.: I took my friend by surprise presenting a gold watch to him.

10. at a loss: unable to speak, unable to know how to act or what to do. e.g.: When Rahul faced the interviewers, he felt totally at a loss.

Grammar

I. Read the following sentences from the play and notice the underlined words.

Let us read the following sentences.

1. She’ll come fast enough after her share of what our father has left.
2. Mrs. Slater doesn’t have enough money to buy the bureau.

In both the sentences ‘enough’ is underlined. ‘Enough’ means ‘sufficient’.
In a sentence, ‘enough’ is used after adjectives, adverbs or verbs as an adverb, and before nouns as a determiner.

A. Now decide whether ‘enough’ in the following sentences is used as an ‘adjective’ or an ‘adverb’.
1. This house is not big enough for me.
2. We didn’t leave early enough.
3. I was not trained enough for the game.
4. Is there enough room for me?
5. I do not have enough clothes for my journey.
1) This house is not big enough for me.
‘enough’ is used as an adverb.

2) We didn’t leave early enough.
‘enough’ is used as an adverb.

3) I was not trained enough for the game.
‘enough’ is used as an adverb.

4) Is there enough room for me?
’enough’ is used as an adjective.

5) I do not have enough clothes for my journey.
’enough’ is used as an adjective.

B. Complete the following sentences using ‘enough’ / ‘not enough’ and one of the words given in the list below.

1. Harish wants to be a great wrestler but he is ____________________.
2. I want to sit and watch TV but I just don’t have ____________________.
3. He tried to win the race but he came third as he was not ____________________.
4. This bath is freezing. The water is ____________________.
5. We had to sleep on the floor as there were ____________________.
6. There is ____________________ to make a cup of tea! What is wrong with the pipes?
7. If Sujatha does not have ____________________ , I can lend her.
8. Vasavi is not ____________________ to become a member of this club. She must be at least 18 years of age to join.
9. Is this coffee ____________________ for you? Would you like some more sugar?
10. Do you think he has studied ____________________ to pass the entrance exam?
1. not strong enough
2. enough time
3. fast enough
4. not warm enough
5. not enough beds
6. not enough water
7. enough money
8. old enough
9. sweet enough
10. hard enough

II. We generally use articles (a, an and the) before common nouns. But in some cases articles are not used before them. Read the following sentences from the play ‘The . Dear Departed’ and notice the underlined common nouns.

1. He went out soon after breakfast to pay his insurance.
2. And when we’d finished dinner I thought I’d take up a bit of something on a tray.
In the above sentences the underlined common nouns ‘breakfast and dinner’ refer to the names of meals and food. In primary and general sense we don’t use articles before the words that refer to the names of meals and food i.e. breakfast, dinner, lunch, supper, pizza, fish fry and omelette.

Write the following paragraphs, inserting a, an, and the where needed.

A. Horse knows when he is going to race. How does he know? His breakfast is scanty. (He is angry about that.) He does not have saddle on his back. He is being led, not ridden, to grandstand. He is led under grandstand into unusual, special stall. Horse is nervous. Sometimes he does not know what to do when starting gate flies open and track is before him. If he does not begin to run instantly, other horses are already ahead of him. During race, when he sees another horse just ahead of him, he will try to pass him. Sometimes jockey holds him back to save his energy for last stretch. Eventu¬ally horse gets to run as fast as he can. Exercise boy, watching owner’s favourite jockey riding horse he has exercised day after day, says nothing. Secretly, he is planning for day when he.will be jockey himself, and his horse will be first to cross finish line.

B. I have horse of my own. I call her Pretty Girl. She is intelligent animal, but she is not thoroughbred horse. I could never enter her in race, even if I wanted to. But I do not want to. She is companion, for my own pleasure. I took her swimming day or two ago.

A. A/The horse knows when he is going to race. How does he know? His breakfast was scanty. (He is angry about that.) He does not have a saddle on his back. He is being led, not ridden, to the grandstand. He is led under the grandstand into an unusual, special stall. The horse is nervous. Sometimes he does not know what to do when the starting gate flies open and the track is before him. If he does not begin to run instantly, the other horses are already ahead of him. During the race, when he sees another horse just ahead of him, he will try to pass him. Sometimes the jockey holds him back to save his energy for the last stretch. Eventually the horse gets to run as fast as he can. The exercise boy, watching the owner’s favourite jockey riding the horse he has exercised day after day, says nothing. Secretly, he is planning for the day when he will be a jockey himself, and his horse will be the first to cross the finish line.

B) I have a horse of my own. I call her Pretty Girl. She is an intelligent animal, but she is not a thoroughbred horse. I could never enter her in a race, even if I wanted to. But I do not want to. She is a companion, for my own pleasure. I took her swimming a day or two ago.

III. Compound Prepositional Phrases

Read the following sentences from the play ‘The Dear Departed’ and notice the underlined words.
1. Victoria dressed according to her mother’s instructions.
2. You both say that because of what 1 have told you about leaving my money.
3. It was here instead of in his room.
The underlined phrases are compound prepositional phrases. The following are some more important compound prepositional phrases. Their meanings are given in brackets.
along with (together with)
on account of (because of)
by means of (through the agency of)
apart from (separate from)
in front of (located before)
in place of (as a substitute for)
in spite of (disregarding the difficulty)
in case of (in the event of)
by way of (via)
due to (on account of)
for the sake of (for the good of)
in accordance with (in agreement with)

A. Use the above compound prepositional phrases in sentences of your own.

1. along with:
a) Ramu went along with Somu.
b) I put scale along with books in my bag.
c) Mr. Nagesh bought a TV along with a computer.

2. on account of:
a) She visited the doctor on account of her illness.
b) They cancelled their programme on account of rain.
c) On account of Prabhu’s late-coming, he was beaten severely.

3. by means of:
a) He will succeed by means of sheer determination.
b) 1 was able to buy a flat by means of a bank loan.
c) The blocks are raised by means of pulleys.

4. apart from:
a) Apart from minor injuries, he was safe after an accident.
b) We have a Maruthi car apart from our Ford car.
c) We don’t see anyone in the theatre apart from two women.

a) Mr. Rao arrived there ahead of his boss.
b) The results show that Aam Admi’ party is ahead of other parties.

6. in front of:
a) There is a pole in front of our house.
b) The fountain is in front of the building.
c) We sit in front of the TV and watch programmes.

7. in place of:
a) Mr. John came to teach in place of Mr. Robert, who was transferred.
b) She bought a red car in place of the blue car, her old one.
c) Mr. Vasan was appointed as chairman in place of Mrs. Sharma, the former chairman.

8. in spite of:
a) In spite of heavy rain, the football match was continued.
b) In spite of the pain in his leg, he played and won the match.
c) In spite of the fact that he had worked hard, he didn’t get through his exam.

9. in case of:
a) In case of heavy rains, you should postpone your trip.
b) Break the glass in case of fire.
c) In case of floods, take the help from helpline.

10. by way of:
a) We go to school by wav of market.
b) My father came home by way of Rampura.
c) They reached the place by wav of the canal.

11. due to:
a) Due to illness, she didn’t go to school.
b) The game was cancelled due to heavy rain.
c) There was a heavy loss due to improper management.

12. for the sake of:
a) The government implemented a new programme for the sake of women.
b) She had done it for the sake of you.
c) The king acquitted the criminal for the sake of justice.

a) Mr. Suraj learnt Karate in addition to Kungfu.
b) She used to teach English in addition to Social Studies.
c) You have to add sugar to the dish in addition to ghee.

14. in accordance with:
a) The boss did this in accordance with his request.
b) I designed this plan in accordance with our discussion.
c) They have tried to root out corruption in accordance with rules that have been framed recently.

B. Fill in each blank with the correct compound prepositional phrase from the options given under each sentence.

1. I finished my project work several days ________________ the deadline.
c) in spite of

2. Sravani goes to school ______________________ Yamuna daily.
a) according to
b) in spite of
c) along with
c) along with

3. My house stands _______________ all the other houses in the street as it is big in size.
a) apart from
b) in accordance with
a) apart from

4. Madhu got a good job ____________________ his own abilities and skills.
c) by means of
c) by means of

5. She was unable to attend the party ______________ her marriage engagement.
a) in spite of
c) due to
c) due to

6. ______________ fire, ring the alarm bell.
a) In spite of
b) In case of
b) In case of

7. Sriram continued his batting carefully ________________ his team though he was hungry.
a) for the sake of
c) in front of
a) for the sake of

8. You should complete your B.Ed. _____________________ your B.Sc to get a teacher job.
b) according to
c) in spite of

9. The physical director of our school selected me ____________________ my friend, Ganesh for tomorrow’s match.
a) in spite of
b) in place of
b) in place of

10. ________________ his poverty, he completed his Ph.D. in English.
a) In place of
b) For the sake of
c) In spite of
c) In spite of

IV. Language Function (It’s time + Simple Past Verb …)

Read the following contexts and express them using expressions it’s quite time’, it’s high time’, it’s time’ or it’s about time’.

1. Bhavani usually wakes up at 6 a.m. daily. It is 6.15 a.m. now. Bhavani has not woken up yet. You feel it is already late. Express your idea using it’s high time’.
It’s high time Bhavani woke up.

2. You and your friend have spent more time than you spend daily in the playground. You feel it is late and better to go home. What would you say to your friend? Use the expression ‘It’s time’.
It’s time we went home as it is already late.

3. You to your friend: ‘You have not thought seriously about what you want to do in your life.’ How would you express this idea using ‘It’s high time’.

4. Your friend promised you to make a phone call at 7 a.m. But you haven’t received any phone call from him yet. Now it is 7.30 a.m. How would you express this idea using ‘It’s time’?
It’s time my friend made me a call.

5. Your friend has been working on a project for 5 months. But he has not completed it yet. You feel that your friend should take your help to complete the project fast. Give him/her advice using ‘It’s time.’
It’s time you took my help in order to complete the project fast.

V. The following passage has ten errors of grammar. Identify and rewrite them with necessary corrections.
Varanasi is locate on the north eastern part of India. Hindu pilgrims go to there to purify their souls. To the Hindus Varanasi is a holiest pilgrimage center to all.
Thousands of pilgrims visit this wholly city every year.
As early as four o’clock at the morning the pilgrims are seen make their way to the famous bathing steps knowed as Gatz. From there they board row boats to the holy river ganges to take bath. In doing this the pilgrims believe that their sins would be wash away.
Varanasi is located in the north eastern part of India. The Hindu pilgrims go there to purify their souls. To the Hindus Varanasi is the holiest pilgrimage centre of all.
Thousands of pilgrims visit this holy city every year.
As early as four o’clock in the morning the pilgrims are seen making their way to the famous bathing steps known as Ghats. From there they board row boats to the holy river Ganges to take a bath. By doing this the pilgrims believe that their sins would be washed away.

Read the following sentences. Complete the conversations with the appropriate forms of the verbs. Then say why you chose simple past/present perfect forms.

“No, he isn’t. He __________________(go) to Chennai.”
“When _________ he ________________________(go) to Chennai?”
“Yesterday.”
“No, he isn’t. He has gone to Chennai”.
“When did he go to Chennai ?”
“Yesterday”.

2. “I ________ (lose) my pencil. __________you ________________________(see) it anywhere?”
“No, I________ . When ___________ you last _________(use) the pencil?”
“I ________________________(use) it when I was in the class.”
“Perhaps you ________________________(leave) it in the class.”
“I lost my pencil. Have you seen it anywhere ?”
“No, I haven’t. When did you last use the pencil?”
“I used it when I was in the class.”
“Perhaps you have left (must have left) it in the class.”

3. A: _____________ Madhu ________________________( not arrive) yet ?
B: No, he ________________________ .
B: _______________ you ________________________(talk) to him?
C: No, I ____________ . I merely _______________(see) him.
B: That cannot be Madhu. He may have been somebody else.
A : Hasn’t Madhu arrived yet?
B : No. He hasn’t.
C : But he has already arrived.
B : Have you talked to him ?
C : No, I haven’t. I merely saw him.
B : That cannot be Madhu. He may be somebody else.

4. A: ________________ you _______________(call) me, mother?
B: Yes, I_______________. ________ you _______________(see) my diary today?
I _______________(put) it on the table last night. I _______________(look) all over the house for it. But I _______________( not, find) it anywhere.
A: I _______________(see) it on the table this morning, if I remember right. Maybe father _______________(take) it with him by mistake.
A: Have you called me. mother ?
B : Yes, I have. Have you seen my diary today ?
I put it on the table last night. I have looked all over the house for it. But I have not found it anywhere.
A : I have seen it on the table this morning, if I remember right. May be father has taken it with him by mistake.

5. “Do you know Mrs.Geetha ?”
“Yes, I do. I _______________(know) her for nearly four years. It ______________(be) at a high school that I first _______________(see) her in 2009. I ___________(work) with her for several years. Recently we _______________(meet) at the wedding of a mutual friend of us.”
“Do you know Mrs. Geetha ?
“Yes. I do. I have known her for nearly four years. It was at a high school that I first saw her in 2009. I have worked with her for several years. Recently we have met at the wedding of a mutual friend of us.”

Writing

I. Imagine that you are the grandfather in the play. Write a letter to your Mend, Mr. Tattersall inviting him to your marriage at ‘Ring-o-Bells with Mrs. John Shorrocks. Don’t forget to say why you are going to get married at this age.

You can include the following :
a) Time of wedding
b) Place of wedding
c) Details of the bride
d) Behaviour of the daughters
e) Reason for-marrying at this age
f) Cordial invitation.

22-222-A45,
Trafalgar Square,
Manchester City.
28th March, 20xx.

My dear Tattersall,

How are you? I am keeping quite well and hope to hear the same from you. It is a long time since I received a letter from you. What are the things with you ? Here is a surprising news for you. I am glad to write to you that I am going to get married to Mrs. John Shorrocks at twelve o’ clock at St. Philip’s Church on Monday, 7th April, 20xx. Mrs. John Shorrocks is a good woman and is the owner of ‘Ring-o-Bells’. We know each other very well. She is a famous business person in the city. Hence, I cordially invite you to attend our marriage ceremony without fail.

Now, I think that you are very much surprised to hear the news of my marriage at this age. I had to take this decision because of the the evil intentions of both my daughters Amelia and Elizabeth. You know that I have been with Amelia’s family for the last few months. A few days ago, Amelia thought me ‘dead’ and her foolish husband sent this message to my second daughter Elizabeth. Before Elizabeth and her husband’s arrival, Amelia shifted my bureau to the sitting room. She also tried to steal my clock and my slippers for her husband. After the arrival of the Jordans, both my daughters concentrated on grabbing my things. No one bothered about me. They don’t deserve to be called ‘daughters’ at all. When I understood their nature, I wanted to teach them a lesson. I announced that I would change my will the next Monday, pay my insurance premium and get married. I think that this decision is a slap on the faces of my greedy and deceitful daughters.

I hope that you will understand my feelings. I shall be very glad to see you at the ceremony on Monday. I am awaiting your arrival. Convey my best wishes to your wife.

Abel Merryweather

To
Mr. K. Tattersall,
5-262-6/A, Joseph Towers,
Dovinci Street, Liverpool,
England.

II. Convert the play, ‘The Dear Departed’ into a story.

To adapt the story to your culture, you may make changes in the following:
a) The names of the characters
b) Description of costumes
c) Things stolen by the daughter
d) The names of the villages/towns the daughters lived in
Mr. Rao is a seventy-two-year old man. He is living with his daughter Mrs. Sarojini and her husband Prakash. Their daughter is Sushma, who loves her grandpa very much. Mr. Rao’s another daughter is Mrs. Aruna and her husband Rajesh.

One day Mrs. Sarojini thinks that her father is dead. She tells her daughter to change her dress before her aunt Aruna and her husband come. Mrs. Sarojini’s husband Prakash has sent them the message to come home. When Prakash wonders if they will come at all, Mrs. Sarojini replies that Aruna will come at once for her share of the old man s things. Mrs. Sarojini asks her husband to wear the new shoes of her father. She also wants to pinch the old man’s TV set, computer and his bracelet too. She wants to do it before her sister’s arrival. When she tells the same, her husband agrees after some hesitation.

Mrs. Sarojini fastens the door and she and her husband shift the TV set and com¬puter and put the radio in their place. Their daughter Sushma understands that they are pinching the grandpa’s TV set and computer and asks them if they are pinching them. Mr. Prakash replies that her grandpa has given them those things before his death. Mrs. Sarojini and her husband carry them downstairs and put them in the parlour.
She asks her husband to wear her father’s bracelet round his wrist and he obeys. At the same time Mrs. Aruna and her husband come. Mrs. Sarojini tells them that the old man is found dead that morning when she takes up a bit of something for him on tray.

Mrs. Aruna and Mr. Rajesh don’t want to look at the old man. They prefer to have tea. Then they talk about how to announce the old man’s death in the papers. Then Mrs. Sarojini and Mrs. Aruna come to talk about dividing their father’s belongings. Mrs. Aruna tells that the old man has promised his gold ring for Srikar. This news amazes Mrs. Sarojini. Mr. Rajesh calls the old man “The drunken old beggar” when Sushma tells that grandpa hasn’t paid his insurance. Both the sisters complain that they have to put up with their father for all those years. Then Mrs. Sarojini asks Sushma to go and bring the bunch of keys from grandpa’s room. After some time, Sushma gets back scared and tells them that grandpa is getting up. All are amazed as they all think he is dead. Mr. Rao enters their room after a few minutes and is surprised to see Mrs. Aruna and her husband. He asks them why they are in mourning dress. Sushma tells her grandpa that she is very happy that he is not dead. Grandpa asks them who is dead. Mrs. Sarojini lies that Rajesh’s brother is dead. Mrs. Rao sees his shoes being worn by Prakash and says it is not good. Then he looks at the gold bracelet and understands that they have stolen it. He also understands that Mrs. Sarojini and her husband have stolen his TV set and computer.

Mr. Rao doesn’t want to stay with either of his daughters anymore. He declares that he is going to change his will leaving all his property to whoever he is living with when he dies. Mrs. Sarojini and Mrs. Aruna fight with each other to keep their father in their care. Both the sisters try to persuade him to keep him with them but he refuses to stay with them. Then the old man shocks them with his announcement. He announces that he has got to do three things the next Monday. He has got to go to the lawyer and change his will, to pay the insurance premium and to go to Tirumala to get married to Mrs. Laxmi, the owner of ’Komala Vilas’. He invites them all to the marriage ceremony. He thanks Mrs. Sarojini for bringing the TV set and computer downstairs as it will be easier to carry them across to his house after his marriage.

Study skills

Health is a major concern during old age. Maintaining health is very important for the elderly, particularly in rural areas, who must continue to work for a living even when they become aged. Good health is central to their ability to work, and support themselves and families. However, many poor rural elderly people have severe problems of health

Here is the data collected in January 2013 by ‘Help Age India’, a research and development journal on common health problems of the rural elderly in Andhra Pradesh. The data is collected from 150 male and 150 female rural elderly people of above 60 years old.

Common Health Problems of the Rural Elderly in Andhra Pradesh

Read, understand and analyse the data given in the above table and write a report on it to present on the World Grandparents’ Day.

You should include the following points in your report:

• Introduction
• The type of diseases old people suffer from below 10%, between 10-20, 21-30, 31- 40 and 41-50.
• Which diseases have more or less effect on the health of the old people.

This is a report based on the data collected in January 2013 by ’Help Age India’, a research and development journal on common health problems of the rural elderly in Andhra Pradesh. The data is collected from 150 male and 150 female rural elderly of above 60 years old. Health is a major concern of old age all over the world. Maintaining health is very important for the elderly who must continue to work for a living even when they become aged particularly in rural areas. However, many poor rural elderly have severe problems of health. Now, we have a look at the health problems being faced by the elderly of rural areas.

At first we see the health problems being faced by the males and the females of rural areas separately. Below 10% of males are suffering from urinary problems and piles. Between 10% and 20% of males are suffering from bowel complaints, ear problems, B.P./hypertension, mental depression, respiratory problems and diabetes. Between 21% and 30% of males are suffering from sleep disorders, digestive problems, dental problems and cold and cough. Between 31% and 40% of males are suffering from fatigue/general weakness. Between 41% and 50% of males are suffering from body/joint pains, and eye problems.

As far as women are concerned, below 10% of them are suffering from diabetes. Between 10% and 20% of females are suffering from dental problems, cold and cough, ear problems, B.P./hypertension, respiratory problems, urinary problems and piles. Between 21% and 30% of females are suffering from digestive problems and bowel complaints. Between 31% and 40% of females are suffering from fatigue/general weakness, sleep disorders and mental depression. Between 41% and 50% of females are suffering from eye problems. 55.33% of females are suffering from body/joint pains.

When we consider both males and females, below 10% of elderly people are suffering from diabetes and piles. Between 10% and 20% of them are suffering from cold and cough, ear problems, B.P./hypertension, respiratory problems and urinary problems. Between 21% and 30% of elderly people are suffering from mental depression, digestive problems, dental problems and bowel complaints. Between 31% and 40% of elderly people are suffering from fatigue/general weakness and sleep disorders. 45.33% of elderly people are suffering from eye problems and 52% of them are suffering from body/joint pains.

When we observe the data, we can understand that the health problems such as body/joint pains, eye problems, fatigue, sleep disorders, mental depression, digestive problems, dental problems and bowel complaints have more effect on the health of the old. When we compare with the above problems, the problems such as cough and cold, ear problems, B.P./hypertension, respiratory problems, urinary problems, diabetes and piles have less effect on their health. Good health is essential to their ability to work, to support themselves and families. They must get rid of their health problems to lead an active and happy life.

Listening

Listen to an interesting anecdote and say whether the following statements are true or false.

1. The woman was a stranger to Hyderabad.
2. In the beginning of the incident, the woman was at the Charminar.
3. The woman in this event might be a villager.
4. The woman knows that the buses in city have numbers.
5. The woman misunderstood the direction given by the police officer.
6. The police officer gave a wrong direction.
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. False
5. True
6. False

Oral Activity

Work in groups. Tell your group any funny incident you may have witnessed/listened to.

My friend Rahul told me this funny incident which he himself experienced. One evening he was returning home after watching a movie. It was very dark. He was all alone and very scared. The wind was blowing very hard. He even heard the cry of an owl.

On his way, he had to pass by a burial ground. When he was nearing it, he remem-bered horror serials he had watched on television. His mind was full of horror scenes. There was a thorny bush on the side of the road. It was so dark that nothing was visible to the naked eye. He was at his wit s end. He thought that there was something in the bush. He plucked up courage and took a step forward. He heard the sound again. There was something greyish in that bush. There were two glowing spots in the bush. He stood rooted to the spot, staring at them. He could neither go forward nor back. He thought that the glowing spots were the eyes of a skull. Suddenly, there was a ear¬splitting cry, and a huge grey form jumped out of the bush and ran away. “Aaaaaah….”

It was a donkey! He could breathe again, a donkey after all He laughed aloud for a long time. He reached his home and narrated the incident to the members of his family. They too laughed aloud.

The Dear Departed Part 2 Summary in English

When Abel Merryweather enters their room, he is surprised to see his daughter and son-in-law, Mrs. and Mr. Jordan. The two sisters and their husbands can’t believe their eyes. Abel comes forward to shake hand with his son-in-law, Mr. Ben Jordan. Ben retreats with Mrs. Jordan to a safe distance. Mrs. Slater pokes Abel with her hand to see if he is solid. Abel reveals that he is well enough but has a bit of a headache. Then Abel asks for his new slippers. When he observes Henry wearing his slippers, Mrs. Slater snatches them from Henry and gives them to Abel. He puts them on and sits in an armchair.

Abel asks them why they all are in mourning. Mrs. Jordan makes up some story to pacify him. She tells that Ben’s brother has died. Abel tells them to sit down and take tea. He suggests that they all should be jolly. Then he notices his bureau there in that room. He asks Mrs. Slater and Henry what they have been doing with his bureau. At the same time he hears a clock striking six. He looks at it and questions them why it is there. He grumbles and scolds for her deceitful acts. Mrs. Jordan blames her sister of robbing their father. The two sisters start quarrelling. Abel understands his daughters’ dishonesty. He comes to know about the reality.

Abel doesn’t want to stay with either of his daughters anymore. He addresses his daughters directly and declares that he is going to change his will leaving all his property to whoever he is living with when he dies. Mrs. Slater and Mrs. Jordan fight with each other to keep their father in their care. Both the sisters try to persuade him to make him live with them but he refuses to stay with them. Then Abel makes an announcement which shocks everyone. He announces that he has got to do three things the next Monday He has got to go to the lawyer and change his will and he has got to go to the insurance office to pay the premium and then he has got to go to St. Philip’s Church and get married. Everyone is shocked. Abel reveals that he has at last found someone who is happy to keep him. When he leaves the room, he invites them all to his marriage with Mrs. John Shorrocks who keeps the ‘Ring-o-Bells’. He thanks Mrs. Slater for bringing the bureau downstairs as it will be easier to carry it across to the Ring-o-Bells.’

The Dear Departed Part 2 About the Author

William Stanley Houghton (1881 – 1913) was a famous English dramatist. He was one of the best of a group of realistic playwrights often called the Manchester School. In every play he sought to present an idea. He had a remarkable gift for dialogue that is evident in ‘The Dear Departed’. The Dear Departed was first produced in Manchester in 1908. Here Houghton satirizes the degradation of moral values in the British middle-class.

The Dear Departed Part 2 Glossary

thrust (v): to push something somewhere quickly

skip (v): move with quick steps and jumps

retreat (v): move back

approach (v): come near to somebody

gingerly (adv): in a careful way

poke (v): push

what the devil (phrase): old fashioned way of showing annoyance or displeasure; (This phrase is always used in questions.)

tomfoolery (n): foolish or silly behaviour

took by surprise (idiom): happened unexpectedly so that somebody was slightly shocked

eh? (Intj): a request for repetition or confirmation of what was just said.

what the dickens (idiom): (old-fashioned and informal) used in questions instead of ‘devil’ to show that you are annoyed or surprised

hearth (n): the area of floor around a fireplace in a house

snatch (v): to take away something from someone with a quick, often violent movement

‘em (pro): them

put on (phr.v): wear

haste (n): speed in doing something, especially because you do not have enough time

Oh (Inter): used to express surprise, fear, joy, etc.

vindictive whisper (n.phr.) : talking about someone in a harsh, hasty manner

ab (Interject): used to express pleasure, admiration or sympathy hold your tongue (phrase): to tell someone to stop talking

chuckle (v): to laugh quietly

at a loss (Idiom): puzzled

er (intj): used to express hesitation or uncertainty

prompting (v): reminding the dialogue or words

ay (interjection): used to express distress or regret

drat (interjection): a fairly mild expression of slight annoyance nothing short of (Idiom): as bad as

damn it (Intellect.): an expression of displeasure annoyance

sneak: to go somewhere secretly and quietly in order to avoid being seen or heard

resume : to start doing something again alter stopping or being interrupted

thumping (v): hitting hard

gaze: look fixedly

oho (interject): used for showing that you are surprised in a happy way

sobbing (v): crying noisily. taking sudden sharp breaths

bits of things (phr): property

will (n): legal document that says what is to happen to somebody’s property alter his/her death

strike (v): come into somebodys mind suddenly

It’s quite time you came: it Is the right time to come

fancy (v): want/feel like

put up with (phr.v): bear / look after

out of senses (phr.): silly and senseless

consternation (n): a worried. sad feeling

Ring-o-Bells (n): the name of a restaurant

a good while (Idm): for quite sometime

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 4 Oceans and Fishing

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 4th Lesson Oceans and Fishing Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 4th Lesson Oceans and Fishing

7th Class Social Studies 4th Lesson Oceans and Fishing Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Does Bhavanapadu look like the place you live in? What differences and similarities can you think of? Compare them on the following aspects,
a. Sources of livelihood
b. Types of employment
c. Water sources
d. Agriculture practices
No. Bhavanapadu is a village on the coastline of Andhra Pradesh. Ours is a village Nandamaru, Unguturu Mandal in West Godavari district.

 Comparison Bhavanapadu Our village Nandamuru a. Sources of livelihood Fishing, Agriculture Agriculture b. Types of employment Laborers in fields salt pans, brokers Agricultural laborers, shop owners, vegetable vendors, etc. c. Water sources Ocean water River, canal, and well water. d. Agriculture practices Old systems Old and modern systems.

Question 2.
How many types of ocean movements are there? Which of them is useful to the fishermen
The water of the oceans is never still. There are different kinds of movements of water.
Ocean waters have three kinds of movements. They are:

1. Waves: When the water on the surface of the ocean rises and falls, they are called waves. They are formed when gentle winds scrape across the ocean surface. The faster the wind, the bigger will be the waves.
2. Currents: In the oceans, water is found to move from one part to another in big streams. These streams flow constantly in a definite direction on the surface of the ocean a called ocean currents. The ocean currents are of two types – The warm currents and the cold currents. The warm currents flow from the equatorial region towards the poles. The cold currents flow from the poles to towards the equatorial regions.
3. Tides: Tides are the rhythmic rise and fall in the level of the water in the oceans every day. All places on the coast experience some hours of low tide and some hours of high tide. Tides do not rise to the same height every day. When the tide is high water comes up to the coast for some distance. Then as the low tide begins, the water moves back from the land. The tides are of great help to fishing. Tides at some places take away the mud brought down by rivers and prevent silting.

Question 3.
What is the difference between fishing with Mechanical boats and that of Karrateppa?

 Mechanical boats Karrateppa 1. It is a costly boat. It costs around Rs. 6 lakhs. 1. It is a country-made boat. So it is very cheap. 2. It has a capacity of 20 members. It has far more risk of life. 2. It has the capacity of a few members. It has not had many risks compared to Marapadava. 3. Rs. 5000/- needed for a trip for diesel, wages, and other things. 3. It does not need much money. 4. They can go far off places in the sea and can fish for a long time. 4. It can cover very short distances. 5. In case of emergency, it is difficult to swim over to the shore. 5. In case of emergency, it is easy to swim over to the shore.

Question 4.
Write the process of getting a mechanical boat ready for fishing?
The boat is made ready the day before with all the necessary things properly loaded. Before launching into the sea :

1. The fishermen check the engine.
2. They also check the rope puller.
3. The additional stock of diesel is kept in the boat.
4. They keep their food packages in the boat.
5. They pray to the goddess in whom they have a strong faith.

Question 5.
What does the tool kit of fisherman contain?
The fisherman has a special tool kit for repairing the nets which consists of Nulukarralu (net remaining fork), Nulukanda (thread), and a flattened stick that determines the net ring size.

Question 6.
What are the similarities that you find between the surface of the earth and the bottom of the sea?
The floor of the ocean is just like the surface of the earth. The bottom of the sea is not a flat surface. It consists of hills, mountains, plateaus, plains, and trenches, etc.

Question 7.
Collect information about the aquifers of your village/town and fill in the table. Analyze the benefits.

 S.No. Name of the aquifer Uses Limitations 1. Confined aquifer Drinking water The aquifer and vulnerability maps can assist with the planning process. In order to assist in the correct interpre­tation and use of the maps, SEPA alerts the user to the following limitations. 2. Unconfined aquifer Cultivation Higher vulnerability ratings do not necessarily mean that all activities are unsuitable. Groundwater vulnerability is only one component of risk. 3. Semi confined aquifer Domestic use The maps will be updated as new geological information becomes available. Maps of receptors will he added, identifying the location of known groundwater abstrac­tions and groundwater-dependent ecosystems.

Question 8.
Make an album that reflects the life of fishermen.
These pictures express the life of fishermen.

Question 9.
Locate the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and write them down.

1. P.S.R. Nellore
2. Prakasam
3. Guntur
4. Krishna
5. East Godavari
6. West Godavari
7. Visakhapatnam
8. Vizianagaram
9. Srikakulam

Question 10.
What solutions do you show to the fishermen for not depending on the middlemen for money?
The fishermen should form themselves as an association or should open a cooperative bank. The association or bank should act as middlemen for the sake of money.

Question 11.
Across the last 4 chapters, we studied many different aspects of water. Here is more information about the availability of water on our Earth. Look at them carefully and explain the availability of water resources on the Earth.

71% of our Earth is covered with water.
a) Out of the total water on earth, 97% is saline water and 3% is freshwater.
b) Out of the total freshwater, icecaps and glaciers are 68.7%, groundwater 30.1%, surface water is 0.3% and other is 0.9%.
c) Out of the total fresh surface water, lakes are 87%, swamps are 11% and rivers are 2%.

Question 12.
How do you support the statement ‘The life of fishermen is tied up with seas’.
I supported the following statement. The life of fishermen is tied up With seas, why because he doesn’t know any other work. From childhood days onwards he depends on the sea to catch the fish and continue his life. He earns money for his family through fishing only. He has no capacity to live in either village or town because he has no assets and large lands. His main occupation is fishing only. He felt that the sea or Ocean is god and world to him also.

Question 13.
Read the first para of page 32 and comment on it.

Fishing Village on the Coastal Plains

Ocean water is always saline. It contains several mineral salts dissolved in it. The oceans are the main source of rainfall. Oceans are storehouses of fish and other seafood. They are the main source of salts. Oceans provide natural highways for international trade. Let us visit Bhavanapadu, a fishing village near the coast of Andhra Pradesh, and study the life of people living near the ocean.
The oceans are useful to us in many ways

1. We get salt from the ocean water.
2. Seas abound in mineral wealth.
3. Oceans provide us with large quantities and a variety of marine foods such as fish, shrimp, oysters, and crabs, etc.
4. The oceans serve as water transport systems from one continent to another continent. It is cheaper to transport heavy cargo through navigation.
5. Pearls are found in oysters.

Project

Read some writings which reference the lifestyle of fishermen. Eg: Samajanv Musalodu, Aatu-Potu (Janjhavathi Kathalu)
Students’ Activity.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 1B Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 1B Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 1B Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures

10th Class English Chapter 1B Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Question 1.
‘To Lincoln, defeat was a detour and not a dead end.’ Justify this statement from the life of Lincoln.
Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States at age 52. Before he became President, he faced many setbacks. He failed in business, lost in legislative, senatorial and congressional races. He lost his sweetheart when he was 22. Thus, Lincoln had failed many times before he got the big success. He proved that defeat was a detour and not a dead end.

Question 2.
What did Socrates suggest as the secret to success? Do you agree or disagree with it? Give reasons for your answer.
Socrates suggested that burning desire is the only secret to one’s success. I agree with this statement. If we don’t have a desire, we can’t achieve anything. A burning desire is the starting point of all accomplishments. A weak desire can’t produce great results. The motivation to get the success comes from the burning desire to achieve a purpose.

Question 3.
Complete the following table about the failures and successes of the great personalities mentioned in the lesson you have just read. The first one is done for you.

 Person Failures/Rejections he faced Final success 1. Abraham Lincoln Failed in business, defeated in legislative elections, had nervous breakdown, lost congressional race and senatorial race Elected President of the United States of America 2. Lee de Forest Charged by the district attorney Invented the triodes tube 3. Wright Brothers A New York Times editorial questioned the wisdom of the Wright Brothers Took their famous flight at Kitty Hawk 4. Colonel Sanders Knocked many doors before he got the first order Became famous as a busi­nessman and restaurateur who founded the Ken­tucky Fried Chicken chain restaurants. 5. Walt Disney Newspaper editors rejected him by saying that he had no talent. Created some of the world’s most well-known fictional characters inclu­ding Mickey Mouse. He was well known as an ani mator, film producer, di­rector, screenwriter, voice actor, entrepreneur, entertainer, international icon and philanthropist. 6. Thomas Edison As a child, he was considered to be a stupid, lost his factory to fire. Grew up to be a great scientist. 7. Henry Ford Forgot to put the reverse gear in his first car, broke at the age of 40. Established cars company 8. Lee lacocca Fired by Henry Ford 11 Well known for engineer­ing the Ford Mustang and Ford Pinto cars and became one of the most famous business people in the world. 9. Ludwig van Beethoven He was told that he had no talent for music. Gave some of the best music to the world.

Study skills

An elderly carpenter was ready to retire. He told his employer-contractor of his plans to leave the house-building business to live a more leisurely life with his wife and enjoy his extended family. He would miss the paycheck each week, but he wanted to retire. They could get by.

The contractor was sorry to see his good worker go and asked if he could build just one more house as a personal favour. The carpenter agreed. But over time it was easy to see that his heart was not in his work. He resorted to shoddy workmanship and used inferior materials. It was an unfortunate way to end a dedicated career.

When the carpenter finished his work, his employer came to inspect the house. Then he handed the front-door key to the carpenter and said, “This is your house… my gift to you.”
The carpenter was shocked!

What a shame! If he had only known that he was building his own house, he would have done it all so differently.
So it is with us. We build our lives, a day at a time, often putting less than our best into the building. Then, with a shock, we realize we have to live in the house we have built. If we could do it over, we would do it much differently.

But, you cannot go back. You are the carpenter, and every day you hammer a nail, place a board, or erect a wall. Someone once said, “Life is a do-it-yourself project.” Your attitude, and the choices you make today, help build the “house” you will live in tomorrow. Therefore, build wisely!

I. Complete the table given below.

 Point to be observed Observation/Point of view 1. The setting/location in which the story took place (A building) Retirement of a carpenter 2. The main characters A contractor and a carpenter 3. The main events a. The carpenter decided to retire. b. He told his employer (contractor) about his decision. c. The contractor requested the carpenter to build one more house as a personal favour. d. The carpenter agreed and finished his work. e. The contractor gave the very house to the carpenter as a gift. 4. The turning point in the story The contra.ctor inspected the house, handed the front-door key to the carpenter and told him to take the house as a gift. 5. The irony in the story The carpenter thought that the house was for the contractor. As he had already decided to retire, he didn’t do the work with good workmanship. But he was shocked to know that the house was for him. 6. The message in the story “Build your life with good attitude.” 7. Possible title “Building One’s Life.”

II. Extended Writing

Rewrite the above story by giving another ending.

An elderly carpenter was ready to retire. He told his employer-contractor of his plans to leave the house-building business to live a more leisurely life with his wife and enjoy his extended family. He would miss the paycheck each week, but he wanted to retire. They could get by.

The contractor was sorry to see his good worker go and asked if he could build just one more house as a personal favour. The carpenter agreed. He wanted to build the house using all his skill. He knew that his employer had confidence and faith in him. He began his work and completed with determination. He gave the final touch to the house and invited his employer. The employer came to inspect the house.

The contractor was amazed to see the house with all its fine work. He praised the carpenter for building such a beautiful house. He thanked the carpenter and gave him a big amount of money. The carpenter felt very happy thanked his employer and went away.

Listening

Listen to the story about a farmer.

Just now you have listened to a story about a farmer. Here are some sentences that describe the events in the story. However, they are not in the order in which they occur in the story. Listen to the story and arrange them in the order in which they occur. Put 1 after the event that occurs first, 2 against the next and so on.

He threw himself into the Barcelona River and committed suicide.
The wise man said, “Because that is a diamond.”
He picked up the stone and put it in the living room.
He looked all through Europe and couldn’t find any.
They found that the farm was indeed covered with acres and acres of diamonds.
That night the farmer couldn’t sleep.
The person who had bought his farm was watering the camels at a stream.
He made arrangements to sell off his farm and went in search of diamonds.
He was unhappy and he was discontent.
A wise man told him about the glory of diamonds.
A wise man told him about the glory of diamonds.
That night the farmer couldn’t sleep.
He was unhappy and he was discontent.
He made arrangements to sell off his farm and went in search of diamonds.
He looked all through Europe and couldn’t find any.
He threw himself into the Barcelona River and committed suicide.
The person who had bought his farm was watering the camels at a stream.
He picked up the stone and put it in the living room.
The wise man said, “Because that is a diamond.”
They found that the farm was indeed covered with acres and acres of diamonds.

Oral Activity

After listening to the story, work in pairs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of travelling abroad. You may use the hints given in the box for your understanding.

Nowadays we see many students, educated people and some others going abroad everywhere due to several reasons. Students go for studies. Educated people go for jobs. Other people go for touring. Going abroad has not only advantages but also disadvantages.

1. As far as merits are concerned while travelling abroad you will come to know about the other cultures and rituals. It will definitely add to one’s knowledge.
2. Students go abroad for their studies. Educated people go abroad for getting better opportunities.
3. By going abroad they can get good and quality education.
4. They can study and get jobs abroad.
5. They can settle in their lives by getting better earning. Thus they can improve their social status.
6. They can get more opportunities and more income.
7. They can learn new languages.
8. They can make friends with people from different countries.
9. They can know about recent technological developments.
10. The new environment can allow us to see the world and create memories that will last forever.

1. People who go abroad would cut off themselves from their roots from the native country.
2. They should forget their own environment which is friendly and lively.
3. They should live away from their culture, rituals and religions.
4. They should face difficulties in adapting other cultures.
5. They would miss the native food and tastes.
6. They would miss the nearness of their parents.
7. They should live far away from their parents. They miss the sacred love their parents.
8. Their parents would suffer from old age problems as there is nobody to take care of them.

Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures Summary in English

All stories of success are also stories of great failures. Failures are the stepping stones to success. We all know that Abraham Lincoln was the President of the United States, It was not an easy thing for him to reach such a great height in his life. He faced major setbacks in business as well as politics before he was elected President of the United States at age 52. He didn’t lose hope and give up his efforts.

Lee De Forest was the inventor of the triodes tube. In 1913, he was charged for using dishonest means to mislead the public. Though he was publicly humiliated, he didn’t stop his efforts and made so many inventions.

The Wright Brothers successfully took their flight after their wisdom was questioned by a New York Times editorial.

Colonel Sanders was the founder of KFC chain restaurants. He, at age 65* worked hard and succeeded in selling food items. He had knocked on more than a thousand doors before he got his first order.

Walt Disney, the famous cartoonist faced many rejections before his getting the success. He created Mickey Mouse when he was working out of a small mouse infested shed near the church.

Thomas Edison, who was partially deaf, failed 10,000 times while he was working on the light bulb. He didn’t give up and got the success finally. He was the man with great attitude. Though he lost his factory to fire, he went on inventing the phonograph. He didn’t lose hope at any stage of his life.

Henry Ford forgot to put the reverse gear in the first car he made and went broke at the age of 40. He succeeded later and reached top position in selling of cars.

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. Though he was told that he had no talent for music, he gave some of the best music.

All these persons succeeded in spite of their problems. A setback can act as a driving force and teach us humility. We have to find courage and faith to overcome the setback. We must get rid of fear and doubt. We need to try to become victors. We need to have burning desire to achieve our task. A burning desire is the key to one’s success. We can’t get great results with a weak desire.

IF YOU THINK

If you think you are beaten, you are.
If you think you dare not, you don’t!
If you like to win, but think you can’t,
It’s almost a cinch you won’t.
If you think you’ll lose, you’re lost;
For out in the world we find
Success begins with a fellow’s will;
It’s all in the state of mind.
If you think you are outclassed, you are,
You’ve got to think high to rise,
You’ve got to be sure of yourself before
You can ever win a prize.
Life’s battles don’t always go
To the stronger and faster man,
But sooner or later the man who wins
Is the man who thinks he can.

IF YOU THINK Summary
Success, failure, win, defeat – these ail depend upon the man’s thinking. Success begins with a fellow’s will. If one thinks he is beaten or lost, it certainly happens. If one thinks one is outclassed, one is outclassed. So, one needs to be positive in one’s thoughts. One needs to think high to get success. The person who thinks can easily win in the end. ‘ Victory is not always on the side of the stronger and faster man.

Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures About the Author

Shiv Khera is an Indian author of self-help books and activist.
While working in the United States, he was inspired by a lecture delivered by Norman Vincent Peale and followed his motivational teachings. Khera has written several books including You Can Win.
His mission is “to ensure freedom through education and justice.”

Shiv Khera was born in a business family who used to have coal mines Kendua in Dhanbad, India. Soon after the nationalisation of coal mines by the Indian government, he had to search for his own living. In his early years he worked as a car washer, a life insurance agent, and a franchise operator before he became a motivational speaker.

Every Success Story is Also a Story of Great Failures Glossary

overcome(v): to defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with something

detour(n): a road or route that is used when the usual one is closed

triodes tube (n): A triode is an electronic amplification tube having three active electrodes. Invented in 1906, the triode vacuum tube was the first electronic amplification device. This invention founded the electronic age, making possible amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony.

Lee de Forest: an American inventor with over 180 patents to his credit. He invented the Audion, a vacuum tube that takes relatively weak electrical signals and amplifies them. He is one of the fathers of the “electronic age,” as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics. He is also credited with one of the principal inventions that brought sound to motion pictures.

fraudulent (adj): intended to cheat someone, usually in order to make money illegally

attorney (n): a lawyer

humiliate (v): to make someone feel ashamed or stupid

Colonel Sanders: Colonel Harland David Sanders was an American business man and restaurateur who founded the Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) chain restaurants

quit (v): to leave ; to stop doing something

recipe (n): set of instructions for cooking a particular type of food

Walt Disney: an American animator, film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, entrepreneur entertainer, international icon and philanthropist, well known for his influence in the field of entertainment during the 20th century. He created some of the world’s most well-known fictional characters including Mickey Mouse.

rejection (n): the act of not accepting

Infest(v): to exist in large numbers in a particular place, often causing damage or disease (especially of insects or animals such as rats)

Henry Ford: an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. He did not Invent the automobile but he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford to buy.

disaster (n): a sudden event such as a flood, storm or accident

Lee Iacocca: an American Business man known for engineering the Ford Mustang and Ford Pinto cars. He was the former chairman of the Chrysler Corporation. He was one of the most famous business people in the world. He is the author (or coauthor) of several books, including Iacocca.

Ludwig van Beethoven: a German composer and pianist. He was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music. He remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best known compositions include 9 symphonies. 5 concertos, 2 piano sonatas and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music, choral works (Including the celebrated Missa Solemnis and songs).

inevitable (adj): certain to happen : that you cannot avoid or prevent

setback (n): a problem that delays or prevents progress

humility (n): the quality of not being too proud about oneself.

victor (n): the winner

stumbling block (n): a problem or difficulty that stops oneself from achieving something

Napoleon Hill: an American author in the area of the new thought movement who was one of the earliest producers of the modern genre of personal-success literature. He is widely considered to be one of the great writers on success.

conceive(n): to form an idea, a plan, etc. In your mind; to imagine something

Socrates (469 BC – 399 BC): a classical Greek Athenian philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western Philosophy; He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristopanes. Many would claim that Plato’s dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity. Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics.

ducked(v): pushed somebody under water and held them there for a short time

gasp (v): to breathe quickly in a way that can be heard because one is having difficulty in breathing .

accomplishment (n): something successful or impressive that is achieved after a lot of effort and hard work

cinch(n): a thing that is certain to happen

outclassed (v): overcame

will (n): determination to do something that one has decided to do

AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 2 Friction

AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 2 Friction

AP State Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions 2nd Lesson Friction

8th Class Physical Science 2nd Lesson Friction 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is frictional force?
The force which opposes the relative motion of two surfaces of bodies which are in contact is called frictional force.

Question 2.
What is static friction?
Static friction is the friction which comes into play when surfaces of objects are at rest relative to each other

Question 3.
What is sliding friction?
Sliding friction is the friction which comes into play when the surface of one object moves relative to the surface of another object.

Question 4.
What is rolling friction?
When one body rolls over the surface of the other body the friction offered is called rolling friction.

Question 5.
Write the order of friction.
Static friction > Sliding friction > Rolling friction.

Question 6.
What are lubricants?
The substances which reduce friction are called lubricants.

Question 7.
What are the factors which influence friction?
The factors which influence friction are: 1) Nature of surface, 2) Normal force.

Question 8.
What is drag?
The frictional force exerted by fluids is called drag.

Question 9.
What are the factors which frictional force of an object in fluid depends on?
The frictional force of an object in a fluid depepds on its speed with respect to fluid and on the shape of the object and nature of the fluid.

Question 10.
If friction was absent can you light a match stick?
No, to light a match stick it is to be rubbed against the rough surface of a match box.

Question 11.
Hard metal balls are used between rolling parts in a machine. How does it reduces friction?
Firstly it reduces the area of contact and reduces the friction. Secondly the hard balls experiences small forces of deformation that also reduce friction.

Question 12.
When a car is speeding on a level track, it enters on a concrete road from a tar road. What happens to its speed when the acceleration is unchanged?
The friction between the tyres and the concrete road is less than that on the tar road. Therefore, the car accelerates more on the concrete road.

Question 13.
A car moving on a concrete road entered on a glacier. The driver applied brakes. Describe its motion.
Because the friction is almost zero on the glacier, the car would not stop even though the tyres stop moving. That is the car skid forward.

Question 14.
Why do we use grease between moving parts of motor vehicles?
To reduce friction and increase the efficiency of motor vehicles.

Question 15.
What is effect of roughness on friction?
As the roughness of surface increases frictional force increases.

Question 16.
Why do Gymnasts apply some coarse substance on their hands?
Gymnasts apply some coarse substance on their hands to increase friction for better grip.

Question 17.
What is the effect of area of contact on frictional force?
Frictional force is independent of area of contact.

Question 18.
Why do we need to change the tyres when its threading is worn out?
If we does not change the tyre then the frictional force decreases due to threading worn out tyre there by the vehicle may skid.

Question 19.
Why birds and fishes have special shapes?
Birds and fishes have to move about in fluids all the time so they have special shapes which would make them not to lose much energy in overcoming friction.

Question 20.
Why shape of aeroplane is similar to bird?
The shape of birds are useful in reducing the fluid friction so aeroplane shape was made similar to bird in order to reduce fluid friction.

Question 21.
How does life history of Leonardo Davinci inspire students?
Leonardo Davinci was concerned with laws of science and nature which greatly informed his work as a painter, sculptor, inventor and draft men. His versatile personality inspire students.

8th Class Physical Science 2nd Lesson Friction 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is practical application of static friction?

1. The objects unable to move on their own is due to static friction otherwise no object be stationary at a particular place.
2. All the objects we used in our daily life are stationary because they unable to over-come static friction.

Question 2.
Why frictional force increases with roughness?

1. Friction caused by the irregularities on the two surfaces which are in contact.
2. Irregularities on the two surfaces lock into one another and we have to apply force to overcome interlocking to move any surface.
3. On roughness surfaces there exists a large number of irregularities so the force of friction is greater if a rough surface is involved.

Question 3.
Give few examples for Sliding friction.

1. The trolley moves on the floor.
2. The marbles or any spherical objects slide on the ground or floor when thrown.
3. The tyres make sliding movement on roads which moves the vehicles.

Question 4.
What happens if we do not reduce friction in machines?
If we do not reduce friction in machines, then friction causes overheating and wearing out of moving parts of machinery.

Question 5.
What purposes are surved by using bearings in machines? Explain with daily life examples.
Ball bearings are used to reduce friction between rotating shafts of machine tools.

1. Ball bearings are used in fAnswer:
2. Ball bearings are also used in machines.

Question 6.
Give examples of practical application of static friction.

1. The static friction does not make the bodies move easily. So, the bodies are at rest.
2. The static friction helps the vehicles to come to rest.
3. The static friction helps us to escape from slippery.

Question 7.
Why does friction between two surfaces increase when they are pressed harder?
Since the friction is due to the interlocking of irregularities in the two surfaces which slide with respect to each other, it is obvious that the force of friction will increase if the two surfaces are pressed harder.

Question 8.
Describe some examples where heat is produced due to friction.

1. When we rub our hands together vigorously for few minutes we feel heat due to friction.
2. When we strike a matchstick, against rough surface, it catches fire due to friction.

Question 9.
Why are the soles of our shoes and tyres of cars, trucks, etc. grooved?

1. It is done to provide the shoes better grip on the floor, so that one can move safely.
2. Similarly, the threaded tyres of cars, trucks and buldozers provide better grip with the ground.

Question 10.
Why heavier box apply more frictional force than lighter box?

1. We know that the force of friction is increased if the two surfaces are pressed harder.
2. A heavier box presses the ground harder to heavier box apply more frictional force.

Question 11.
Why it is easy to move an object in motion when compared with object at rest?

1. When the box start moving, the contact points on its surface, do not get enough time to lock into the contact points of floor.
2. So it is easy to move the box which already started to move.

Question 12.
What is the function of ridges on your palm and bottom of your feet?
Ridges of our palm help us to make firm grip whenever we hold by our hands – Ridges of the bottom of our feet help us to walk freely and we do not slip because of these.

Question 13.
On what factors does the fluid friction depend?

1. The frictional force on an object in a fluid depends on its speed with respect to the fluid.
2. The frictional force also depends on the shape of the object and the nature of the fluid.

Question 14.
Describe some examples where we have to increase friction.

1. We will increase friction by using brake pads in the brake system of bicycles and automobiles.
2. Kabaddi players rub their hands with the soil for an easy grip of their opponents.
3. Gymnasts apply some coarse substances on their hands to increase friction for better grip.

Question 15.
Why is it easy to drag a mat over the floor when no weight is kept over it?

1. When weight is kept over the mat, more force will be applied.
2. Due to more force, interlocking of two surfaces will increase, so friction also increases.
3. That is why it is easy to drag a mat over the floor when no weight is kept over it.

Question 16.
Explain why we use ball bearings between the hub and axle of ceiling fan and bicycle?

1. Since the rolling friction is smaller than the sliding friction.
2. So sliding is replaced in most machines by rolling with the use of ball bearings.
3. Common examples are the use of ball bearings between the hub and axle of a ceiling fan and the bicycle.

Question 17.
Explain why Gymnasts apply some coarse substance on their hands?

1. Gymnasts apply some coarse substance on their hands to increase friction for better grip.
2. This is due to increasing the large number of irregularities (up & downs) in the contact area.

8th Class Physical Science 2nd Lesson Friction 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What are the forces acting on a moving body on a floor?
Along vertical direction: Weight of the body (W) or gravitational force acting vertically down.

Normal force (N) or reaction force applied by the floor vertically up.
As there is no change in the motion of the body f along vertical direction the net force along vertical direction is 0.
That is W – N = 0 ⇒ W = N
Along horizontal direction : In horizontal direction the speed of the body changing gradually due to force, applied by the floor on the body. The force applied by the floor on the body is called frictional force.

Question 2.
What kinds of friction do you know and explain with suitable example.
Friction is of four kinds. They are:

1. Static friction: Friction which comes into play when surfaces of the objects are at rest relative to each other.
Ex: 1) We are applying force on a big rock but unable to move the rock due to its static friction.
2) Block at rest relative to the surface of trolley upto a certain limiting acceleration.
2. Sliding friction : The friction which comes into play when the surface of one object moves relative to the surface of another object.
Ex: When the applied force is more than limit of static friction, then the object starts to move which is example for sliding friction.
3. Rolling friction : When one body rolls over the surface of another body, the friction offered is called rolling friction.
Ex: It is easy to pull a suitcase which has rollers.
4. Fluid friction : Friction exerted by fluids like liquids and gases is called fluid friction. Ex : The shape of birds are such that they overcome the fluid friction.

Question 3.
A book placed on the surface of a table. The book is pushed in one direction. Draw the forces acting on the book and explain.
The weight acts downwards and normal force acts upward direction they balance each other.

Whereas frictional force acting opposite to the applied force.

Question 4.
Explain with one example that Frictional force is proportional to the Normal force.
Keep a brick on the horizontal floor tied to the spring balance. Pull the spring balance and note the frictional force.
Do the same experiment by adding one more brick above the first one.
Tie a brick to the spring balance and pull it to find the frictional force. The normal force acts on it provides a frictional force.

When we pull a brick over another brick the normal force acting on them increases so that the frictional force increases.
∴ Friction °c Normal force

Question 5.
Scientists designed the shape of aeroplane using the technique of reducing fluid friction by observing birds shape. How would you appreciate?

1. Objects move through fluids, they have to overcome friction acting on them.
2. Birds and fishes have to move about in fluids all the time.
3. Their bodies must have evolved to shapes which would make them not to lose much energy in overcoming friction.
4. So aeroplanes designed in a special shape to overcome friction without loosing much energy.
Hence I appreciate the idea of scientists to overcome fluid friction by designing shape of aeroplane.

Question 6.
Conduct an experiment to findout the effect of roughness on frictional force.
Effect of roughness on frictional force:

1. Set up an inclined plane on the horizontal floor. Use a wooden board as inclined plane.
2. Put a mark at any point A on the inclined plane. Now let a pencil cell or ball move down from this point.
3. Note the distance covered by the pencil cell from the bottom of the inclined plane to point where it comes to stop.
4. Now, spread a cloth over the floor make sure that there are no wrinkles in the cloth.
5. Try again with pencil cell. Now note down the distance.
6. Distance covered by pencil cell is less in this case.
7. Thus we conclude that smoothness/ roughness of the surfaces of both the floor and the pencil cell could affect the distance travelled by it.

Question 7.
Collect information about the substances using to reduce the friction in different machines and prepare a report on it.

1. Adding lubricants to machinery parts.
2. Using roller type ball bearings.
3. Using air pressure to separate moving parts.
4. Using magnetic repulsion to separate moving parts.
5. Using materials that tend to slide easily over each other.
6. Regulate the temperature of the machine.
7. The use of drive shafts.

Question 8.
Write an experiment to identify forces acting on a body and effect of frictional force.
Gently push a book or any object on a horizontal floor. It moves for a certain distance and stops due to the friction.
The friction acts in the opposite direction of the force exerted.
Now take the same object and do the activity on different surfaces smooth and rough.
The object moves a long distance on the smooth surface whereas it moves a little distance on the rough surface.
We come across that the friction is more on the rough surface and less on the smooth surface due to the reduction in the sliding friction.

Question 9.
Friction – an evil master and good servant to man. Describe.
Friction is the obstruction force acting in the opposite direction of the exerted force. It brings the following bad or evil impacts on the bodies.

1. Over heating and wearing out of moving parts in all machinery
2. Loss of efforts

In this way it is a bad or evil master to man.
But, without friction the moving of vehicles on the roads, walking, running, sitting, standing, etc. of us are not possible.
We are able to write with pen or pencil on the papers or walls or any surface is only due to the influence of friction. .
In this way it is a good master.

Question 10.
Does the friction is affected by smoothness of surface? Explain.

1. Friction is caused by the irregularities on the two surfaces in contact.
2. Even those surface which appear very smooth have a large number of minute irregularities on them.
3.  Irregularities on the two surfaces lock into another.
4. When we attempt to move any one surface over the other, we have to apply a force to overcome interlocking.
5. On rough surfaces, there are a larger number of irregularities.
6. So the force of friction is greater if a rough surface is involved.

Question 11.
What would happen if there were no force of friction? Imagine and describe in your own words.

1. If there were no friction, many problems could have been arisen, as one will not able to walk if they were no friction at all.
2. One could not write with pen or pencil.
3. One could not write on blackboard with a chalk.
4. If any object just started moving, it would never stop.
5. Had there been no friction between the tyres of the automobiles and the road, they could not be started or stopped or turned to change the direction of motion.
6. One could not fix the nail in the wall or tie a knot.
7. Without friction no buildings could be constructed.

8th Class Physical Science 2nd Lesson Friction Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
“Friction produce heat” – suggest an activity to prove this.

1. Rub your palms against each other for a few minutes.
2. You can feel heat in your palms.
3. Hence we can say that friction produces heat.

Question 2.
Write any one precaution which was taken by you while doing the experiment to understand the nature of friction.
Keep the weights to the hanger slowly and one by one.

Question 3.
Give any two examples of ways of reducing friction.
We can reduce friction,

1. by using lubricants in between frictional surfaces,
2. by using ball bearings in the rotating parts.

Question 4.
If there is no frictional force, assume the consequences in your classroom. Write any four of them.
If there is no friction force,

1. We cannot hold a pen to write on a book.
2. We cannot walk in the classroom.
3. Teacher cannot write with chalk-piece on the blackboard.
4. Heat does not produce when rub the palms against each other.

Question 2.
What is fluid friction? Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.

1. When bodies move through fluids, fluids exert a frictional force called drag or fluid friction.
2. To minimise fluid friction, objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.
3. For example, Birds and Fishes have to move about in fluids all the time, so they have special shapes which would make them not to lose much energy in over coming friction.
4. Another example is the shape of aeroplane was made similar to bird in order to reduce fluid friction.

Question 3.
Imagine the friction has disappeared from the earth. What will happen? Explain.

1. If there were no friction, many problems could have been arisen, as one will not able to walk if they were no friction at all.
2. One could not write with pen or pencil.
3. One could not write on blackboard with a chalk.
4. If any object just started moving, it would never stop.
5. Had there been no friction between the tyres of the automobiles and the road, they could not be started or stopped or turned to change the direction of motion.
6. One could not fix the nail in the wall or tie a knot.
7. Without friction no buildings could be constructed.

Question 4.
Name any two types of frictions. Write one example for each.
(OR)
What kinds of friction do you know? Write the conditions needed for static friction between two objects and what way do you suggest to reduce friction?
Friction is of four kinds. They are

1. Static friction: Friction which comes into play when surfaces of the objects are at rest relative to each other.
Ex : 1) We are applying force on a big rock but unable to move the rock due to its static friction.
2) Block at rest relative to the surface of trolley upto a certain limiting acceleration.
2. Sliding friction: The friction which comes into play when the surface of one object moves relative to the surface of another object.
Ex : When the applied force is more than limit of static friction, then the object starts to move which is example for sliding friction.
3. Rolling friction: When one body rolls over the surface of another body, the friction offered is called rolling friction.
Ex : It is easy to pull a suitcase which has rollers.
4. Fluid friction: Friction exerted by fluids like liquids and gases is called fluid friction. Ex : The shape of birds are such that they over come the fluid friction.

Static friction is a self adjusting force. The following conditions are needed for static friction ;

1. Roughness of the surface of contact and
2. Normal force.
3. We can reduce the friction by applying oil or grease between the moving parts of a machine.
4. If we polish the rough surfaces, they become smooth and friction is reduced.
5. We can apply soap solution to the rough surfaces.
6. We can apply powder of small quantity on the surface.
7. By streamlining the bodies of the vehicles we can reduce air friction.

Question 5.
Friction does not depends upon area of contact. How can you perform an activity to prove it?
Tie a string around a brick and pull the brick by using spring balance and measure the applied force or friction.

Now turn the brick upright so that the contact area with the floor becomes small. Do the same experiment and measure the friction using the reading of the spring balance.

The conclusion is frictional force appears the same in both the cases irrespective of area of contact.

AP Board 7th Class Social Studies Solutions Chapter 3 Tanks and Ground Water

SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 3rd Lesson Tanks and Ground Water Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 3rd Lesson Tanks and Ground Water

7th Class Social Studies 3rd Lesson Tanks and Ground Water Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Correct the incorrect sentences:
a) Water flows from the plains to the plateau. (✕)
Water flows from the plateau to the plains.

b) There is a thick deposit of sand and gravel in the plains. (✕)
There is a thick deposit of alluvium in the plains.

c) Groundwater will never dry. (✕)
Groundwater will dry sometime.

d) It is easy to dig wells in Rajahmundry. (✓)
Correct

Question 2.
The wells shown in this figure are situated on the plains of the Godavari. But there seems to be a mistake in the figure. Can you correct it?

The water level should be the same.

Question 3.
In which of these places do you expect maximum percolation to take place?

B

Question 4.
When the owners of some wells in Pallerla started using high-powered motors to draw water from the wells, the owners of other wells noticed that their wells were drying up. Discuss the possible solution to the problem.
The owners of other wells should resist that owner from using high-power motors. And the owner also should take necessary preventive steps to store rainwater/ underground water.

Question 5.
In areas where there is a shortage of groundwater, should there be any restrictions on digging tube wells? Why?
The areas which have a shortage of groundwater are stated as notified areas by Central Ground Water Authority. In these areas, there is permission for only one tube well to meet the drinking and domestic purpose of water, its diameter should be 100 mm, and the capacity of the pump should not exceed 1 HP. It should have a rainwater harvesting system on the premises. Otherwise, the ‘holding capacity in the matter inside the earth will be lessened.

Question 6.
In our area also people draw more water from the ground, so the groundwater is decreasing over time. I think the following steps are useful to enhance groundwater

1. Vegetation like trees and grasses and bunds are used to enhance groundwater.
2. We follow watershed development projects.
3. Under these projects trees and grasses are planted on the hill slopes from where a stream starts and small bunds are built across streams to stop the flow of water.
4. I suggest the people store rainwater in tanks and not dig wells too deep in the ground.
5. I think tanks should be developed in our village which helps the people not only in giving them and their animals drinking water, but also irrigating their fields in such a way that even in drought years people could raise at least some crops.

Question 7.
Observe the following picture and compare it with your locality.

Our village is ‘Kalisipudi’ village in West Godavari District. There are no hills around our village like here. We have two water tanks – one is for drinking water and the another is for cultivation. Rainwater is saved in one tank. Water from* the canal, which was dug from the river Godavari, will be turned to another tank. Our farmers use tractors for ploughing. Our residences are far away from our fields. Draw the map of your village and locate the water resources of your village in it.

Question 8.
Draw the map of your village and locate the water resources of your village in it.
A village picture – (with well, water tank)

Question 9.
Read the third para of page 27 and write a comment on it.
Water quickly flows into streams and into rivers. However, if the flow of the j rainwater were to be checked by vegetation or bunds, then there would be a greater possibility of the water percolating into the soil to join the groundwater.
After runoff comes the last step of the water cycle, percolation.
Percolation occurs when the water on the earth’s surface in the run-off stage seeps underground. That is why in the old days they used wells to retrieve water.

Project

Collect the following information about the tanks/kuntas.

Students’ Activity.

AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Force

AP State Syllabus AP Board 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Force

AP State Syllabus 8th Class Physical Science Important Questions 1st Lesson Force

8th Class Physical Science 1st Lesson Force 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is force ? What is its S.I. unit?
The push or pull of an object is called force. Its S.I. unit is Newton.

Question 2.
What is a contacting force?
The force results when there is a direct physical contact between two interacting objects is called contacting force.

Question 3.
Define a force at a distance or field force.
The force which occurs without any physical contact between two objects is known as force at a distance or field force.

Question 4.
What is muscular force?
The force which we exert by using our body muscles is known as muscular force.

Question 5.
What is friction?
The resistance to the movement of a body over the surface of another body is called friction.

Question 6.
Define normal force.
The force that a solid surface exerts on any object in the normal direction is called normal force.

Question 7.
What is a magnetic force?
The force exerted by a magnet on another magnet.

Question 8.
What is a gravitational force?
The attractive forces between any two massive objects is called gravitational force.

Question 9.
What is electrostatic force?
The force exerted by a charged body on other charged or uncharged body is called electrostatic force.

Question 10.
What is magnetic field?
The space around the magnet where its influence can be detected is called magnetic field.

Question 11.
What is a net force?
The algebraic sum of the forces acting on a body is known as net force.

Question 12.
What is free body diagram?
The diagram showing all the forces acting on an object at a particular instant is called free body diagram.

Question 13.
A blacksmith hammers a hot piece of iron while making a tool. How does the force due to hammering affect the piece of iron?
It changes the shape of iron.

Question 14.
A rocket has been fired upwards to launch a satellite in its orbit. Name the two forces acting on the rocket immediately after leaving the launching pad?

1. The weight of the rocket downwards.
2. The upward force due to firing of rocket.

Question 15.
Why do not you experience gravitational force exists between you and your teacher because gravitational force depends on masses of object
The reason is everything on earth experienced by a large gravitational force of earth so remaining gravitational forces are negligible.

Question 16.
What is tension?
When we stretch a rope or a string the tightness of rope or string is called tension. Tension is a contact force.

8th Class Physical Science 1st Lesson Force 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain Gravitational Force by giving a suitable example.
Gravitational Force: The force of attraction that exists between any two bodies (or masses) everywhere in the universe.
Examples:

1. The stone thrown up into the sky fall back on to the earth due to gravitational force.
2. Earth holding atmosphere due to gravitational force.
3. All the objects are pulling towards earth due to gravitational force.
4. Rivers flow down to the sea because of gravitational force.

Question 2.
The surface area of an object is 20 m2 and a force of 10 N is applied on it, then what is the pressure?
Force (F) = 10 N; Area (A) = 20 m × 2m = 40m2;
Pressure = $$\frac{F}{A}$$ = $$\frac{10}{40}$$ = 0.25 Pascal

Question 3.
Observe the situations of electrostatic forces in your daily life and prepare a report.

1. If you comb your dry hair and bring small pieces of paper then these paper pieces are attracted by comb because it is charged.
2. If a glass rod is rubbed with a silk cloth then if we bring small pieces of paper near glass rod or silk cloth then these paper pieces are attracted by glass rod or silk cloth due to elctrostatic force.

Question 4.
Find the net force acting on a body shown in the figure. And draw the direction of net force. (Length of the arrow shows the magnitude of the force and direction also.)

Question 5.
Give two daily life examples each of situations in which you push or pull to change the state of motion of object.
Push:

1. Hitting a foot ball with your leg.

Pull:

1. Opening a door
2. Moving a table towards you.

Question 6.
Give two examples of situations in which applied force causes a change in the shape of an object.

1. Pressing a sponge.
2. Stretching of rubber band.

Question 7.
Name the forces acting on a plastic bucket containing water held above ground level in your hand. Why do the forces acting on the bucket do not bring a change in its state of motion?
The gravitational force acts as plastic bucket containing water held above ground level in your hand. Gravitational force does not bring change in state of bucket be¬cause equal amount of force is applied vertically upward.

Question 8.
Name the two forces acting on a rocket immediately after leaving the launching pad.
The two forces acting on rocket are:

1. Force due to gravity vertically downward.
2. Frictional force of atmosphere.

Question 9.
What changes can be observed when we apply force on an object?
a) Change in the shape of the object.
b) Change in direction of motion of an object.
c) Change in speed of an object if the object is moving.
d) Movement of an object from rest.

Question 10.
Have you ever seen a game of tug of war ? In this game two teams pull a rope in opposite direction. But sometimes the rope does not move explain why.
a) When two forces acts on an object in opposite direction then the net force is difference of two forces.
b) If two teams pull the rope with equal force, the forces will be in opposite direction and will cancel with each other and the rope will not move.

Question 11.
How does an applied force change the speed of an object ?

1. When force is applied in the direction of motion of object then the speed of object increases.
2. If the force is applied in the direction opposition to the motion of object then the speed decreases.

Question 12.
Give three examples of force exerted by muscles in our body.

1. Blood circulation in our body.
2. Inhalation and exhalation of air by lungs.
3. Running by muscles of legs.

Question 13.
Why does the pointed end of the nail gets into wooden plank easily ?
The area of pointed end of nail is much smaller than that of its head. The same force produces a sufficient pressure to push the printed end of the nail into the wooden plank.

Question 14.
Why do porters place a round piece of cloth on their heads?
Porter place a round piece of cloth on their heads to increase the area of contact of the load with the head. So the pressure on their head is reduced and they can carry heavy load easily. .

Question 15.
On what factors does the effect of force depend?
The effect of force depends on two things

1. The amount of force applied the more the force applied the greater the effect will be.
2. The area on which the force is applied. The smaller the area, the force is applied on the greater the effect will be.

Question 16.
How many types of forces are there and what are they? Give examples for each.
Forces are two types:

1. Contact force e.g.: Muscular force, frictional force.
2. Force at a distance e.g.: Gravitational force, magnetic force.

Question 17.
What is pressure ? What is its unit?
The force acting perpendicularly on a unit area of surface is called pressure.
Pressure = Force/Area
Its unit in S.I. system is Newton / metre or N/m .

Question 18.
What is the influence of Sir Isaac Newton on students?

1. Everything we are discussing about motion and his contribution to mechanics and light one of the all time greatest scientist.
2. His experiments and laws, hypothesis influence the students to take up research and inspire them to become a future scientists of our nation.

8th Class Physical Science 1st Lesson Force 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Design and conduct experiment to test few ways how friction may be reduced.
Friction is due to the roughness of surfaces. It can be reduced by the following methods.

1. By polishing the rough surface.
2. By applying lubricants like oil and grease to the surfaces.
3. By spreading powder on the rough surface like carromboard.
4. By using soap and detergent solutions, etc.

Experiment: The rusted pulley makes a rattling noise. Apply some oil in between the wheel and axle. The sound is reduced and now it works smoothly.

Question 2.
Collect pictures to illustrate contact forces, forces at a distance and prepare a report.
I. Contact forces :
1) Muscular force:

2) Frictional force:

3) Normal force:

4) Tension:

II. Forces at distance (Field Forces)
1) Magnetic force:

2) Electrostatic force:

3) Gravitational force:

Report: Forces are two types based on contact or non-contact between objects.

I. Contact Forces : Force which results when there is a direct physical contact between two interacting objects is known as contact force. Contact forces are four types. They are :

1. Muscular Force: The force which we exert by using our body muscles is known as muscular force.
2. Frictional Force: Friction is the resistance to the movement of a body over the surface of another body.
3. Normal Force: The force that a solid surface exerts on any object in the normal direction is called normal force.
4. Tension: The lightness of slope or string when we try to stretch a rope or string is called tension.

II. Forces at distance (Field forces): The force which occurs without any physical con¬tact between two objects is known as a force at distance or field force.
Forces at distance are three types. They are:

1. Magnetic Force : The force existing between two magnetic poles of two different magnets is called magnetic force. The force is also exists between magnet and magnetic material.
2. Electrostatic Force : The force exerted by a charged body on another charged body is known as electrostatic force.
3. Gravitational Force : The force of attraction exists between any two bodies (or masses) everywhere in the universe is known as gravitational force.

Question 3.
When you push a heavy object, it doesn’t move. Explain the reason in terms of net force.
There are four forces acting on the heavy table. They are normal force (upwards), gravitational force (downwards), push and friction (opposite to push).

Let’s take
Normal force = N (- ve); Gravitational Force = W (downwards); Push = F1
Friction = F2 (- ve) [more]
∴ Net force in X – direction = Push – Friction = F1 – F2 = – ve
Net force in Y – direction = N – W = – ve
As the net force in Y – axis is more you are unable to move the heavy object.

Question 4.
Some forces are acting without any contact of surfaces. Explain.
Some forces like magnetic force, electrostatic force and gravitational force act on other bodies without any contact of surfaces. This property is called the field force.
As far as magnetic force concern, the magnets are surrounded by the magnetic lines of force which provide the magnets attractive and repelling forces. The same poles repel and the different poles attract.
The electrostatic forces are exerted by a charged body on another charged or uncharged body. The charged body induces an opposite charge on the uncharged body and it gets attracted by the body. Here, the two bodies are at distance before the electrostatic forces are exerted.
The earth attracts everybody even though they are at some distance. This force is called gravitational force or weight of the body. It varies at different places.

Question 5.
In the following situations identify the agent exerting the force and the object on which its acts. State the effect of force in each case.
a) A batsman hitting a cricket ball
b) Pressing a lump of dough
c) Taking out paste from a tooth paste
d) A horse pulling a cart

 Agent exerting force Object on which it acts Form of effect Muscles Cricket ball Change in speed and direction Fingers Dough Change in shape Fingers Tooth paste Change in shape Horse Cart Change in speed

8th Class Physical Science 1st Lesson Force Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
A fruit is falling from a tree. Which force acts on the fruit?
Gravitational force acts on the fruit, which is from a tree.

Question 2.
Find the net force from the following diagrams.

a) Net force = + 12N + 10N – 8N = + 22N – 8N = 14 N
b) Net force = +9N – 8N = 1N

Question 3.
If you bring a rubbed balloon near the pieces of paper, what do you observe ?
Rubber balloon attracts pieces of paper. It is electrostatic force.

Question 4.
From the above diagram, calculate the net force acting on a body.

Net force in vertical direction = 5N – 5N = 0
Net force in horizontal direction = 10N – 8N = 2N

Question 5.
Find the net forces from the following free body diagram (FED).

i) Net force in the vertical direction = + 6N – 6N = 0N
ii) Net force in the horizontal direction = + 20N – 3N = 17N.

Question 6.
What will happen if gravitational force disappears from the Earth? Explain.
If gravitational force disappears from the earth,
i) No atmospheric gases are found around the earth.
ii) Objects does not fall down on the earth.
iii) Human beings, animals can fly easily in the sky.
iv) We cannot find the weight of the objects.

Question 7.
Define contact force and force at a distance, give two examples for each type of force.