SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 14th Lesson Mughal Empire Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 14th Lesson Mughal Empire
7th Class Social Studies 14th Lesson Mughal Empire Textbook Questions and Answers
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Match the following.
Group – A Group – B
1) Mansab ( ) A) Marwar
2) Zamindar ( ) B) Revenue assignment
3) Sisodiya Rajput ( ) C) Hereditary chiefs
4) Rathor Rajput ( ) D) Sulh-i-kul
5) Akbar ( ) E) Mewar
6) Jagirdar ( ) F) Rank
What was the relationship between the mansabdar and his jagir?
Mansabdars were revenue, military, and administrative officers of the Mughal kingdom. They were directly under the control of the emperor who could allocate any work for them to do – like guarding his palace, governing a province, conquering a new kingdom, or suppressing a rebellion. Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs. The revenue was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars-themselves served in some other part of the country. The jagir was administered by other officials directly under the emperor. These officials tried to ensure that the jagirdars’ agents did not collect more from the farmers than permitted. The jagirs too were constantly transferred every two or three years.
What was the role of the Zamindar in the Mughal administration?
Zamindars were intermediaries who were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains. The Zamindars were not appointed by the Mughal emperors but existed on a hereditary basis.
They too had contingents of armed followers. They received revenue collected from the area by jagirdars and also received dues from the farmers.
In some areas, the zamindars exercised a great deal of power. The exploitation by Mughal administrators could drive them to rebellion.
How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
Abul – Fazl helped Akbar in framing a vision of governance i.e., the emperor would work for the welfare of all subjects irrespective of their religion or social status. This idea of tolerance did not discriminate among people of different religions in his realm. Instead, it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice, the peace that was universally applicable. This eventually led Akbar to the idea of “Sulh-i-kul” or “universal peace”. So Akbar wanted to bring together the people of diverse faiths. So the debates with religious scholars were important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance.
“The decision of Emperor is final” – Is this procedure formulated by Mughals? What do you think?
Yes, the procedure of “the decision of emperor is final” is implemented by Mughals only. They followed the suggestions of Mansabdars, Jagirdars, and other officials and discuss with them and the final decision is taken by the taken emperor only and why because during the time emperor means he has enormous powers and they followed divine right theory also. And Mughals did not believe other persons also. During that time the power is a centralized manner. Emperor means supreme, every person thinks the king has supernatural powers and they will give chance to the king to take the final decision and he gave importance to the welfare of the people. If the people disobeyed the rule of the emperor they, are sentenced to death. The emperor won’t accept any opposition in his empire. During the time of the Mughals they occupied vast areas and established large kingdoms, for this administration, they divided the decision is mandatory for all the people of the empire to follow the kingdom into different parts and appointed different officials also. But the final decision is in the hands of the emperor why because always they protect themselves from internal revolts, rebellions, and enemies also. Alway they tried to protect their kingdom and face the different invasions. That’s why the decision-making is in the hands of the emperor.
Why did the Mughals allow the earlier rulers to continue in their old kingdoms as before?
The Mughals allowed earlier rulers to continue in their old kingdoms provided they accepted the Mughal’s authority. The native rulers could collect revenue from their kingdom. But they had to keep an army ready for use by the emperor. Moreover, it would relieve the emperor from the burden of administration, controlling law and order. The native ruler would be responsible for the administration, peace, and safety of the people.
So the Mughals allowed the earlier rulers to continue in their, old kingdoms.
Why was the policy of Sulh-i-kul important for the Mughals to control their vast empire?
The Mughal empire was a vast one. It included almost all parts of the northern India and half of south India. It consists of the people of all regions and faiths. Mughals believed that by having friendly relations with the native kings of all faiths and with the co-operation of the people of all religions they could rule their vast country for a long period. The idea of Sulh-i-kul or universal peace did not discriminate among people of different religions in their kingdom. So the policy of Sulh-i-kul (universal peace) would make the people of all religions and faiths co-operate with the emperor, and thus they could rule their kingdom with ease and comfort.
Read the first para under the title ‘Zabt and Zamindars’ of page 126 and comment on it.
Zabt and Zamindars
The main source of income available to Mughal rulers was a tax on the produce of the peasantry. Akbar’s revenue minister, Todar Mai, carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices, and areas cultivated for a ten-year period, 1570-1580 AD. On the basis of this data, the tax was fixed in cash for each crop. Each province was divided into v revenue circles with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as zabt. It was prevalent in those areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep very careful accounts. This was not possible in provinces such as Gujarat and Bengal.
The Mughal appointed people to act as tax clerks, sending them around the country to oversee the collection of revenue and remit it to the capital city of Delhi. These people were known as Zamindari and they collected revenue primarily from the peasants. This Zamindari system was more prevalent in the north of India because Mughal influence in the South was less apparent. Zamindars under the Mughals were, in fact, more public functionaries than revenue collecting agents. The territorial zamindars had judicial powers also.
Collect and fill in the table with the particulars of Mughal emperors.
|S.no||Name of the emperor||Ruling period||Important features|
|S.No.||Name of the emperor||Ruling period||Important features|
|1.||Babur||1526 – 1530 A.D.||1. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi and established control over Agra and Delhi.
2. Introduced cannons and guns in Indian warfare.
|2.||Humayun||1530-1556 A.D.||1. Sher Khan defeated Humayun.
2. Humayun fled to Iran, and with the help of Safavid Shah of Iran, he recaptured Delhi in 1555 A.D.
|3.||Akbar||1556 – 1605 A.D.||1. He conquered Bengal, Central India, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
2. He also conquered Afghanistan, Kashmir and portions of the Deccan.
3. He followed the principle of universal peace or sulh-i-kul.
|4.||Jahangir||1605-1627 AD.||He continued the military campaigns started by Akbar. No major conquests.|
|5.||Shah Jahan||1627-1658 A.D.||He continued campaigns in Deccan. He faced many revolts by chiefs and nobles of his empire. There was conflict over succession amongst Shah Jahan’s sons. Aurangzeb was victorious. Shah Jahan was imprisoned by Aurangazeb.|
|6.||Aurangazeb||1658- 1707 A.D.||1. A large number of revolts all over his kingdom.
2. Shivaji succeeded in establishing an independent Maratha kingdom. Aurangazeb conquered Bijapur and Golconda. He deviated himself from sulh-i-kul and favored only Sunni Muslims.