SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 15th Lesson Establishment of the British Empire in India Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 15th Lesson Establishment of the British Empire in India
7th Class Social Studies 15th Lesson Establishment of the British Empire in India Textbook Questions and Answers
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Why did the European trading companies maintain armies in India? What role did these armies play in the business of the companies?
The European trading companies maintained armies in India for the following reasons :
- for attaining a monopoly over trade in India.
- to protect their trading centers and forts from the local rulers and the other European companies.
- to drive the other European companies away from India to attain a monopoly over trade in India.
- to increase their profits by using their military advantage.
- to force the local craftsmen to sell their goods at low prices.
- to squeeze revenue from the peasants beyond reasonable limits.
- for fighting against the local rulers when they resisted the trading companies to squeeze revenue.
- to dethrone the kings and to remove any obstacles in the way of their trade.
The armies of the companies played the roles:
a) guards to protect their ports, forts, and their trading centers.
b) a force to threaten the craftsmen to sell their goods at lower prices.
c) an army to fight against their trade rivals and the local rulers.
How could the European armies defeat the Indian armies in the 1700s and 1800’s?
- The armies of European armies were different from the armies of Indian rulers in the 1700’s and 1800’s.
- The soldiers of European armies were better trained and received higher and more regular salaries.
- They also had better cannons and guns.
- The European armies held parades and drills every day.
- With such regular exercise, Indian soldiers enrolled in these armies also became quite skilled in battle. So the European armies were able to defeat the Indian armies in 1700s and 1800s.
Collect the information of the 1857 revolt and fill in the table with the particulars.
|People participated in the revolt
|People stayed away from the revolt
|Many Royal families
|Farmers and land owners
|Some Local rulers
|Many Hindus and Muslims
|The Indian sepoys
|Sikhs and Gurkhas
In 1857, which soldiers felt their religious faith was being violated, and why?
Almost people of all the sections of society revolted against the English, in 1857.
- Many royal families, whose kingdoms had been taken away by the English, joined the revolt. Among them were the former Nawab of Avadh and the Maratha Peshwa Nana Sahib, Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and Tantia Tope, and the rulers of different cor¬ners of the country.
- Farmers and landowners revolted against the English because the English imposed very high taxes on them and collected the taxes very strictly.
- Because of the new rules and laws of the English, the tribal people lost their right over jungles and land. So they revolted against the English.
- Many Hindus and Muslims feared that the English would destroy their religions and convert them to Christianity. So they also joined the revolt.
- The Indian Sipahis in the British army, who were not treated with respect, and who were not paid their salaries on time started the revolt.
On top of that, the Hindu and the Muslim Sipahis felt that their religious faith was being Violated, when they were asked to use the cartridges which were being coated with cow and pig fat.
But the money lenders, who had become very powerful in the villages with the help of English laws, did not join the revolt.
Some Zamindars who received the promises of gifts from the British did not join the revolt.
But the local rulers such as the Nawab of Hyderabad did not join the revolt. The Marathas, Sikhs, and Gurkhas were friendly with the British. They all helped the Brit¬ish to suppress the revolt.
In what ways did people revolt against the British in 1857?
A wave of people began attacking the bungalows of the English. Offices of the English were set on fire. Many English people were killed. The flames of revolt spread from Kasba to Kasba and village to village in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The peasants and Zamindars took up arms together and had the English and their officers on the run. They stopped paying taxes to the British government. They tore up railway lines, burnt down police stations, courts, post and telegraph offices, and uprooted the telegraph wires. The rebels looted the houses and burnt the documents of many money lenders. Thus the rebels fought bravely.
What did the people who revolted in 1857 want to achieve?
By May 11, 1857, the Sipahis of Meerut reached Delhi. They entered the Lai Quila and declared the imprisoned Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar their Badshah. They persuaded him to reject the sovereignty of the British. The rebels wanted to drive out the English and brought back Mughal rule. The rebels made it a clarion call. Armies of the rebel Sipahis and rulers from different corners of the country marched towards Delhi. They hoped that the English would be driven away and Mughal rule and the earlier political order would be restored.
What complaints of the rebels did Queen Victoria try to address in her 1858 declaration. Try to address?
In the declaration of 1858, Queen Victoria tried to address the complaints of the native kings who were dethroned and anointed successors. Addressing them the Queen declared that Indian kings should rule their own kingdoms without anxiety because the English would not try to dethrone them. Zamindars, who were treated brutally for the collection of revenue, were given many concessions and were assured that their property would be protected. The Queen addressed the pundits and Maulvis who feared that the British government was interfering in matters relating to Indian religions the Queen assured that the British government would not interfere in their reli¬gious matters and the old traditions would be allowed to continue. The queen ad¬dressed the Indian people, who were treated as inferiors and were not taken into their service, were promised that they would be taken into British government service.
What are the similarities and differences between the ways the Mughals and the English came to power in India?
Both were the foreigners to establish their power in India. The Mughals came from Magnolia, captured Delhi, and established their rule in India. But the English came to India as a trading company, got permission from Jahangir to construct an English factory at Surat, drove away all the European countries from the competition, accumu¬lated wealth, maintained an army, built forts, fought battles, and used military force and cooked policies to establish their political power in India. Though the Mughals were foreigners, they never treated Indians as slaves; after establishing their kingdom they consider India as their own country. But the English considered Indians as slaves and India as their colony. Unlike the Mughals, the English plundered all drained all the wealth from India.
Locate the sea route of Vasco da Gama from Portugal to India on the map.
Write a short note on the need for unity to avert foreign invasion.
There is one saying that ‘unity is strength’. If all the people of a nation are united they can avert foreign invasion. Otherwise, we have to lose our country.
Ex: During Alexander’s invasion if Porus and Ambi were united, he would not enter our country But ‘Ambi’ made an alliance with Alexander. So he defeated ‘Por us’ and oc¬cupied some parts of our country.
Express your dissatisfaction towards the rule of Britishers.
Describe the reasons for the dissatisfaction among Indians against British rule?
The Britishers ruled the country for their welfare. They treated Indians as slaves. They tried to propagate their religion with force. They had stolen our natural resources. They made us ignore our languages like Sanskrit etc. They changed our lives in all aspects.
Perform monoactions of Indian freedom fighters in your school functions.