SCERT AP Board 10th Class Social Solutions 2nd Lesson Ideas of Development Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Solutions 2nd Lesson Ideas of Development
10th Class Social Studies 2nd Lesson Ideas of Development Textbook Questions and Answers
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What main criterion is used by the World Bank in classifying different counties? What are the limitations of the above criterion, if any?
- The main criterion that is used by the World Bank in classifying different countries is per capita income.
- It is otherwise called the average income.
- It is calculated as the total income of the country divided by the total population.
- It Is a better Indicator of development than the total income of the country.
- There are limitations in this criterion also.
- Average Income may be useful for comparison, it hides disparities.
- It does not tell us how the total income is distributed among people.
- It does not necessarily convey more equitable distribution.
Usually, behind each social phenomenon, there would be several contributing factors, and not one. What, in your opinion, are the factors that came together for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh?
There are so many factors that came together for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh. They are:
- The development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh is called ‘the schooling revolution in Himachal Pradesh.
- The government started schools and made education largely free or cost very little for parents.
- It tried to ensure that these schools with minimum facilities like teachers, classrooms, toilets, drinking water etc.
- It has the distinction of one of the highest spending states from the government budget on the education of each child.
- A welcome trend in Himachal Pradesh is the lower gender bias.
- Himachali parents have ambitious educational goals for their girls, just as for boys.
- Himachali mothers expect their daughters to work outside the home after marriage.
- Schooling, therefore, comes naturally and became a social norm.
In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
- The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development has three factors.
- They are:
- a) to compare countries based on the educational levels of people.
- b) their health status
- c) per capita income.
- It included health and educational indicators to income.
- It termed its report to be Human Development Report.
- Whereas the criterion used by the World Bank is per capita income only.
- It did not include educational and health indicators.
- It termed its report to be World Development Report.
- In this way the criteria used by the UNDP and the World Bank for measuring development are different.
Do you think there are certain other aspects, other than those discussed in the chapter that should be considered in measuring human development?
- The aspects that are considered in measuring human development are per capita income by World Bank.
- Along with per capita income, the education levels of people and health status are considered by the UNDP.
- There are other aspects to be considered.
- Standard of life is one aspect to be considered.
- Another aspect to be considered is the availability of electricity.
- Transportation is also one among them.
- Sanitation facilities is one such aspect.
- Availability of irrigation facilities and housing etc. are few other aspects to be considered in measuring human development.
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
- We use averages for comparison.
- Averages are better indicators than total.
- There are limitations to their use.
- They also hide disparities.
- They do not tell us how the total is distributed among people.
- They do not necessarily convey more equitable distribution.
- Both the countries have the same average income of ₹ 25,000
- Country X-has more equitably distributed income.
- Country Y has one rich and more poor persons.
What lessons can you draw about the importance of income from the fact that Himachal Pradesh with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab?
- Both the government and the people of Himachal Pradesh are keen on education.
- The government started schools and filled them with minimum facilities like teachers, classrooms, toilets and drinking water, etc.
- The government spent the highest on the education of each child.
- The people of Himachal Pradesh showed less gender bias.
- Himachali women worked outside and had greater say in children’s education, health, birth and upkeep, etc.
- Himachali women have high involvement in social life and village politics.
- The above were not the same with Punjab.
- Thus, even with low per capita income Himachal Pradesh has a better human development ranking than Punjab.
Based on the figures in Table 6, fill the following :
Out of every 100 girls above 6 years of age, ——– girls had studied beyond the primary level in Himachal Pradesh in the year 1993. By the year 2006, this proportion reached ———- out of 100. For India as a whole, the proportion of boys who had studied beyond the primary level was only ——— out of 100 in the year 2006.
Out of every 100 girls above 6 years of age, 39 girls had studied beyond the primary level in Himachal Pradesh in the year 1993. By the year 2006, this proportion reached 60 out of 100. For India as a whole, the proportion of boys who had studied beyond the primary level was only 57 out of 100 in the year 2006.
What is the per capita income of Himachal Pradesh? Do you think higher incomes can make it easier for parents to send children to school? Discuss. Why was it necessary for the government to run schools in Himachal Pradesh?
- The per capita income of Himachal Pradesh in 2012 is Rs. 74,000.
- Higher-income can make it easier for parents to send their children to school.
- If the incomes are meagre, then parents cannot spend money on the education of their children.
- Then children ought to supplement with their labour to run the family.
- If higher incomes are there for family, these can be avoided.
- Himachal Pradesh had very low levels of education at the time of independence.
- Being a hilly region, with low density of population in many villages, the spread of schools is a big challenge.
- So, it was necessary for the government to run schools in Himachal Pradesh.
Why do you think parents accord less priority to girls education as compared to boys?
- Parents give less priority to girls education compared to boys.
- The main reason behind this is gender bias.
- Parents believe that boy is their heir and spreads their clan.
- This very notion imbibes into children as father is the decision maker in the family.
- As marriage institution provides for the girl to live with husband’s family, her parents take less care about her education.
- Well educated girl needed to be married off to still better educated suitor, an expensive affair.
- Girls are engaged in taking care of their smaller siblings, which obstructs their educational chances.
- In rural areas girls are married off at early ages, which prevents their education.
What is the relationship between women’s work outside their homes and gender bias?
- Our families are patriarchial, so men work outside and women manage the house.
- For their household chores women are not paid.
- But nowadays women are employed outside.
- They are economically independent and self-confident.
- They have greater say in household decisions including children’s education, health, birth, upkeep etc.
- Whereas this is not the case with housewives.
- Educated mothers expect their daughters to work outside after marriage.
- Thus, women working outside need not bear the dent of gender bias.
- There is a clear visibility of gender bias at the work places outside homes.
- Though men and women do the same kind of work, women are paid less than men.
- Especially in the farm activities in rural areas, women wages are very low compared to men.
- For some activities we find only men or women attending.
Eg: Ploughing – men.
Cotton balls plucking – women.
Right to Education Act, 2009 (RTE) declares that all children of the age of 6 to 14 years have the right to free education. And the government has to ensure the building of sufficient schools in the neighbourhood, appoint properly qualified teachers and make all necessary provisions. In the light of what you have read in this chapter and already know, discuss and debate the importance of this Act for
(i) children, and (ii) human development.
Importance of RTE Act for children :
- It makes all children have a chance to study.
- Children from hilly areas, rural areas and areas with low density of population are not deprived of schools.
- Schools are provided with minimum facilities of teachers, classrooms, toilets, drinking water, etc.
- Schooling becomes a social norm.
Importance of RTE Act for human development:
- As the UNDP is using the educational levels of people as the measure of development, it promotes human development.
- Expected years of schooling will increase in turn promotes human development.
- Promotes human development by increasing the average years of schooling.
- Education imparts the ideals of human development.
10th Class Social Studies 2nd Lesson Ideas of Development InText Questions and Answers
10th Class Social Textbook Page No.14
Complete the table with developmental goals of different categories of persons.
|Category of Person||Developmental Goals/ Aspirations|
|1. Landless rural labourers||1. More days of work and better wages; local school is able to provide quality education for their children; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.|
|2. Prosperous farmers||2. Assured high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hard- working and cheap labourers; they should be able to settle their children abroad.|
|3. Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops||3. Monsoon shall bring good rains and make the year good one; crops shall give good yield; Government announce higher minimum support price.
Want more facility of water so that they can grow more crops in different seasons.
|4. A rural woman from a land owning family||4. Government shall provide good irrigation facilities, banks provide crop loans to meet the needs like seeds, fertilisers, pesticides etc., good yield of crop.
Women aspire to own land, to inherit land allocation and to build a permanent structure on the land.
|5. Urban unemployed youth||5. A gainful employment throughout the year; Government’s support to self employment; own vehicle to travel to work place.|
|6. A boy from a rich urban family||6. A hassle-free environment for entreprenuership; a suitable employment inside India or abroad; wholesome entertainment facilities.|
|7. A girl from a rich urban family||7. She gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life. She would like to be able to pursue her studies abroad.|
|8. An Adivasi from mining fields||8. Accident-free work environment; maintaining good health support; satisfactory remuneration and bonus, schooling for children.|
|9. Person from fishing community in the coastal area||9. Ensured daily catch with good prices; no hindrance from the machine boats; detailed daily weather forecast; protection from natural calamities.|
10th Class Social Textbook Page No.17
Read the newspaper report given on Text Page 16 and answer the following questions.
(i) Who are the people benefited and who did not ?
- The local company owners and multinational company were the people who benefited.
- They dumped their waste without much difficulty.
- The innocent people of Abidjan in Ivory Coast suffered from this act.
- The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting and diarrhoea etc.
(ii) What should be the developmental goals for this country ?
The developmental goals for this country are
a) The government should Impose strict rules and regulations regarding “the disposal of waste”
b) The government should safeguard the environment and check air and environment pollution.
c) The companies who violate rules, should be punished severely.
(iii) What can be some of the developmental goals for your village or town or locality ?
Some of the developmental goals for our village can be
- to be provided with safe drinking water and sanitation facilities.
- to start a primary health centre with minimum facilities.
- to recruit sufficient teachers and provide other facilities to schools.
- to provide employment to eligible youth.
(iv) What are the issues of conflict between the government and the people living in regions of nuclear power plant ?
- The Issues of conflict between the government and the people living in the regions of Nuclear Power Plant are
(b) Security and
- People also suggested the government to look to renewable energy as an alternative.
(v) Do you know of any such controversy around development projects/policies? Find out the debates on either side.
- One such controversy around development project is Narmada River Project in Gujarat.
- Government aimed at large electricity to be produced with this project would serve the power needs of the state.
- It also provides many small dams for irrigation water.
- On the other hand, people under the leadership of Medha Patkar set up Narmada Bachao Andolan and fought with the government.
- They are fighting for the people displaced, their lands evacuated and villages that are going to be submerged.
- They have also concern over ecological imbalances and loss to the tribal culture.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No.18
Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why ?
a. Because people are different.
b. Because life situations of persons are different.
- Different persons have different notions of development or progress.
- Each one of them seeks different things.
- They seek things which can fulfil their aspirations or goals.
- The explanation ‘because life situations of persons are different1 is more important.
- Because each one has developmental goal based on life situation.
Do these two statements mean the same thing? Justify your answer.
a) People have different developmental goals.
b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
- Both statements do not mean the same thing.
- People seek different things which can fulfil their aspirations or desires, thus different developmental goals.
- In fact, at times, two persons or group of persons may seek things which are conflicting.
- So the developmental goals are always not conflicting.
- So, it is wrong to say both are correct at the same time.
Question 5. Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
- Work at a place where discrimination is prevalent.
- A job at a far off place when family needs him.
- A job offers high pay, but no job security and no time for family.
Income alone is not sufficient for development.
- There are many other non-materialistic values like equality, freedom etc. without these values development is impossible.
- Without basic health facilities people cannot contribute much to the National Income and thus no development takes place.
- Without education there will be less human resources and hence no development takes place.
Explain some of the important ideas of the above section (Income and Other Goals) in your own words.
- People always want more income and get material things.
- But they also need non-material things to lead a quality life.
- Things like freedom, security, equal treatment, respect from others and no discrimination are a few of them.
- They want good working atmosphere and an opportunity to learn.
- Women who are working outside the home earns great respect in family and society.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 20
Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations other than what is given here.
- Average marks in each subject in the class.
- Average persons living in a square kilometre area to find out the population density of a state.
- Average speed of a vehicle in its journey.
Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
- For comparison in the development of two countries total income is not a useful measure.
- Countries have different populations.
- So, comparing total income, will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
- Hence, we compare the average incomes.
Suppose the records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
- Records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period.
- From that, we cannot conclude that all sections of the economy have become better.
- Example : Average income of country A.
- Above example proves that only one section’s exponential growth has led to constant increase in average income.
- All the sections of economy have not become better.
From the text, find out the per capita income level of middle-income countries as per World Development Report, 2012.
The per capita income level of middle income countries as per World Development Report, 2012 is above US $ 1,035 per annum and below US $ 12,600 per annum.
Write a paragraph on your notion of what India should do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
To become a developed country India should be 100% literate. We are a resource rich country. We shall make optimum use of them. The governance should be transparent. We shall provide our youth with a gainful employment. We shall encourage students to pursue the careers of scientists to serve our country. We should adopt technology in agriculture. We shall promote industrial and service sectors.
10th Class Social Textbook Page No. 22
Look at the data in Tables 3 and 4 (given on Page No. 20 & 21 in Textbook). Is Punjab as ahead of Bihar in literacy rate, etc. as it is in terms of per capita income?
- Punjab is ahead of Bihar in terms of per capita income.
- It is Rs. 78,000 for Punjab, whereas it is Rs. 25,000 only for Bihar.
- Punjab is ahead of Bihar in both literacy rate and net attendance rate.
- They are for Punjab 77 and 76 respectively, whereas for Bihar are 64 and 56 only.
- Punjab is ahead of Bihar even in Infant Mortality Rate.
- Punjab has less (42) IMR, whereas Bihar has 62IMR.
Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.
- Park facility for the people of a colony.
- Electricity facility for the people of a village.
- Over head water tanks for the people of a village.
- Lift facility for the residents of an apartment.
Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities? What other factors could be relevant?
- Much of the population of our country fall under below poverty line.
- So the availability of good health and educational facilities mostly depend on the money spent by the government.
- The other factors could be like health insurance schemes which are of the paid premiums of the individuals.
- The rich sections of people who could meet the expenses on their own.
For a family in rural area in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in 2009-2010, rice purchased from ration shops account for 53 and 33 per cent respectively. The rest they buy from markets. In West Bengal and Assom, only 11 and 6 per cent of rice is purchased from ration shops. Where would people be better off and why ?
- The people are better off in West Bengal and Assom.
- The people who are buying rice from market in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are 47 and 67 per cent respectively.
- Whereas the people who are buying rice from market are 89 and 94 per cent respectively for West Bengal and Assom.
- That means more people are purchasing rice from market in West Bengal and Assom.
- So, we can say the people of West Bengal and Assom are better off.
Here is an illustration showing different sources of livelihoods. Create a similar illustration and write caption that would describe their notion of development.