SCERT AP Board 7th Class Social Solutions 9th Lesson Production in a Factory – A Paper Mill Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 7th Class Social Studies Solutions 9th Lesson Production in a Factory – A Paper Mill
7th Class Social Studies 9th Lesson Production in a Factory – A Paper Mill Textbook Questions and Answers
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Imagine that you wish to start a leather or textile factory. What are the aspects you will have to consider for setting up a mill?
The aspects I have to consider for setting up a mill (textile):
I have to –
- select land for construction.
- accumulate capital, work, and fixed.
- install heavy machinery.
- select skilled laborers and designers.
- take the advice of seniors in the industry.
- train me as the best entrepreneur.
- prepare a checklist with questions
Eg: What to?
- fix short term and long term goals,
- make research about the market.
Explain the process of paper-making in your own words.
- Step I – Forestry: Typically, trees used for papermaking are specially grown and harvested like a crop for that purpose
- Step II – Debarking, chipping, and recycling: To begin the process, logs are passed through a debarker, where the bark is removed, and through chippers, where spinning blades cut the wood into small chips. Those wood chips are then pressure-cooked with a mixture of water and chemicals in a digester.
Used paper is another important source of paper fiber. The paper is shredded and mixed with water.
- Step III – Pulp preparation: The pulp is washed, refined, cleaned, and sometimes bleached, then turned to slush in the beater. Color dyes, coatings, and other additives are mixed in one and the pulp slush is pumped onto a moving wire screen.
- Step IV – Paper formation: As the pulp travels down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet, or web, is squeezed between two large rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure smoothness and uniform thickness.
The semi-dry web is then run through heated dryer rollers to remove the remaining water.
Papermakers carefully test such things as uniformity of color and surface, water resistance, and ink holding ability.
- Step V – Paper finishing: The finished paper is then wound into large rolls. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, more manageable rolls, and the paper is ready to use.
Do you think this paper mill will stop working one day? If it does, what will be the impact on the labourer’s lives?
No, I do not think this paper mill will stop working one day.
If it does, the impact on the laborers’ lives will be as follows.
- They may lose their livelihoods.
- They increase the figure of unemployment.
Fill in the following table.
|A||6 AM to 2 PM|
|B||2 PM to 10 PM|
|C||10 PM to 6 AM (Night)|
Imagine a world without paper. What alternatives’ will you use instead of paper?
It is impossible to imagine a world without paper.
Alternatives of paper: Cloth, leaves of some trees, floor and walls, etc.
What are your suggestions to stop pollution caused by industries?
The steps to Be taken to stop pollution caused by industries:
- The trees should be grown widely near industrial areas.
- The mill owners should start an effluent treatment plant to which all the water mixed with chemicals is sent.
This machine will remove contaminants and produce environmentally safe water and solid waste suitable for disposal or reuse.
Organize a debate in the classroom on the pros and cons of the paper mill.
Pros: It brings jobs. Gives an economic boost to the community.
Cons: They use a great deal of freshwater. The emissions stink badly. Often the smokestack will emit pollutants that blister. Paint on cars parked near them. Increased traffic of unsafe logging trucks whose drivers are paid by how many loads they can deliver in a day. Frequent severe injuries on the job due to the shredding of logs.
List the benefits and income received by a regular employee of the paper mill. Contrast them with that of a temporary employee and a casual worker.
- Benefits and income received by a regular employee of the Paper mill:
A regular employee gets a number of benefits like higher salaries, provident funds, medical insurance, etc. Also if for any reason his employment is terminated or if he cannot work due to any accident etc., he will be paid compensation by the factory. He will also get a salary rise every year. They get regular holidays one day every week, festivals and some additional leaves. They get a uniform allowance, some years bonus.
- Benefits and income received by a temporary employee:
They are paid lower salaries and do not get allowances or medical help or bonus. They do not get any paid holiday. However, they get work throughout the year and many get regularised as permanent workers after two or three years of working.
- Benefits and income received by a casual worker:
They get employment 4 or 5 days a week. They are paid on a daily basis. They are paid about Rs. 100 -150 a day, Rs. 2500/- per month. They are also not entitled to any of the facilities that are available to permanent workers.
Compare the production of baskets by craftspersons and the production of paper with reference to the following points.
iii) Raw materials
Comparison between the production of baskets by craftspersons and production of paper with reference to the following points:
|Areas||Production of baskets by craftspersons||Production of paper|
|1. Workplace||In front of their houses||Separate land and buildings|
|2. Tools/machines||Large knife||Heavy machinery|
|3. Raw materials||Bamboos||Bamboos, eucalyptus, subabul, and waste paper.|
|4. Workers||Family members||Permanent, temporary, and casual workers.|
|5. Market||Small shops, street vendors||Organized market sector|
|6. Owners||Weaves are owners themselves.||Owners are different from employees.|
There is a paper mill at Rajahmundry in East Godavari district. Why do you think it is not established in the district headquarters? Discuss.
Paper mills are generally established near forests where bamboo and other softwood trees are available. This mill is also strategically located near multiple raw material sources and a perennial river source.
Locate the following countries on the world map.
a) Sri Lanka
d) South Africa
e) Nepal 0 Malaysia
Read the third para of page 91. Do you think that the factories are taking care of their worker’s health? Why?
Factories provide employment to a large number of people. However, the workers who work in these factories often find the work very tedious and many of them become sick due to exposure to dust and chemicals. They also get paid very little. They are also often forced to live in slums with poor facilities.
The factory owners didn’t care about workers, they only cared about the work and money. If the worker’s health disturbs, the work also disturbs. So they take care of their workers to some extent.
You might have noticed some factories in your area causing pollution. Or imagine that a factory in your locality is causing pollution. Write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper and discuss the contents in the classroom.
Letter to the editor
We are the residents of Santhi Nagar in Ajith Singh Nagar. In our locality, there is “Excel Industries” which produce electricity with ‘waste’. This was established by our Vijayawada Corporation and another private company. They collect ‘waste’ from all areas of Vijayawada. They dump in the open places. During alternative days they spray water on this ‘waste’. At those times there will be a bad smell for hours together. Many residents of our area are suffering from lung diseases and breathing problems.
We gave many complaints to the Municipal Commissioner but in vain. Nobody is taking care of our health. So, I take this to your kind notice to publish in your newspaper. Through this letter, I request the authorities to close the ‘factory’ and take care of our health.
Thanking you Sir,