AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions Chapter 3 Production and Employment.
AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class Social Studies Important Questions 3rd Lesson Production and Employment
10th Class Social 3rd Lesson Production and Employment 1 Mark Important Questions and Answers
What is under employment?
Under employment is the situation, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
In which sector is the disguised unemployment found predominantly in India today? Why?
In agricultural sector we find disguised unemployment, because more than the required persons are engaged in the work of agriculture.
Suggest the reforms for the betterment of unorganized sector workers.
Reforms for the betterment of unorganized sector workers:
- Increase in wages.
- Security in jobs.
- Overtime work should be paid.
- Facilities and safety at work places.
- Medical facilities.
- Sick leave provision.
Write examples for intermediate goods.
Give an example for underemployment.
- Though there is no sufficient work, many agricultural labourers work less than their potential.
- In the service sector – painters, plumbers, repair persons, etc.
What does the unorganized sector consist of?
The sector in which small and scattered units are outside the control of the government is called unorganized sector. It consists of low wages, no job security, no paid leaves, no health facilities, etc.
Observe the pie chart and answer the following questions.
Sectoral shares of employment, 2011 – 12
(a) Which sector provides less employment?
(b) Mention any two reasons for more employment in the agriculture sector.
- Not enough jobs were created in the industry and service sector.
- Irrespective of the literacy rate rural people depend on agriculture.
- Easy employment opportunities.
Observe the information given in the table and answer questions 8 and 9.
Table: Share of Employment and Gross Domestic Product in Three Sectors
|Sector||Employment (%) 2011-12||Gross Domestic Product (%) 2011-12|
What was the share of the agricultural sector in Gross Domestic Product?
The share of the agricultural sector in Gross Domestic Product is 16%.
What was the reason for low employment in service sector though it has a major contribution to Gross Domestic Product?
The reason for low employment In service sector though it has a major contribution to Gross Domestic Products is
- Lack of skill
- Lack of access to employment opportunities
Give any two examples for final goods.
Idli, Dosa, Gar, Computer, Notebook, etc.
Why do people prefer to work in an organized sector ?
Security of employment Regular salary Paid Holiday, safe working environment Gets provident fund, etc.
Define service sector.
Services like transportation, communication, financing, insurance, banking, etc. are auxi¬liaries to trade or aid to trade. These services constitute service sector of trade.
What is primary sector?
Primary sector is the sector which involves agricultural activities, and related activities like mining, poultry, etc.
What is secondary sector?
It is the sector which is engaged in the manufacturing of goods from the raw material provided by the primary sector.
Unemployment is a situation where the able-bodied persons are willing to work but are not able to get work. They are not engaged in any productive activity.
What is employment?
Employment is a situation where the able-bodied persons are willing to work and are engaged in some productive activity to earn an income.
What is the other name of underemployment?
The other name of underemployment is disguised unemployment.
What is GDP?
The value of goods and services produced in an economy in a financial year is known as GDP.
Which sector is called organised sector?
The sector which covers those enterprises where the terms of employment are regular and they have assured work is called organised sector.
Which sector is called unorganized sector?
The sector in which small and scattered units are outside the control of the government is called unorganized sector.
Which sector is also called the service sector?
Tertiary sector is also called service sector.
Which is called disguised unemployment?
Unemployment which exists when marginal physical productivity of labour is zero or sometimes it becomes negative is called disguised unemployment.
Why does small scale industry need government’s support?
Small scale industry needs government’s support for procuring raw-material and mar¬keting of output.
In what ways can employment be increased in urban areas? Write any two suggestions.
- Heavy investments should be created in basic industries.
- Means of transportation and communi¬cation should be developed.
Which sector is continued to prove the largest employer between 1973 to 2000?
The agricultural sector is continued to prove the largest employer between 1973-2000.
Write any two activities which are the primary responsibility of the government.
Health and Education.
What is meant by “final goods and services”?
Final goods and services refer to the goods and services which are meant either for consumption by consumers or for investment by firms or organizations.
What are intermediate goods?
Intermediate goods are those goods that are used in producing final goods and services.
Which sector is growing fast in India?
Service sector is growing fast in India.
By whom is the task of measuring GDP done?
The task of measuring GDP is done by the Ministry of Central government.
What does the GDP record?
The GDP records the market value of final goods and services produced.
Name some acts of organized sector.
- Factories Act
- Minimum Wages Act
- Shops and Establishments Act, etc.
Who are in the organized sector?
People who work in the government or with companies or large establishments are all in the organized sector.
Name some organizations in the service sector.
- Indian Railways
- Postal & Telegraphs
- Indian Airlines
- All India Radio
- BSNL, MTNL.
How do we count the various goods and services of each economic sector?
We count the value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year. This provides the total production of the sector for that year.
Why should we worry about underemployment?
We should worry about underemployment as it decreases the standard of living of the people.
What do you mean by underemployment?
Everyone is engaged in working, but no one is working to his full capacity, such employ¬ment Is underemployment.
Into how many sectors economic activities are divided?
The economic activities are divided into 3 sectors primary, secondary and services.
What do you mean by Gross Domestic Product?
The money value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country borders during the year.
What is the main source of income to your family? Among the three sectors, under which can it be categorized?
- My father is a farmer.
- Hence we can say he works in the primary sector.
10th Class Social 3rd Lesson Production and Employment 2 Marks Important Questions and Answers
How is the Organised sector different from an Unorganised sector?
1) The organised sector is the enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work.
2) The unorganised sector s characterised by small and scattered units which have remained largely outside the control of the Government. In this way the organised sector is different from the unorganised sector.
Observe the following table and answer the questions given below,
Contribution of organised and unorganised sectors
|Sector||Contribution (% of total)|
|Employment||Gross Domestic Product|
a) What percentage of labour in the unorganized sector get employment?
b) Which sector get decent job security?
What are the facilities provided to workers in the organised sector?
- Job security
- Limited working hours.
- Paid holidays.
- Safe working environment.
Which measures do you suggest to improve the employment opportunities in rural area?
- Agriculture should be supported by the government.
- Household industries should be encouraged.
- Rural employment schemes should be implemented effectively.
Study the following pie-charts and answer the questions given below:
Shares of three sectors in GDP
a) Which sector got tremendous increase?
b) Why did the share of agricultural sector decrease in G.D.P?
Production in agriculture has not developed as per the expectations.
Draw the bar graph on the basis of information given in the table below.
|1972 – 73||2009 -10|
It shows how people depend upon these sectors for employment.
Observe the table and answer the questions.
The table shows the percentage of workers employed in different sectors in India in 1972-73 and 2009-10.
a) What are the major changes you observe from the above table?
- The agriculture sector is decreased.
- Industry and services are increased.
- Industry is increased two times.
- There is a great shift from the agricultural sector to the industrial and service sectors.
b) What would be the reasons for the changes?
Employment opportunities in the agricultural sector are reduced from 74% to 53%. In industrial sector employment opportunities are increased from 11% to 22%. Like that service sector employment opportunities are also increased from 15% to 25%.
- Decline in agriculture (Problems of seeds, rainfall, MSP, power cut, water.)
- Privatization is increased.
- IT increased.
- Opportunities in the second and third sector.
Observe below ‘Pie’ chart and analyse it.
Employment in three sectors in 2011-12
- There is a great shift from the agricultural sector to the industrial and service sector, (or)
- The major changes like the percentage of workers employed decrease in agriculture and increased both in industry and ser¬vice sector are observed from the above pie chart compare with before years.
- The important reasons like change in farming methods setting up of new industries, and factories, mass production of goods by factories of lower rates than agricultural goods, high payment for workers in other sectors compared to agriculture led to employment shift from agriculture sector to service and manufacturing sectors.
Observe the given graph and analyse it.
Shares of different sectors in Gross Domestic Product
A – Agriculture
B – Industry
C – Trade, hotels, transport and communications.
D – Finance, insurance, real estate.
E – Community, social and personal services.
The graph explains about the share of different sectors in Gross Domestic Product in the year of 1972 – 73.
The share of Agriculture is 43%.
The share of Industry is 22%.
The share of service sector joined together is 35%.
When compared to 1972 – 73 the share of different sectors in 2011 -12 changed,
In 2011 -12 the agriculture share is only 16%. Industrial sector share is 26%. The share of service sector joined together is – 58%. Totally in 2011 & 12 the share of agriculture is reduced. The Industrial sector share is increasing. Finally service sector share increases very high.
Suggestions: To increase the share in the agriculture sector the government should take the following measures.
- Provide seeds, fertilizers, pesticides motors to the farmers with the subsidy.
- The government should see that the people who are engaged in Industrial and Service sectors more than required are shifted to the agricultural sector so that the share of the agricultural sector in GDP increases.
- The government should implement welfare schemes so that the agricultural sector flourishes.
Name the facilities enjoyed by the workers in the organised sector.
Organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act, Minimum Wages ] Act, Shops and Establishments Act etc. It is called organised because it has some formal processes and procedures. Workers in the organised sector enjoy the security of employment, They are expected to work only for a fixed number of hours. If they work more, they have to be paid overtime by the employer. They also get several other benefits from the employers, They get paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, etc. They are supposed to get medical benefits and, j under the laws, the employer has to ensure facilities like drinking water and safe working environment. When they retire, many of j these workers get pensions as well. People j who work in the government or with companies or large establishments are all in the organised sector.
Based on the pie charts given below write how the share of agriculture sector in the GDP has changed between 1972-73 and 2009-10?
The share of agriculture sector in GDP has reduced from 43% to 26% from the period 1972 – 73 to 2009 -10.
The main reason is the secondary and service sector’s both gradually increase in their employment and production activities.
Observe the pie diagrams and answer the following.
Analyse the above two diagrams.
- The pie diagrams depict the sectorial share of employment.
- The people who depend on agriculture has reduced from 74% in 1972-73 to 53% in 2009-10,
- The employment in service sector has increased from 15% to 25%.
- The employment in the industrial sector is doubled, i.e., increased from 11% to 22%.
Study the following table and prepare a paragraph describing it.
|Sector||Contribution (% of total)|
|Employment||Gross Domestic Product|
- This table tells about the employment in organized and unorganized sector and its contribution in GDP.
- Employment in organized sector is only 8% whereas it is 92% in unorganized sector.
- The share in GDP is the same.
- It focuses on the conditions of the work-force depend on the unorganized sector in which the wages are low, security and respect is not observed.
- In organized sector the employees get regular salaries, they have specific work-ing hours and they avail leaves, medical benefits and other facilities.
- These are not available in the unorganized sector.
Discus different sectors of Economy.
People are engaged in different activities to earn their livelihoods. These activities are broadly categorized into three:
- Agriculture and related activities such as fishing, forestry, mining where nature has a dominant role in the production process.
- Manufacture processes and other industries where goods are produced by people using tools or machines.
- Those activities that don’t directly produce a good but provide services that are required in production and other services for people.
- These three different sectors of the economy contribute to the national income.
How many types are there in services? Explain.
Services are seen to comprise of three types.
They are a) Community, social and personal services b) Finance, insurance and real estate services and Trades, hotels, transport and communication services.
- Community, social and personal services include public administration, defence, education, health, veterinary activities, media, library, museums and other cultural activities, etc.
- Finance, insurance and real estate servi-ces include services of banks, post office savings accounts, non-bank financial companies, Life Insurance and General Insurance Corporation, services of brokers and real estate companies, etc.
- Trades, hotels, transport and communication services include business, exports and imports, hotels, resorts, rail, road, water ways and airways and radio, tele¬vision, newspapers, magazines and satel¬lite services, etc.
Table : Read the following pie charts and answer the question.
What changes do you observe in these two pie diagrams?
- The above pie diagrams show the share of different sectors in GDP.
- The share of agriculture sector has fallen from 43% to 17%.
- The share of industrial sector has increa-sed from 22% to 26%.
- The share of service sector has increased from 35% to 57%.
i.e., trade and hotels from 15% to 27%, finance, insurance and real estate from 8% to 17% and community, social and personal services from 12% to 13%.
What is the relation between population and employment?
The Gross Domestic Product of a country has a close relation with the total number of work¬ing people in that country. In every country, as population increases, it is essential that the country provides opportunities for those who are looking for work.
“The workers in the agricultural sector are underdeveloped” – support this statement.
There are more people in agriculture than is necessary. So, even if a few people move out, 1 production will not be affected. In other words, workers in the agricultural sector are underdeveloped.
Explain GDP. Why are only ‘final goods and services’ counted in GDP?
- GDP is the sum of the money value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year within a country.
- Only the value of final goods and services are counted in GDP because the value of final goods already includes the value of all the intermediate goods.
- To avoid double-counting we take up only intermediate goods.
- Animal husbandry and dairy are to be encouraged. :
Where are most of the people employed? Why did not a similar shift out of primary sector happen in case of employment?
- Most of the working people are still employed in primary sector.
- There had not been a similar shift out of agricultural sector in case of employment. The reason is:
Secondary and tertiary sectors did not create enough jobs.
Suggest any two measures to create more employment in rural India.
Some measures to create more employment in rural India :
- Irrigation facilities should be improved.
- Roads should be constructed.
- More education and health facilities should be provided.
- Agro-based industries should be encouraged.
Describe any three problems faced by workers in the unorganised sector.
- This sector follows no government rules and regulations.
- There is no regular employment.
- They have no job security.
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Economic activities are classified into two sectors on the basis of employment conditions:
- Organised sector
- Unorganised sector.
In the organised sector, the rules and regulations of employment are given to employees and everyone has to follow these rules.
In the unorganised sector, there are no rules and regulations.
Write any two differences between intermediate goods and final goods.
|Intermediate goods||Final goods|
|1. These goods are meant for further production.||1. These are used for final consumption.|
|2. These are not included in GDP.||2. These are included in GDP.|
How is the unorganised sector in the rural areas?
In the rural areas, the unorganised sector: mostly comprises of landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, share croppers and artisans.
How is the unorganised sector in the urban areas?
In the urban areas, unorganised sector comprises mainly of workers in the small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade I and transport, etc. and those who work as steel vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers, etc.
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are they?
Service sector in India employs the following two different kinds of people. They are:
- The people involved in such services that man directly help in the production of goods, e.g.: people involved in transportation, communication, etc.
- The people involved in such services that may not directly help in the production of goods, e.g: teachers, lawyers, etc.
“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Support your answer.
No, I do not agree with the statement.
Over the last 5 decades, the most production has increased in the tertiary sector. It replaced the primary sector. The basic services are also provided by the government and; private sector. As the income levels of the people raised, people are able to enjoy many more services like shopping, tourism, etc.
Therefore it is disputable that the tertiary sector is playing a significant role in the development of Indian economy.
Classify the Service Sector.
- Services sector comprises of community, social and personal services like public administration, defence, education, etc.
- They also comprise finance, insurance and real estate services like banks, post-offices, LIC, etc.
- It also comprises of services like trades, hotels, transports and communication.
How is gross domestic product is calculated? Give example.
- The total value of goods and services produced in a country is the Gross Domestic Product.
- The value of intermediate goods is not considered for GDP.
- Economists take the value of goods and services rather than adding the number of goods.
- People engaged in various economic activities in the three sectors viz, primary, secondary and services produce large number of goods and services whose total is GDP.
What are the aims and objectives of land-less rural labourers or workers?
- More days of work.
- Better wages.
- Provision of Educational and health facilities by the government.
- Infrastructural facilities like transportation communication, etc.
10th Class Social 3rd Lesson Production and Employment 4 Marks Important Questions and Answers
State why the organized sector is better than the unorganized sector.
The organised sector offers jobs that are the most sought-after. But the employment opportunities in the organised sector have been expanding very slowly. As a result, a large number of workers are forced to enter the unorganised sector jobs, which pay a very low salary.
Do you think organised sector is better than unorganised sector? Give your opinion.
Organised sector is better sector. The reasons are:
- Organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work.
- They are registered by the government 3 and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Shops and Establishments Act, etc.
- It is called organised because it has some formal processes and procedures.
- Workers in the organised sector enjoy j security of employment. They are expected to work only for a fixed number of j hours. If they work more, they have to be j paid overtime by the employer.
- They also get several other benefits from the employers. They get paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, etc.
- They are supposed to get medical benefits and, under the laws, the employer has j to ensure facilities like drinking water and a safe working environment.
- When they retire, many of these workers get pensions as well.
- People who work in the government or with companies or large establishments are all in the organised sector
What is GDP ? How do we estimate GDP?
G.D.P. (Gross Domestic Product):
- For the country as a whole, we use the total value of goods and services produced in a country as the indicator of income for the country.
- The technical term to denote this value is Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Estimation of G.D.P.:
- G.D.P. records the market value of all final goods and services produced.
- G.D.P. records all of public and private consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports that occur within a defined territory.
- Many items/services that are not sold /purchased in the market are not recorded in the G.D.P.
Ex : Household works done by women.
“In the past 50 years, there has been a further shift from industry to service sector for developed countries. The service sector has become the most important in terms I of total production. Most of the working people have also shifted and are now employed in the service sector and most of the production activities are those of services and not manufactured goods. This is the general pattern observed for developed countries.”
Is there a similar pattern observed for India or is it different? Write your opinion.
- The pattern in India is somehow similar to that of developed countries.
- But, there are some main differences also.
- In India also, service sector is becoming more important nowadays.
- But, even today the largest employer in India is the agricultural sector only.
“While service sector has grown, all service sector activities are not growing equally well. The service sector in India employs many different kinds of people. At one end there are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers. At the other end, there are a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, etc. These people barely manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them.”
“The life conditions of all the people in ser¬vice sector are not the same.” – Comment.
- Regarding service sector, limited number of skilled workers in organised sector are getting higher wages.
- On the other hand, the large number of unskilled workers in unorganised sector are not able to get minimum wages. They are living in miserable conditions.
- Self employed, shop keepers, migrant labourers etc., do not have better working conditions, regular employment and other allowances.
- They are being forced to continue in the same job due to the lack of required skills and alternative employment sources.
- By considering these situations, the government has to plan suitable programmes for the balanced development of service sector.
Based on the information given below, write your observations:
|Sector||Place of Residence||Sex||All workers|
- Most of the rural workers are employed in agriculture.
- Most of the urban workers are employed in service sector.
- Most of the agricultural labourers are women.
- Female workers are very less in service sector.
- Agriculture sector offers the largest employment on the whole.
- Industrial sector offers the least employment.
Plot the information given below on a rough bar-graph and analyse it:
Employment in different sectors
- Agricultural sector is the largest employer In 2009-10.
- Service sector is the second largest employer.
- Industrial sector offers the least employment.
Observe the graph given below and answer the following questions:
- What does this graph explain about?
- Which sector is the largest employer in India?
- In which sector do most of the people want to be employed today?
- Which sector offers the least employment?
- The graph explains about the shares of different sectors of employment in the years of 1972-73 and 2009-2010
- The agriculture sector is the largest employer in India.
- Service sector
- Industrial sector.
Nowadays in which economic sector the job opportunities are increasing? Give reasons.
(i) Nowadays employment opportunities are available more in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(ii) Last 50 years onwards the changes are occurred in GDP in all sectors, but employment is not increased. Yet, employment opportunities are increased in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Establishment of industries in public and private sectors.
- Increasing of technological methods.
- Increasing of educational facilities.
- Due to globalisation, Multi-national companies are entered and industrial and service sectors are developed.
- Transportation facilities are developing.
- Migrations are increased.
- Increasing of local foreign investment.
Suggest to improve labour conditions in unorganized sector.
- Wages to be increased
- Regular payment of wages
- Overtime work should be paid
- Sick leave provision and paid leave.
- Better working conditions
- Retirement benefits to be provided
- Security in jobs
- Medical and health facilities
What are the differences between organised and unorganised sectors in Employment.
How is unorganised sector different from organised sector? Explain.
|Organised Sector Center||Unorganised Sector Center|
|1. It has some formal processes and procedures.||1. It has small and scattered units largely outside the control of government.|
|2. It gives security of employment.||2. Rules and regulations are not enforced here.|
|3. It has fixed number of work hours, overtime will be paid by the employer.||3. Jobs here are low-paid and non-regular.|
|4. It provides paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, medical benefits, etc.||4. There is no provision of overtime, paid leave, holidays leave due to sickness, etc.|
|5. It also ensures pensions.||5. When there is less work, some people are asked to leave.|
|6. It has workers of government, companies and large establishment.||6. A lot also depends on the whims of the employer or changes in the market situation.|
What measures should be taken to create employment in your area?
I should implement some steps to create employment in my area.
- At first, in which the various non-farming activities are performed in a location which falls with in a designated rural area.
- Promoting dairy industry.
- Should give more important to local handicrafts.
- The second way hints at labour intensive use.
- For self employment:
Should provide bank loans with low rate of interests.
- By creating cost effective school. Cyber cafes, retail outlets, transport systems etc.
- Linking with industrial enterprises to rural citizens, better policies such as limit on work capacity and payment of minimum wages, etc.
Read the following paragraph and write your comments on it.
In the past 50 years, there has been a further shift from industry to service sector for developed countries. The service sector has become the most important sector in terms of total production. Most of the working people have also made a shift and are now employed in the service sector and most of the production activities are those of services and not manufactured goods.
- According to this paragraph many workers are shifting from industries to service sectors in developed countries.
- The service sector plays an important and key role in economy.
- Most of the production activities are now in service sector.
- There are three sectors in the economy. They are agriculture, industrial and service sectors.
- In developing countries many people depend upon agriculture sector whereas In developed countries it is the industrial sector which gives more work but recently we observe the trend that many people are shifting from industrial sector to service sector for their livelihoods.
- I think that the people want to work in the sector which is providing more opportunities and where security, safety and respect are available.
- Job in service sector provides these to some extent better than the other sectors the people shift toward service sector.
Observe the given table and analyse the share of GDP.
The given table is about share of GDP. The GDP is taken from 2012 to 2017. The sectors of economy are analysed In data form. The share of GDP from agriculture is very less and it has been reducing year by year. Industries are slightly decreasing from 2013. it is 29% only in 2012. But service sector is gradually increasing.
Many people nowadays are interested in working with service sector as they feel that it is white collar job. Nobody Is interested in agriculture. No farmer is interested to make his son a farmer because in agriculture more distress is seen. Irregular rainfall, low prices (MSP), shortage of seeds, pesticides problem, fertiliser problem and so many problems, the agriculture sector is facing. In Industries also work conditions are not supportive. Agriculture is technologically up¬graded. Agriculture labourers are shifting to service, industrial sectors. Though 92% of workers are there In unorganised sector, they are contributing about 50% in GDP, Government should support the farmers and agriculture should be made a benefitable one.
Read the passage and comment on it.
While service sector has grown, all service sector activities are not growing equally well, Service sector In India employs many different kinds of people. At one end there are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers. At the other end, there are a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers,repair persons, transport persons, etc. These people barely manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them. Hence, only a part of this sector Is growing in Importance.
- The contribution of service sector to GDP has grown considerably.
- But all service activities are not grown equally.
- Only highly skilled and educated workers, which are limited in number, are earning good income.
- Whereas a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, etc. are a part of service sector.
- But they barely manage to earn a good income.
- They have no other alternative opportunity for work.
- Hence, we can conclude that only a part of the service sector is growing.
Read the following paragraph and interpret it.
GDP records the market value of all final goods and services produced. But there are many items that are not sold/ purchased in the market. One important example is the work that is done at home like cooking, cleaning, organizing, bringing up children, tending to plants and cattle, etc. In most instances, these do not involve any monetary transaction and therefore remain outside the GDP measure, though they are extremely important for the economy. Also, the unpaid work is done mostly by women even today, in India and across the globe.
- According to this paragraph the domestic work done by mainly women is not calculated under GDP and it is ignored. Women are mostly engaged in this work.
- These services of women are not included in the GDP. The women’s work is unpaid work.
- Woman is the nucleus of the family in India. In our country we give much importance to woman.
- The woman in a family discharges her duties as a mother, wife and daughter in law and so on but not as an employee.
- Employees can be paid for their work but the work of a woman in a family cannot be paid.
- I agree with this because families depend on this work. It is not monitorial work but a work of responsibility and affection.
- The work of the woman also can be considered as a part of GDP.
- The economists should consider their work and calculate in GDP.
- The work done by women at home is not worthless.
Read the following paragraph and write whether you agree with this or not.
It means that there are more people in agriculture but everyone may not be fully occupied.
So, even if few people move out, production will not be affected. In other words, workers in agricultural sector are underemployed.
- According to this paragraph there is no full employment in agriculture.
- Partial employment is there. It means many people depend on agriculture but they are not fully employed.
- If some of them move to another sector it will not affect the production.
- In other words, it is called disguised unemployment. There are so many farmers like Gayathri owning about 2 or less acres of land.
- All the five members are working in the same fields though they don’t have sufficient work.
- My suggestion is that the government should collect data of this situation throughout the state and prepare plans to provide work by implementing programmes like MGNREGA, Watershed Development Program, Water Conservation Movement (Neeti Samrakshana Udyamam), and other activities.
- Thus the people are engaged in some useful work and so they get sufficient work and improve their living conditions.
Read the following paragraph and write your opinion.
There are lakhs of farmers like Gayathri in India. This means that even if several people from agricultural sector are provided with proper work elsewhere, agricultural production will not suffer. The incomes of the people who take up other work would increase the total family income.
- It is explained in this paragraph that the small farmers in India have not sufficient work in the fields but they are not getting sufficient work as well as income.
- There is a suggestion for the families like Gayathri to go elsewhere for additional work so as to earn more income.
- Lakhs of families in India are small families having less than two acres of cultivable land.
- All the family members depend on the small piece of land.
- They get less work and they don’t work up to their potentials.
- This condition is called underemployment.
- According to my opinion the government should identify these people and plan to design various schemes to be implemented.
- In villages many people have no sufficient work. Many developmental works are needed for villages and towns.
- These people will be involved in that works and so they earn some income.
- People also think to work by organizing small shops, working as repair persons, transport persons and so on.
Read the following paragraph and write your opinion on it.
Today, we not only have to generate new employment opportunities but also train many workers to work efficiently and with machines, We should invest in many industries, in both rural and semi-urban areas, so that we are able to produce many more goods and services.
- According to this paragraph two things are very important.
- They are providing employment opportunities and giving training to them to work with machines.
- Without skill the workers and employees do not work efficiently.
- One more point is that the industries are to be opened in rural and semi-urban areas to increase in production of goods and services.
- My opinion is that it is better to provide quality and skill oriented training before generating employment to the people.
- If skill is provided they can work at any place it demands. Many industries are being established in urban areas only.
- Technology is bringing many changes in our daily life.
- In agriculture, industry and service sectors technology is used.
- Even in agriculture many machines like tractors, Combined Harvesters are there.
- Everyone should learn how to deal with these. For that training is necessary.
- If skill in performing jobs and access to various opportunities are provided by establishing industries in rural and semi-urban areas.
Observe the following table and answer the questions that follow.
|Sector||Employment (%)||Gross Domestic Product (%)|
- What are the major changes that you observe from the above table?
There is a great shift from the agricultural sector to industrial and service sectors.
- What is the table about?
The table is about the percentage of workers employed in different sectors in India in 1972-73 and in 2009-10.
- Which sector is providing more employment in 1972-73?
Agriculture sector is providing more employment in 1972-73. It is about 74%.
- Which sector has doubled in providing employment?
The sector which has doubled in providing employment is industrial sector. 11% has become 22% from 1972-73 to 2009-10.
- What percentage of employment is decreased in agriculture sector?
21% of employment is decreased in agriculture sector. (74% – 53%)
- Why is the employment in agriculture decreasing?
The employment in agriculture is decreasing because the workers are shifting to other sectors as there is no prosperity in agriculture.
Observe the graph and answer the following questions.
- What is the graph about?
The graph is about GDP by agriculture, industry and service sector.
- Which was the largest producing sector in 1972-73?
Agriculture sector was the largest producing sector with Rs. 2,43,082 crore.
- Which was the largest producing sector in 2009-10?
Service sector was the largest producing sector in 2009-10 with Rs. 25,78,165 crore.
- What is the aggregate GDP in 2009-10?
The aggregate GDP in 2009-10 is Rs. 45,16, 071 crore.
- What is the aggregate GDP in 1972-73?
The aggregate GDP in 1972-73 is Rs. 5,86, 346 crore.
- Mention any two service activities.
Tailoring, courier service, etc.
Observe the table and answer the following questions.
Distribution of Workers in India, 2009-10 (%)
|Sector||Place of Residence||Sex||All workers|
- What does this table tell us ?
This table tells us about the distribution of workers in India.
- In which sector the female workers are more ?
The female workers are more in agriculture sector.
- Which sector is prosperous in rural areas ?
Agriculture sector is prosperous in rural areas.
- Why is agriculture sector very low in urban areas ?
In urban areas many people depend upon service sector and industries and there is no scope for agriculture.
- Which sector is decreasing gradually ?
Agriculture sector is decreasing gradually.
- What have you observed in industrial sector with regard to place of residence ?
Industrial sector in urban areas is double in comparison to rural areas.
Discuss the changes in importance of different sectors over a period of time.
- At the beginning as the methods of farming changed and agriculture began to prosper, it produced much more food than before.
- After Industrial Revolution, the mass production by factories were at much lower rates and these goods reached markets all over the world.
- So, for these countries industrial production gradually became the most important sector.
- Hence, in overtime a shift took place.
- In the past 50 years, there has been a further shift from industry to service sector for developed countries.
- The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production.
- Most of the working people also shifted and are now employed in the service sector.
- This is the general pattern observed for developed countries.
Who do constitute the unorganised sector ?
- In the rural areas, the unorganised sector mostly comprises of landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans, etc.
- In the urban areas, unorganised sector comprises mainly of workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport, etc. those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment workers, rag pickers, etc.
- We also find that majority of workers from scheduled castes, tribes and backward communities find themselves In the unorganised sector,
- It is worse if one is a woman from these communities,
- Besides getting the irregular and low paid work, these workers also face social discrimination.
Locate the following in the given map of India.
- The monsoons first enter into India into this state.
- Locate the Jammu Hills.
- The dun which is in Uttarakhand.
Answer: Patli Dun
- The wettest place in India.
- The Great Indian Desert.
Answer: Thar desert
- The submerged point of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Answer: Indira Point,
- The capital of Andhra Pradesh.
- The second largest river in South India.
- Mahadev hills.
- Maikal plateau.