SCERT AP Board 8th Class Social Solutions 12th Lesson Freedom Movement in Hyderabad State Textbook Questions and Answers.
AP State Syllabus 8th Class Social Studies Solutions 12th Lesson Freedom Movement in Hyderabad State
8th Class Social Studies 12th Lesson Freedom Movement in Hyderabad State Textbook Questions and Answers
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What aspects of the Nizam rule would you consider to be ‘undemocratic’?
The term ‘undemocratic’ refers to the rule that is not related to the democratic aspect of government, in other words, the decisions that has taken by only one person or a small group rather than taking into consideration the population who will be following those rules. The various aspects of the Nizam’s rule which considered to be ‘undemocratic’ are as follows: –
- Under his rule, Jagirdars were given full control of the villages, and they also collected taxes from the people.
- He wanted to bring old system where king and his nobles had the full authority to rule whenever they want to.
- He didn’t allow functioning of any democratic systems like legislatures or local bodies.
- He was reluctant to allow opening of the schools which led to low literacy rate in the state.
Why do you think the literacy rate in Hyderabad state was lower than other princely states?
The Nizams were slow in setting up schools in their kingdom. Many jagirdars did not even allow setting up of schools in their areas. The Nizams were also suspicious of private schools that they would become centres for propagation of anti-Nizam ideas. They actually discouraged the setting up of private Telugu medium schools and did not allow those students to join Osmania University. So the literacy rate in Hyderabad state was lower than other princely states.
Describe the activities of the Andhra Maha Sabha for the promotion of education.
Andhra Maha Sabha combined both educational and social reform objectives. They established libraries and cultural centres all over Telangana even in remote villages. Night classes and discussions were held in these centres. Thus AMS promoted education.
What were the demands of the Hyderabad State Congress and how many of them were fulfilled after 1948?
The Indian National Congress only functioned in the British India and did not function directly in the princely states. However, the common people faced more oppression and injustice in these princely states and they wanted to join the larger freedom movement of India. In such states the nationalists formed ‘state congress’ to fight for democratic rights, reforms, representative government etc. This happened in Hyderabad too. All these were fulfilled after 1948.
Do you think the Telangana Armed Struggle helped to end the rule of the Nizam? Give your reasons.
- The established Ryot Sanghams.
- They established libraries, night schools and tried to make them literate.
- They undertook many revolutionary activities.
- They fought against the Nizam and the Doras.
- They established armed forces.
- They went from village to village and made the people conscious.
- They abolished Vetti.
- They demanded Visalandhra.
- They fought against Razakars.
Read the following paragraph and answer the questions: Do you support the Feudal system of the state.
The Nizams were initially provincial governors of the Mughal emperors. They ruled with the help of hereditary jagirdars and subordinate kings. Jagirdars were given control of dozens and even hundreds of villages which they ruled as they desired and collected taxes from the people. The rest of the kingdom was ruled directly by the Nizam with the help of ‘doras’ about whom you read in an earlier chapter.
The Nizams wanted to retain the old system in which the king and his nobles controlled all resources and ruled as they willed. They did not allow any democratic system like local bodies or legislatures. The Nizams opposed the Congress led nationalist movement and passed several ‘firmans’ or royal orders curtailing political activity in the state. They had a network of police and spies who kept a close watch on people.
I do not support the Feudal system of the Nizams.
Reason: The common people were treated as slaves.
Many movements were led against the rulers in the past. Do you find any movements taken up nowadays? If yes, what are they?
Some movements were led against the rulers in recent time.
- The then government enhanced the electricity charges in December 2000. The people led a movement against the government at that time.
- In July 2011, the textile business people fought against ‘Vat’ and they led a strike.
What questions the librarian should be asked to know about the library of your area?
- At which level the library is situated?
- How many books are there in the library?
- What kinds of magazines are there in the library?
- Can we get book to our house?
Locate the following places of Nizam’s rule in the India map.
a) Aurangabad b) Warangal c) Raichur d) Gulbarga
Collect the pictures of leaders of the Telangana armed struggle.
8th Class Social Studies 12th Lesson Freedom Movement in Hyderabad State InText Questions and Answers
Do you think the problems faced by the people of Hyderabad state were in some ways different from those faced by people living in British ruled states? (Textbook Page No. 142)
|People in the British Rule
|People in the Hyderabad state
|1) They received encouragement in education.
|1) They were backward in education.
|2) Poorness was prevalent here.
|2) ‘Vetti’ system was prevalent here.
|3) Importance was given to all languages.
|3) Importance was given to Urdu, the Telugu faced many problems.
|4) Many movements happened here.
|4) Armed fights were fought here.
Was there any difference between the attitude of the British and the Nizams when it came to democracy? (Textbook Page No. 142)
No. Both suppressed the people.
Was Telangana Armed Struggle only for removal of the grievances of the peasants or did it have other aims? (Textbook Page No. 147)
Initially the main demands of the peasants were limited to fight against illegal feudal exactions, levy system, excessive land refot, eviction of tenants, and for abolition of vetti. It was meant to draw all sections of the rural society (small landowners, landlords and service castes) into the struggle against the doras and the Nizam.
The movement was transformed in 1947-48 into a broad anti-feudal struggle demanding merging of Hyerabad with independent India. To broaden the scope of the movement and integrate vaious sections into it, the demand was raised to merge Telangana with the other Telugu speaking regions to create Vishal Andhra.
What are the languages spoken in your area? (Textbook Page No. 143)
Telugu, Urdu and Hindi are the languages mostly spoken in our area.
What is the medium of teaching in schools and colleges today in our state? (Textbook Page No. 143)
The mediums of teaching in schools and colleges today are Telugu, English and Urdu. There are many schools also which teach in other statutory languages.
Do you think all teaching should be done in one’s mother tongue? (Textbook Page No. 143)
No. I don’t think so. The teaching should be in their own mother tongue.
Why do you think it is important to publish books in mother tongues? (Textbook Page No. 143)
Books are knowledge giving ones. If they are in other languages, nobody can read them. So to attain knowledge it is important to publish books in mother tongues.
Is there a public library in your village or locality? (Textbook Page No. 144)
Yes. There is Tagore Public Library in our city.
If you have been to a public library, describe what happens there in your classmates. (Textbook Page No. 144)
When we enter the library we should sign in the visitors’ register. Then we can read the dailies, magazines there. If we have membership in that library, we can take two books to home. We should return them after a certain period.
Why do you think the libraries became the centres of anti-Nizam and anti-landlord movements? (Textbook Page No. 144)
The leaders of Andhra Maha Sabha combined both educational and social reform objectives. The AMS activities spread rapidly all over Telangana and libraries and cultural centres were established in even remote villages. Peasants and labouring people came to them to learn to read, listen to newspaper, discuss current topics, and also their own problems with the Nizam government and doras. Night classes and discussions were held in these centres. People read books by social reformers like Veeresalingam and nationalists like Gandhiji, Nehru etc. They also wrote new books on local problems. As Editor of the Golconda Patrika, Suravaram Pratapareddy inspired nationalistic fervour amongst the people. Kaloji Narayana Rao, Dasarathi Krishnamacharya, Dasarathi Rangacharya are some of the literary luminaries who fought for the freedom of Hyderabad State. So the libraries became the centres of anti-Nizam and anti-landlord movements.
Why do you think the Nizams and jagirdars were not in favour of Telugu medium schools? (Textbook Page No. 144)
Here majority of the officials were Muslims. The majority of the people of the state were Hindus who spoke in Telugu, Kannada and Marathi. They were suspicious of private Telugu medium schools that they would become centres for propagation of anti-Nizam ideas. All the government schools were in Urdu medium.
Why do you think the doras who were Hindus helped the Razakars? (Textbook Page No. 147)
Doras, who were Hindus, ruled as dictators. Razakars also had anti-democratic views and they fought the democratic political parties and communist led peasants. Hence, Doras supported and helped the Razakars.
Why do you think the Nizam was allowed to retain power even after the merger? (Textbook Page No. 148)
The state was merged in 1948. India became Republic in 1950. It took two years to conduct General elections. The Nizam was familiar with the state and people. A governor cannot be appointed as there was no statutory provision. So the Nizam was allowed to retain power even after the merger.
Why do you think the Nizam agreed to pass the ‘firmanas’ abolishing the feudal system? (Textbook Page No. 148)
When India became independent in 1947, Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam wanted Hyderabad to remain as an independent kingdom. The common people of the state wanted to join Independent India and a large campaign was organized by the Hyderabad State Congress led by Ramananda Theertha. The Razakars attacked them too. Then the Indian government decided to end this anarchy and sent armed forces to Hyderabad. Hyderabad was finally integrated into Indian Union in September 1948. The Nizam however was asked by the government of India to continue as the ruler till the transition to democratic setup was complete. The Nizam was forced to abolish the feudal system and initiate democratic processes of elections.
Why do you think the Nizam rule ended on 26th January 1950? (Textbook Page No. 148)
The Constitution of India came into force on that day. So we can say that the Nizam rule ended on 26th January, 1950.
Find out more about the song – Vandemataram. (Textbook Page No. 145)
Vandemataram song – written in Bengali and Sanskrit.
Lyrics: Bakim Chandra Chattopadhyaya in his novel Anandmath – 1882.
Music: Jadunadh Bhattacharya Adopted on 24-1 -1956.
First sung by – Sri Rabindranath Tagore Translated to English – By Arabindo Ghosh
In 1950 the song’s first two verses were given the official status of the National Song of the Republic of India.
Find out about the life of Swami Ramananda Theertha. (Textbook Page No. 145)
Swami Ramananda Theertha (1903 – 1972) was an Indian freedom fighter, educator and Social activist who led the Hyderabad liberation struggle, during the reign of last Nizam. He was the main leader of the Hyderabad State Congress.
He fought against the Nizam after the establishment of Congress party wing in 1938. He participated in Satyagrahas and was imprisoned for 111 days by the last Nizam. He created a revolutionary movement which helped Hyderabad to integrate with the Indian Union in 1948. The integration was successful after the Hyderabad police action.
What role do you think was played by the AMS in making the Telangana Armed Struggle possible ? (Textbook Page No. 147)
Andhra Maha Sabha in the beginning supported the education and literary works. The Nizam government subjected these centres to a lot of harassment as they were becoming centres of new radical thinking. By 1940 many communists had joined the AMS and they insisted on taking up other demands of the rural people like end to vetti, land reforms, oppression by doras etc. Some of the old leaders of the AMS disagreed and wanted it to continue as educational and literary forum. Soon the radical elements gained leadership and a new movement of the peasants started.