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AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

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10th Class English Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray Textbook Questions and Answers

Look at the picture and answer the questions that follow.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 1
Question 1.
Is this picture (a) a poster, (b) an advertisement, or (c) a painting? Justify your option.
Answer:
It is a poster. The word/expression “RAJKAPOORS” tells us that it is directed by Raj Kapoor, a well-known Hindi actor. “SHREE 420” is the title of the movie. The persons in the picture are the actors of this film. Hence, it is evident that it is the poster of a movie.

Question 2.
Who do you think are the persons shown in this picture? Name them.
Answer:
The persons in this picture are cine actors. They are Raj Kapoor and Nargis.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

Question 3.
What do you think is ‘SHREE 420?
Answer:
I think ’SHREE 420’ is a North Indian movie. It was directed and produced by Raj Kapoor. Raj Kapoor, Nargis, and Nadira were the main characters in this movie. It hit the screen on 6th September 1955.

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What did Ray’s detractors accuse him of? Did Roberge agree to their accusation? If not, why?
Answer:
Ray’s detractors accused him that he made his reputation selling India’s poverty to the West. Roberge didn’t agree to their accusation. He was not attracted by the material poverty depicted in Ray’s films. The thing struck him most was that the enormous spiritual poverty of some rich people is much more deplorable than material poverty.

Question 2.
‘I didn’t come here to convert. In fact, I am the one who got converted.’ Who said these words? What different shades of meanings do you find in the words of the speaker?
Answer:
Roberge, the French-Canadian priest said these words. Although he came from the West, he didn’t speak with the arrogance of the West. He told that he came to India on a quest to know the world and in the process know himself. He also told that he didn’t come to India to convert and in fact he was the one who got converted.

The word ‘convert’ means ‘change’. Usually, the West come to India to convert the Indian people. They are known for their arrogance and look down upon Indians. They think that they are superiors in terms of knowledge, culture, civilization, etc. In one sense they want to convert the Indians and make them refined. In the other sense, the Westerners want to convert the Indians to Christianity. As far as Roberge is concerned, he was the one who got converted with the newly acquired knowledge about the world and got a chance to know about himself.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

Question 3.
Roberge took nine years to meet Ray in person after joining St. Xavier’s college. Why did he take so long time? What would you do if you were in his place?
Answer:
Roberge wanted to meet Ray in person but it took him nine years after reaching Kolkata and joining St. Xavier’s college, to meet him. Although he wanted to meet Ray right way, he didn’t want to just go and see him as he was a living museum piece. Roberge wanted to prepare himself, get to know his works more, so that when they met, there could be a worthwhile dialogue between them. If I were in Roberge’s place, I would do the same as he did.

Question 4.
How was Ray perceived by the outsiders? Was this perception true of Ray’s real character?
Answer:
The outsiders perceived Ray that Ray’s massive physical and intellectual stature might have made him come across as cold, aloof and even intimidating. This perception was not true of Ray’s real character. In reality Ray was a very simple and unassuming man with a subtle sense of humour.

Question 5.
What is meant by the line, ‘Ray took off where Tagore signed out.’ What was Ray searching for?
Answer:
Roberge feels that there is a striking comparison between Tagore and Ray. He also feels that philosophically too, Ray took off where Tagore signed out. This means that Ray began his work where Tagore ended. In a way Ray continued to walk on the path shown by Tagore. We find the analogy in Ray’s last three films ‘Ganashatru’, ‘Shakha Prashakha’ and ‘Agantuk’ with Tagore’s ‘Shabhyatar Sankat’. Both their works contain the message that it would be a sin to lose faith in man. Ray was an agnostic throughout his life. Even in the face of death, Ray was searching for answer about the existence of God. This was suggested by some of the music that he used in Shakha Prashaka.

Question 6.
How did Roberge try to take ‘Chitrabani’ forward? How did ‘Chitrabani’ help filmmaking in Bengali?
Answer:
Roberge founded ‘Chitrabani’, a communication and film institute in 1970. It is the first of its kind in West Bengal. He lent Ray’s name as cofounder as a token of their friendship. Ray was made the member of the first governing body and later, he became its adviser. Roberge arranged most of the initial funding from Canadian agencies. Thus, Roberge tried to take ‘Chitrabani’ forward. He acted as the director of Chitrabani for a period of 26 years. Chitrabani not only produced important documentary features, but also became breeding ground for local talent for film-making. Thus, the institute helped film-making in Bengali.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

Question 7.
The theme of ‘Rendezvous with Ray’ is… (Tick any two options.)
a) To explain the efforts of Chitrabani.
b) To picturize the illustrious life of Ray.
c) To explain the experiences of Roberge with Ray.
Answer:
(b)To picturize the illustrious life of Ray. (✓)
(c) To explain the experiences of Roberge with Ray. (✓)

Vocabulary

1. Read the following passage and notice the underlined words.
It was a Sunday evening. It was already dark. We wanted to watch the film ‘Gajani’.We had a square meal and came out. There were no lights. There was a power cut. It was pitch dark. It was bitterly cold. We looked here and there …….

The word pairs ‘square meal’, ‘pitch dark’ and ‘bitterly cold’ are found together. That means they co-occur. Such co-occurring words or word combinations are called collocations(co + locate = collocate). These expressions are natural.

Let us look at another example.

We say We don’t say
Ride a motor cycle Drive a motor cycle

Read the following report and fill in the blanks with the word from the box below that collocates with the underlined words or phrases.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 2

The venue of the celebration was ‘Ravindra Bharathi’, Hyderabad. It was the 100 days’ celebration of the film ‘Animals Forever’. Avinash, the hero, was full of life with his ……..(1)……… performance in the film. He was admired by everyone. In fact, he was considered to be the main reason for the success of the film. The hall resonated with ……..(2)……… clapping when he came onto the dais. The auditorium with packed audience honoured him with a ……..(3)……… ovation. The producer felicitated every one in the unit in a ……..(4)……… manner. The event was momentous and unforgettable.
Answer:

  1. outstanding (outstanding performance)
  2. thunderous (thunderous clapping)
  3. standing (standing ovation)
  4. fitting (fitting manner)

II. One-word substitutes

‘Rendezvous’ is a one-word substitute for ‘a meeting place’.
You can work in groups and pick out similar one-word substitutes from the text equivalent to the meanings given below:

  1. A short stay between two places in one’s journey → stopover
  2. A person who brings out new books → compiler
  3. A group of three films that has the same characters or subject → trilogy
  4. An impressive entrance to a building → portal
  5. A person who tries to make something less good by criticising it → detractor
  6. A person who is extremely important or large in size → colossus
  7. A person who is responsible for a problem or a crime → culprit
  8. A handwritten document → manuscript
  9. A statement that expresses something people believe is true and is to be followed → dictum
  10. Using more words than needed → verbose
  11. Something designed to teach people some moral → didactic
  12. A person who is not sure about the existence of God → agnostic
  13. A branch of philosophy that studies the principles of beauty in art → aesthetics
  14. A result of a situation or of an action → fallout
  15. A film that gives facts about something → documentary

III. In the lesson ‘Rendezvous with Ray’ we come across certain words /expressions that are not from English, e.g.: en route. This means ‘on the way’. These expressions are taken from languages like Latin, Greek, and Portuguese and so on. There are certain instances where these expressions are used in English perhaps because of their precision in meaning. Some of them along with their meanings are given below…

  1. en masse = all together, in large numbers.
  2. viva voce = a spoken exam
  3. in toto = totally
  4. alma mater = mother of the soul (school or university) included
  5. ex officio = because of the rank or job/by virtue of office
  6. in absentia = in the absence
  7. detour = a longer route we take to avoid a danger
  8. verbatim = word for word, exactly as spoken or written
  9. status quo = situation as it is now
  10. ad hoc = not planned in advance
  11. bona fide = genuine, real or legal
  12. lingua franca = link language
  13. magnum opus = the greatest work
  14. sine die = indefinitely

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

Read the following paragraph and All in the blanks with appropriate expressions given in the list above.

Children for Films

On the 14th november, on the occasion of Children’s Day, the children across the state requested the officials to conduct Children’s Film Festivals more often. They submitted a memorandum to the Secretary to the Government in Hyderabad in this regard.

The Government conceded to the request and came out with a proposal to set up an ___(1)___ committee to serve the purpose before a permanent body is in place. It was proposed by the Government that the committee would be led by a de-partment official as an ___(2)___ president. The committee should conduct a written exam along with a ___(3)___ to identify student representatives at mandal, district and state level to strengthen the culture of film festivals among the children. The ___(4)___ of the students should be verified for such identification. The proposal made the screening of at least a ___(5)___ of a director mandatory every year. The children were thrilled to bits on this.
Answer:

  1. ad hoc
  2. ex officio
  3. viva voce
  4. en masse
  5. magnum opus

IV. In the previous classes we learnt how the words form with the help of prefixes and suffixes. Now, we will learn another aspect of word formation i.e. through roots. In the lesson we have a word ‘agnostic’ which is formed out of the root ‘gnos’ that means ‘to know’. When the prefix ‘a-‘ is added to the root ‘gnos’, we have the word ‘agnostic’.

A. Given below are some prefixes, roots and suffixes. Form words using them and write their meanings.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 3

B. Analyse the following words in terms of the prefixes, roots and suffixes and their meanings.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 4

C. Think of some words that begin and end with the following prefixes and suffixes.
Prefixes: dis-, bi-, pro-, pre-

i) Words that begin with prefix a “dis-” :
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 5

ii) Words that begin with prefix “bi-“:
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 6

iii) Words that begin with prefix “pro-“:
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 7

iv) Words that begin with prefix “pre-” :
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 8

Suffixes:
i) Words that end with suffix “-cide” :
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 9

ii) Words that end with suffix “-tion” :
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 10

iii) Words that end with suffix “-ist” :
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 11

iv) Words that end with suffix “-logy”:
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 12

Grammar

I. Arrange the following sentences in proper order and write a paragraph.You may insert appropriate linkers wherever necessary.

Stream of Comedy

In every Indian language, a comedian is an essential character of films. In Telugu,Relangi and Ramanareddy provided comedy which made the audiences laugh heartily. Their appearance appealed to the film lovers.

Relangi was fat and short.
Ramana Reddy was lean and tall.
Their accent amused the film lovers.
Padmanabham and Allu Ramalingaiah followed their footsteps.
Rao Gopal Rao’s stint as villain-cum-comedian has been admired by all.
Mr. 101 Districts, Nutan Prasad left an indelible mark in the hearts of the audience.
Ali and Sunil are comedians.
They are also considered heroes.
Rajababu came later.
Brahmanandam has had a long career.
He has a world record.
His name found place in the Guinness Book of World Records.
He amused the people for long.
People have been laughing.
Sorrows of people are taking a back seat.
Answer:
Stream of Comedy :
In every Indian language, a comedian is an essential character of films. In Telugu, Relangi and Ramanareddy provided comedy which made the audiences laugh heartily. Their appearance appealed to the film lovers. Relangi was fat and short whereas Ramana Reddy was lean and tall. Their accent amused the film lovers. Then Padmanabham and Allu Ramalingaiah followed their foot steps. Raja Babu came later and amused the people for long. Rao Gopal Rao’s stint as villain-cum-comedian has been admired by all. Mr. 101 Districts, Nutan Prasad left an indelible mark in the hearts of the audience. Another familiar comedian, Brahmanandam has had a long career. He has a world record and his name found place in the Guinness Book of World Records. Ali and Sunil are comedians and they are also considered heroes. People have been laughing with the efforts of comedians and sorrows of people are taking a back seat.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

II. Prepositions following ‘adjectives’ and ‘verbs’:

In ‘Rendezvous with Ray’ we come across certain verbs and adjectives followed by prepositions. For example, acquainted with, brought out, prevented from, explained to

Read the following sentences and observe the underlined words.

1. I am amazed at you, Victoria.
2. Victoria, a precocious girl of ten, was dressed in colours.
3. He is trying to adapt himself to the regrettable occasion.
4. He was very fond of Jimmy.
5. I am sure I am sorry for it.
6. You’ve been waiting for me to begin tea.
7. I see the little trifles that belonged to father lying around.
8. This always appealed to me.

In the above sentences, the underlined adjectives and verbs are usually followed by certain prepositions.

A. Here is a list of adjectives and verbs. Tick( ✓ ) the prepositions that follow the adjectives and the verbs. Later, use them in sentences of your own.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 13 AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 14 AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray 15

1. a) Mr. Bhargav is proud of his son’s achieving the title.
b) Miss Lalitha is the proud owner of her new flat.

2. a) Raju is married to Brahmam’s sister.
b) She got married to Sujan.

3. a) Mr. Williams is good at English.
b) She is very good with her neighbours.
c) It is good weather for going on a picnic.

4. a) Both the brothers are different from each other
b) His car is different to mine.

5. a) The district collector is keen to help them.
b) He is not keen on playing with them.
c) Our boss is keen for the work to resume.

6. a) Guntur is famous for tobacco and mirchi.
b) France is famous for its wine.

7. a) She is capable of looking after my child.
b) He is not capable of doing this job.

8. a) My brother is responsible for all this mess.
b) The police caught the man who was responsible for the theft.

9. a) An atheist is a person who doesn’t believe in God.
b) Believe in yourself; or you can’t achieve the success.

10. a) The HM is shouting at Gopal for his misdeed.
b) The boy is shouting for somebody’s help.

11. a) Mr. Teja is thinking of his new college.
b) Why don’t you think of your job seriously ?

12. a) I don’t agree with him in any case.
b) They don’t agree on everything.
c) She agreed to meet him at the airport.
13. a) She has to depend on her grandparents as she lost her parents.
b) They depend entirely on the funds given by the government.

14. a) He is recovering from his severe illness.
b) The gold has been recovered from the culprit.

15. a) This site belongs to Rama Rao.
b) These assets belong to Raju.

16. a) I have applied for a job of typist.
b) She applied to two foreign universities and was accepted by them.

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions.

1. All last winter Sharath suffered ________ conghs and colds.
2. Anand is unaccustomed _________ the heat.
3. Kumar was afraid _________ his enemies.
4. Sriram was always arguing ________ his brother.
5. Sindhu was dedicated _______ her job.
6. Priyanka was shocked _______ the hatred they had shown.
7. I said _______ you, “I am thinking going ___________ to America. I have actually dreamt ________ it.”
8. I want to talk ________ the group about their exams.
9. I was terrified ________ her.
10. I’ve always been terribly fond _______ you.
11. If you continue to support someone who is in trouble you are loyal _______ them.
12. If you don’t understand any of these words, you could refer ________ a dictionary.
13. It wasn’t his car, in fact I don’t know who it belongs ________ .
14. My problems are very similar _______ yours.
15. People started to shout ________ the driver.
16. She had always been bad ________ languages.
17. She listened me and then told me _______ her problems.
18. The accident sadly resulted ________ the death of a man.
19. The buses are often late, so you can’t depend _______ them.
20. They may feel jealous ________ your success.
Answer:

  1. from
  2. to
  3. of
  4. with
  5. to
  6. at
  7. to; about/of; of
  8. to
  9. of
  10. of
  11. to
  12. to
  13. to
  14. to
  15. at
  16. at
  17. to ; about
  18. in
  19. on/upon
  20. of

III. Read the following paragraph and notice the use of the past perfect and simple past.

A. As all the actors had taken their positions, the curtain rose. They started acting as thedirector had asked them to. The audience enjoyed the play very much. The hero kicked the comedian since the comedian had done mischievous things. The musician fell off his chair after the comedian had fallen on him. The power went off after the musician had landed on the cables. There was darkness and silence everywhere. After a while two persons in the audience started a conversation.

B. Read the following conversation and fill in the blanks with appropriate verb forms,
i. e. past perfect/simple past.

1. Sarath : Oh ! What ________ (happen)? Everything ________ (be) disturbed before the play ________ (come) to an end.
2. Bharath : Damn it! The play ________ (be) very interesting. Someone on the stage ________ (do) something when the hero ________ (throw) him off.
3. Sarath : I too ________ (see) it. It was the comedian. The hero ________ (hurl) him since he ________ (do) a mischievous thing.
4. Bharath : How disgusting! I (pay) one hundred rupees before I ________ (enter) this theatre. Everything has become a chaos.
5. Sarath : Where ________ (be) the director? Had he ________ (try) to set things right before the audience ________ (start) leaving, it would have been nice.
6. Bharath : The electrician ________ (restore) the power before the audience ________ (leave). Thank God! At last the play resumed.
Answer:

  1. happened, had been, came
  2. was, had done, threw
  3. saw, hurled, had done
  4. had paid, entered
  5. was, tried, started
  6. had restrored, left

IV. Given below is a paragraph with ten errors in the areas of ‘concord,tense, prepositions, punctuation and articles’. Edit the paragraph.

The Indian film industry has witnessed sweeping changes in the past hundred years. It started of with mute (mooki) films. Even then, people liked this new form of entertainment.There was several intervals in a film show because of a single projector. Later, the technology changes made a talkie films possible. A theatre of those days is like a rice mill. This type of theatre were called Touring Talkies’. But these didn’t tour. There were bamboo screens to served the purpose of walls of the modern theatre. ‘Cut Shows’ were a luxury of those days. Have you ever watch them Now, the modern theatres is completely different. Multiplexes with dts, 3D and 4D are a present reality.
Answer:
The Indian film industry has witnessed sweeping changes for the past hundered years. It started off with mute (mooki) films. Even then, people liked this new form of entertainment. There were several intervals in a film show because of a single projector. Later, the technological changes made the talkie films possible. A theatre of those days was like a rice mill. This type of theatres were called ‘Touring Talkies”. But these didn’t tour. There were bamboo screens to serve the purpose of walls of the modern theatre. ‘Cut Shows’ were a luxury of those days. Have you ever watched them? Now, the modern theatres are completely different. Multiplexes with dts, 3D, and 4D are a present reality.

Study Skills

Read the following passage and rewrite it replacing all idioms, without changing the meaning of the passage.

Tragedy in Comedy

“Cut!…. Shot OK”, shouted the director. The funny face of the comedian suddenly wore a worried look. He said to the director, “sir,….” The director did not allow him to
say anything. He said, “Yes, you can go ” Where should he go? The comedian really did not understand what the director had meant. He could not make out what he said. As per the original plans, the comedian had to attend the schedule for 15 more days continuously. This put the comedian in soup as his wife was seriously ill. He was referring to the break he needed to visit his wife and maybe the director was referring to the sets. Perhaps both of them were talking to cross purposes. He had always been loyal to the firm that brought him into the limelight. But he could not help his wife. He was in a tight corner then. Yes! He had to face difficulties, yet he had to make people laugh. This was the paradox of his life. Wasn’t it a ‘tragedy in comedy’?
Answer:
“Cut! Shot OK”, shouted the director. The funny face of the comedian suddenly wore a worried look. He said to the director, “Sir. ” The director did not allow him to say anything. He said, “Yes, you can go ” Where should he go ? The comedian really did not understand what the director had meant. He could not understand what he said. As per the original plans, the comedian had to attend the schedule for 15 more days continuously.

This put him in a difficult situation as his wife was seriously ill. He was referring to the break he needed to visit his wife and maybe the director was referring to the sets. Perhaps both of them understood the other’s words incorrectly- He had always been loyal to the firm that made him catch the public attention. But he could not help his wife. He was in a trouble then. Yes ! He had to face difficulties, yet he had to make people laugh. This was the peculiar situation of his life. Wasn’t it a ‘tragedy in comedy’?

Listening

Listen to the radio programme and tick (✓) the right answer to the following questions.

Jewels of India

This is All India Radio, Hyderabad.
Welcome to ‘Jewels of India Programme’ presented by Meenakshi.
In our programme today, we will know about the most famous Indian filmmaker.

We know that Bengal is a beehive of cultural activities. It has witnessed cultural reforms. It is the birthplace of many writers and intellectuals.

To continue this tradition, another great son of India took birth in Calcutta on 2nd May 1921. Who ioiiicl that be? It is none other than Satyajit Ray, the son of a writer… a grandson ol an amateur astronomer. His home provided him with an ambiance to think and feel

Graduating from Presidency College, Calcutta, Ray moved to the open air university, ’Shantiniketan1. A keen observer that he was, Ray imbibed the spirit of Shantiniketan. There he read extensively and developed interest in painting.

Back in Calcutta, Ray started working for a London-based advertising firm. Wasn’t it a right place for a creative man like Ray? He worked there for some time and moved to London to work there.

There he watched films. Film after film. He liked the film ‘Bicycle Thieves’.That kindled interest in Young Ray in film-making. Slowly his interest led him to a world of creativity. That was the birth of a great film maker. And Ray became a film maker.

His films ‘Pather Panchali’, ’Aparajito’, ’Agantuk’ were some of his master pieces. His vision for Bengali films was matchless.

Along with the Oscar Award, he received the Bharata Ratna. The legendary film maker passed away in 1992. But the film world cherishes his memories forever.

Next week we will know about another great personality.
Till then, good bye.

1. What was the programme about?
a) Ray
b) Jewels of India
c) Film-making
Answer:
b) Jewels of India

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4A Rendezvous with Ray

2. Which film inspired Ray?
a) Agantuk
b) Bicycle Thieves
c) Shantiniketan
Answer:
b) Bicycle Thieves

3. The highest civilian award Ray received was
a) Oscar Award
b) Bharath Ratna
c) Padma Vibhushan
Answer:
b) Bharath Ratna

Oral Activity

Make a short speech of 2-3 minutes about the film you have seen recently. You
should include the following points in your speech.
– What the film was.
– Why you liked it so much (You can talk about the direction, actors, costumes, music, songs, etc.)
Answer:
Dear Sir and my dear friends,
I am very glad to take this chance of speaking on the film (movie) ‘Satamanam Bhavathi”, which I have seen recently along with my family members. I like it so much as it is a family sentiment movie. All the family members can sit and watch it pleasantly.

The director of this film, Satish Vegesna presented it in a nice manner. We don’t find the scenes of violence, more fights, horror, sex, etc. in this movie. The famous music director Mickey J Meyer composed beautiful songs for this movie. Audience can easily be mesmerised by the melodious songs written by lyricists Sri Mani and Ramajogaiah Sastry. In the characters of Raju and Nitya, Sarvanand and Anupama Parameswaran acted su-perbly. Prakash Raj and Jayasudha’s action is wonderful. Sameer Reddy’s cinematography is one of the attractions of this film. I conclude that it is a super hit movie which attracts the attention of the spectators.

Thank you one and all for giving me this opportunity.

Rendezvous with Ray Summary in English

Rendezvous with Ray’ is the news report published by Frontline on July 29 and on August 11, 2006. This is all about Satyajit Ray, the distinguished cine director from Calcutta (Kolkata). Gaston Roberge, a French-Candian priest presents his experiences with Ray in this lesson.

In 1961, when Fr. Gaston Roberge was 26 years old, he was acquainted with the works of Satyajit Ray through the Apu Trilogy. He saw all the three films in one sitting -the incident which made him love the people of India and Bengali cinema and culture. Roberge gives a scholarly, original analysis of Ray’s works in his latest book, “Satyajit Ray, Essays : 1970-2005”. In his youth, Roberge knew of Bengal through Mircea Eliade’s La Nuit Bengalie, some of Tagore’s poems and a Reader’s Digest article on Mother Teresa. He was haunted by the harsh image of poverty shown in “Saint of the Slums” and Apu’s world came as a reassurance. Ray’s critics accused him that he made his reputation selling India’s poverty to the West. But Roberge was struck by the enormous spiritual poverty of some rich people which is worse than material poverty.

He wanted to meet Ray and make friends with him but it took him nine years after reaching Kolkata. He wanted to get to know Ray’s works more so that there could be a worthwhile dialogue between them when they met. Their friendship lasted about 22 years until Ray’s death in 1992. Their quiet friendship developed over the years. Ray’s friends called him Manikda. He was shy and discreet about showing his emotions. He was very simple and modest with a subtle sense of humour. Both the friends used to meet on Sundays at 9 a.m. at Ray’s residence on Bishop Lefroy Road, Kolkata. Ray used to show Roberge the private screenings and welcome his comments. Ray often addressed Roberge as the French- speaking priest in Bengali and Roberge felt it was Ray’s appreciation for him. Ray wrote his manuscripts in Bengali, with notes in English for his set-designer, with sketches and staff notation of music. Once, he missed the Charulatha screenplay. Though he knew who the culprit was, he didn’t want to take any action with humane concern.

We find striking comparison between Tagore and Ray in their works. There is a philosophical analogy too between them. We find all the characters – the rich, the poor, the powerful, the humble, the peasants, the city persons, children, teenagers, adults, old people, men, women, etc. in Ray’s movies.

Rendezvous with Ray Glossary

rendezvous : a meeting place

unique (adj) : usually good and special

en route (adv) : on the way

stopover (n) : a halt in a long journey

acquainted (v) : deliberately found out about something

trilogy (n) : a set of three films with the same artists or characters [The Apu Trilogy comprises three Begali fims directed by Satyajit Ray: Pather Panchali (1955), Aparajito (1956), and Apur Sansar (1959)]

fascinating (v) : being attracted

path-breaking (adj) : totally new

compilation (n) : book, list, record, etc., which consists of different pieces of information, songs, etc.

insight (n) : a sudden clear understanding of something especially a complicated situation or idea

portal (n) : an entrance

haunted (v) : obsessed

reassurance (n) : something that is said or done which makes someone feel calmer and less worried or frightened about a problem

accusation (n) : the act of charging somebody

detractors (n) : people who criticise

deplorable (adj) : very bad, unpleasant and shocking

arrogance (n) : showing pride

quest (n) : a long search for something that is difficult to find

muster up confidence (idiom) : gain confidence

right away (idiom) : immediately

worthwhile (adj) : important or useful

discreet (adj) : careful about what you say or do, so that you do not offend, upset, embarrass people or tell secrets

stature (n) : the degree to which someone is admired or regarded as important

aloof (adj) : unfriendly and deliberately not talking to other people

intimidating (adj) : making you feel worried and not confident

unassuming (adj) : showing no desire to be noticed or given special treatment, modest

subtle (adj) : not easy to notice or understand

screening (n) : the showing of a film or television programme

cemented (v) : made a relationship between people, countries or organizations firm and strong

elegance (n) : the state of being beautiful, attractive or graceful

manuscript (n) : a book or piece of writing before it is printed

notation (n) : a system of written marks or signs used to represent something such as music, mathematics or scientific ideas

culprit (n) : the person who is guilty of a crime or doing something wrong

reputation (n) : the opinion that people have about someone or something because of what has happened in the past

humane (adj) : treating people or animals in a way that is not cruel and causes them as little suffering as possible

colossus (n) : someone or something that is extremely big or extremely important

sign out (phr.v.) : to write one’s name in a book when one leaves a place such as a hotel, an office or a club

dictum (n) : a statement that is believed to be true and followed

analogy (n) : a feature that is similar

didactic (adj) : intended to teach people a moral lesson

verbose (adj) : using or containing too many words

impulse (n) : a sudden strong desire to do something without thinking about whether it is a sensible thing to do

aesthetics (n) : the art of judging beauty

denying (v) : saying that something is not true

agnostic (n) : a person who does not know whether God exists

frail (adj) : weak and thin

fallout (n) : result

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

10th Class English Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
You have read the review of the film ‘Maya Bazaar’. List the things that the review focuses on.
Answer:
The things that the review focuses on are :
a) its director and producers
b) the actors acted in the film
c) other artists who made it a great success
d) its contribution to Telugu culture, language, and customs
e) its dialogues and songs
f) its contribution to the Telugu dictionary
g) its theme
h) the director’s greatness in making it the “Greatest Indian Film”
i) how it is helpful to an NRI.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Question 2.
Do you think this review of the film is positive or negative? Substantiate your view.
Answer:
I think this review of the film is a positive one. In the beginning lines itself, it is told that the film ’Maya Bazaar’ has been voted as the Greatest Indian Film’. The expressions such as unleashing’, ‘landmark movie’, sterling performances’, ‘tribute to Telugu culture, language, and customs’, immortalized dialogues’, ‘reverberation of songs’, ‘repertoire added to Telugu dictionary’, audience laughed heartily’, ‘womenfolk recalling their tribulations’, ‘feast for the eyes and soul’, introducing Telugu culture to an NRI’, etc., show us that this review is positive. Each and every part of this review clearly tells us it is positive.

Question 3.
What made ‘Maya Bazaar’ a landmark film?
Answer:
The film ‘Maya Bazaar’ is considered one of the enduring classics of Indian cinema and was christened as a landmark achievement in Indian film’s cinematography, art direction, and VFX with the available technology during that time. The great director K.V. Reddy, producers Nagireddy and Chakrapani, sterling performances of the star-ensemble, all time great artists, the dialogues of Pingali Nagendra Rao, the songs and its contribution to Telugu culture, language, and customs made ‘Maya Bazaar’ a landmark film. With all these great qualities, Maya Bazaar’ hit the screen in 1957 to become a landmark movie.

Question 4.
Why is ‘Maya Bazaar’ watched repeatedly?
Answer:
The viewers identify every character of the film with someone they knew in their immediate vicinity. Hence, ‘Maya Bazar’ is watched repeatedly. The audience still do the same now.

Question 5.
What is the central theme of ‘Maya Bazaar’? How have the Telugu speakers settled abroad looked upon ‘Maya Bazaar’?
Answer:
The central theme of ‘Maya Bazaar’ is to make the audience aware of their culture, language and customs by showing the striking similarities. The story itself is woven around the love of Sasirekha-Abhimanyu. With Krishna and Balarama having difference of opinion over it, their wives too take sides. Telugu speakers settled abroad have looked upon ‘Maya Bazaar’ as a masterpiece of their language. They try to introduce the learners (or the children) to ‘Maya Bazaar’ to learn Telugu culture, language and customs.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Question 6.
The purpose of the review is …
a) …to give an account of the stars of the film.
b) …to establish the element of Telugu culture in the film.
c) …to help NRIs understand Telugu culture.
d) …to praise the producer of the film.
e) …to advertise the film.
(Put a tick (✓) on the options that indicate the purpose of the review.)
Answer:
a) …….to give an account of the stars of the film. (✓)
b) …….to establish the element of Telugu culture in the film. (✓)
c) …….to help NRIs understand Telugu culture. (✓)

Vocabulary

I. In the review of ‘Maya Bazaar’ the expression, ‘language and custom’, has two words linked with the conjunction ‘and’. We also use expressions like ‘cup and saucer’, ‘near and dear’ etc.

These pairs of words joined by a conjunction ‘and’ are called ‘binomials’. In these expressions, the word order never changes. For example, we say ‘near and dear’ and not ‘dear and near’.

Here are some sentences with ‘binomials’ underlined.

  1. Sports is a part and parcel of education.
  2. The new theatre is rough and ready.
  3. Music is not only Rahman’s bread and butter but also his passion.
  4. The film industry is expanding in leaps and bounds.
  5. The customer can pick and choose anything he likes. It is the customer to decide.
  6. ‘Give and take’ policy is always helpful.
  7. Ray gave his heart and soul to reading books.
  8. He stood by me through thick and thin.
  9. The main goods were shifted first. Then the odds and ends were taken later.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Match the following binomials with their meanings and use them in your own sentences.

Column – A Column – B
1. part and parcel a) unimportant things
2. rough and ready b) livelihood
3. leaps and bounds c) in difficult times
4. bread and butter d) dedicated
5. pick and choose e) help one another
6. give and take f) a large choice
7. heart and soul g) big leaps
8. thick and thin h) an integral part
9. odds and ends i) almost finished

Answer:

Column – A Column – B
1. part and parcel h) an integral part
2. rough and ready i) almost finished
3. leaps and bounds c) in difficult times
4. bread and butter b) livelihood
5. pick and choose f) a large choice
6. give and take e) help one another
7. heart and soul d) dedicated
8. thick and thin g) big leaps
9. odds and ends a) unimportant things

Own Sentences:

  • Teaching students how to behave and how to deal with others is part and parcel of education.
  • The corporate hospital is rough and ready.
  • Mr. Rao’s career is progressing in leaps and bounds.
  • Teaching is my bread and butter. I don’t want to go away from it.
  • The parent can pick and choose any school he/she likes.
  • They always follow give and take policy.
  • Narayana Murthy gave his heart and soul to studying engineering course at IIT.
  • Both Ramu and Somu have been together through thick and thin: they don’t want to desert each other.
  • He is carrying a suitcase which is full of odds and ends.

Some other binomials with their meanings :

1) neat and tidy : clean
2) sick and tired : annoyed/frustrated
3) wine and dine : entertain someone with a good quality meal
4) up and down : moving between the same two points repeatedly
5) skin and bone : to be very thin
6) loud and clear : very clear and very easy to understand
7) by and large : on the whole
8) back and forth : moving first in one direction then in another
9) alive and kicking : well and healthy
10) bits and pieces : small things of different types
11) by and by : after a while
12) body and soul : believe something completely
13) far and wide : across a large area
14) fair and square : honest
15) hard and fast : inevitable, fixed
16) free and easy : unconventional
17) hustle and bustle : confusion; busy activity
18) day and night : all the time
19) pros and cons : advantages and disadvantages
20) spick and span : neat, trim, impeccable
21) tooth and nail : with all one’s resources or energy
22) wear and tear : loss, damage
23) far and wide : a large number of places, across a large graphical area
24) high and mighty : behaving as though one is more important than others
25) short and sweet : when something is very quick and to the point; of minimum length and no longer than it needs.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

II. Read the following conversation that took place in the classroom of a film institute.
Professor Paul : As a part of our ‘Diploma in film-making’ we have discussed certain aspects of film technology, right? I hope by now all of you are familiar with those concepts. If you have some more queries, we can discuss them. Now the class is open for questions.

Rishi : I think what is included and excluded in an individual shot is called ‘Frame’. Am I right?

P P : Yes, you are. What is brought to the viewer is called a frame.

Prudhvi : Which shot is used to show a happy reunion, Sir?

P P : It is called Arc’. The camera moves in an arc around the subject (artistes). Any more questions…?

P P : Here is a list of camera shots that helps you to have a clear idea about different shots in film-making.

Shots and Angles :

1. Establishing shot : It is usually from a greater distance to establish setting, (familiarises the scene or setting)
2. Close-up : It refers to the image occupying at least 80 percent of the frame.
3. Two shot : Two people in the frame are showed equally.
4. Dutch angle : It is neither vertical nor horizontal. It‘s oblique.
5. Bird’s eye shot : It is shot directly and vertically down at the subject.
6. High angle : Camera is above the subject. It creates an impression that the subject is weak or powerless.
7. Low angle : The camera is placed below the subject. The subject appears larger than normal.
8. Rack focus : Here the focus is shifted from one subject to the other where the subject that is not in focus is blurred.
9. Footage : It is the total exposed film.
10. Montage : Different images are assembled to build an impression.

Here are some visuals. Identify their features and label them. You may choose the labels given above.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar 1
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar 2

Answer:

  1. Low angle shot
  2. Dutch angle shot
  3. Establishing shot
  4. Bird’s eye view shot

Grammar

I. Modals

The following is a conversation between two artists.

Shankar : Shanti, yesterday the ABC Movies called me up seeking my opinion.
Shanti : What is that?
Shankar : They’ve a role for a heroine in their film that is going to sets very soon. They wanted to offer that role to you. Will you accept it?
Shanti : Did they really mean it? I’ve two doubts about it. First, can I do it? The second, should I do it?
Shankar : Yes, you can certainly do it. Regarding your second doubt -I think it’s not that you should do it, you must do it.
Shanti : Why?
Shankar : We may like some roles and others we may not. But we accept them for the sake of our career.
Shanti :Mmm… .
Shankar : Certain roles we should accept for the sake of satisfaction. That’s why, I said you must do it.
Shanti : Then 1 take your word as final to me. I shall do it. Tell the ABC Movies that I have accepted the offer.

The words given in bold letters in the above conversation perform different functions.They are called modal auxiliaries or modals. Their functions are given below.

Modal Function
shall obligation, offer, order, suggestion,
should obligation, advice
can ability, possibility, permission
could request, suggestion, permission, possibility, ability
will certainty, intention, futurity, purpose
would offer, preference, past habit, future of the past
may permission, possibility, wish
might possibility
must compulsion, inference

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Some important points about modals :

1. Modals take any subject before them. There is no Subject-Verb agreement problem.

2. No two modals co-occur in a sentence.
e.g.: The film will be released next week.

3. The main verb will always be the V1 form after the modals.
e.g.: He cannot move the big stone.

4. Past form of some modals stands for ‘politeness’.
e.g.: i) Would you like to have some tea?
ii) Could you lend me your book?

Read the following sentences and identify the functions performed by the modals.

a) He can sing for eight hours at a stretch.
b) You could take an umbrella, it’s raining outside.
c) We should complete the shooting by tomorrow evening.
d) Shall I wait till you come?
e) The time was up but the makeup person would not turn up.
f) The car hasn’t arrived yet. It must’ve got a flat tyre.
g) There may be heavy rains tomorrow. So, why couldn’t we go for indoor shooting?
h) Will you join us for tea?
i) The agreement between the two parties shall be in force for two years.
j) It might be an idea to postpone the release of the film.
Answer:
a) ability
b) suggestion
c) obligation
d) offer
e) future of the past
f) inference
g) suggestion
h) request/invitation
i) obligation
j) possibility

Writing

I. Now read the review once again. Write a review of a film/a TV Programme/an episode of a TV serial you have seen.

I have recently seen the Telugu film ‘Swathimuthyam’ which is directed by K.Viswanath. ‘Swathimuthyam’ is a wonderfully crafted masterpiece. K.Viswanath has shown all his artistic brilliance in weaving the story. Each frame of the film has roused curiosity to know what would be the next scene. Kamal Hassan’s action is simply superb. He gets into the skin of the character very much and brings the liveliness not only to his character but also to the film itself. His heroine, Radhika too acted brilliantly. The music of Ilayaraja and the prowess of K.Viswanath are completely overshadowed by the excellence of Kamal.

The music composed by Ilayaraja is unforgettable. He tries to give his best in this film. The songs such as “Suwi Suwi”, “Vatapatra Sai ki…” reverberate in each and every viewer’s mind. The theme of the movie is based on how a naive, child-like person, emerges unscathed in this selfish world, managing to uplift the lives of some troubled souls (Radhika, who is a widow and her son). There is an underlying reflection of goodwill still left in the society – it is skilfully depicted through the characters of the dhobi, Nirmalamma, Radhika and so on. One last thing about the music which is composed to “Rama Kanavemira” takes the potential of Ilayaraja to mix various traditions of music. This movie is produced by Edida Nageswara Rao.

II. Read the following letter.

Kondamudusu Palem,
Kandukuru.
Nov. 27, 2013.

To
The Editor,
The Hindu,
Vijayawada.
Sir/Madam,
I am a regular reader of your esteemed newspaper. I am very much interested in reading the news in ‘Friday Review’ in your newspaper every week.

I am writing to bring to your notice certain feelings I had when I watched the colour version of the movie ‘Maya Bazaar’.

Recently ‘Mayabazaar’ was released again but this time it was a different ‘Maya Bazaar’, Maya Bazaar-in colour!

Thanks to the Goldstone Technologies, I was carried away to a different world of colourful visuals. Of course the audio part remained the same. But here and there the effects of digital track sound have made some difference. Such an experiment began in Hindi with ‘Mughal-E-Azam’ and received applause from the audience. I hope many such experiments are welcome to the film lovers.
Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
N. Sarathchandra,
Z.P.HIGH SCHOOL,
KANDUKURU,
PRAKASAM (Dist.)

 

III. Write a reply to the letter that appeared in the Hindu in response to the review of ‘Maya Bazaar’. In your letter write whether the opinion expressed in above letter is a sufficient appreciation of ‘Maya Bazaar’.

Uppalapadu,
Guntur.
Dec. 2, 2013.

To
The Editor,
The Hindu,
Vijayawada.
Sir/Madam,

This is a rejoinder to the letter in the Hindu in response to the review of ‘Maya Bazaar’. First of all I would like to thank Mr. N. Sarathchandra for his appreciation of the movie ‘Maya Bazaar’ that was released in colour. I totally agree with his view when he wrote to say that experiments are welcome to the film lovers. In this fast developing world, experimentation is necessary in each and every field to get better results. But I am not happy as the film’s naturality has been destroyed by touching some colours to it. The characteristics such as picturization, dialogues, direction, audio-effects, etc., are all the important components of a film’s success. If we try to experiment with any one of them, it will lose its originality. Hence, I opine that we should welcome the technological development but at the same time we shouldn’t try to make a difference which takes away over Telugu culture, language and customs.
I hope all will agree with me.
Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,
XXXX
Z.P. High School,
Uppalapadu,
Pedakakani Mandal,
Guntur District.

IV. Let’s read the following skit.

Suhas : Amma, Amma……. .
Mother : What, Suhas?
Suhas : My friends are planning to watch a movie. I too want to join them.
Mother : Movies, movies, movies. No, I can’t let you go to movies too often.
Suhas : My friends are making fun of me. They call me ‘a bird in a cage’. (Goes out disgusted taking his school bag.)
Mother : Money, money, money. He always needs money. This is not a kid. It’s an apparition.
Father : (coming) Why are you shouting, Sarala? What did you say?
Mother : Didn’t you hear? An apparition.
Father : Who is the apparition?
Mother : Who else could I mean? It’s your son.
Father : Not your son? He needs money?
Mother : Yes, he needs money. He watches movies. His life is movies. He doesn’t care to study. All the children in the street are doing very well. But this devil (Starts banging her head against the wall. No wounds.No blood)
Father : No, Sarala. No, don’t do it.(Mother falls down and father brings a glass of water.)

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Father : Sarala…, Sarala…., have some water. (A pause)
Father : Sarala, we have to understand certain things.
Mother : (Having drunk water) As if you have understood You don’t worry about anything. He doesn’t study at all. He is after movies.
Father : Wait! I’ll find out.
Father : Suhas, you didn’t take your bicycle today. You didn’t take your lunch box. You look tired ……… .
Suhas : Amma doesn’t understand me. She always makes fuss of me. She always wants me to do one thing; study…. study….. study. I want to go to a film. That too once a week. All my friends are going. I too want to go. Is it wrong on my part?
Father : Why don’t you try to understand your mother’s concern? She is worried a lot about your future.
Suhas : But I am all right in my studies. I think, watching a film once a week, that too, watching a good film is not a sin.
Father : Which film did you want to watch?
Suhas : “Life of Pi”. It’s an interesting movie with high technical values.
Father : All right, my boy.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4B Maya Bazaar

Father : Sarala, the boy didn’t want to do anything bad.
Mother : But I have my own fears.
Father : I do understand. Your fears may have reasons. But what Suhas wanted was just 100 rupees. And that too for watching an interesting film.
Mother : Maybe I was wrong. We’ll ask Suhas to go to the film. He is such a nice boy. He never troubles us.
Father : Come on. Let’s have supper. Come, Suhas. Now let’s ponder over these points :

Keeping in mind the features of a skit given below, prepare a skit on any subject you like most.
A skit has all the characteristics of a play. Usually, it does have a message to convey. It has a plot (a beginning, a crisis and a resolution). However, there are certain differences with respect to time, number of characters, setting, etc. The skit is more of an informal nature. The number of characters is less. The setting does not have much importance.
Answer:
(Rakesh, Prabhas and Suhas are the students of tenth class, studying at ZPH School, Uppalapadu.)
Rakesh : (with sorrowful face) Oh, no! What can I do now?
Prabhas : What happened, Rakesh? Why are you so sad?
Rakesh : (searching his pockets) I have lost my money. How can I get home ?
Suhas : Hi friends ! Don’t you come home? It’s already late.
Prabhas : Rakesh has lost his money.
Suhas : What? When did it happen?
Rakesh : I have just known about it.
Prabhas : Calm down. It will be OK How much money have you lost?
Rakesh : I have lost my fifty-rupee note !
Prabhas : Don’t worry; I found a fifty-rupee note in the conference hall in the lunch break. I wanted to hand over the money to our H.M. I think that it is yours only! Here it is your note.
Rakesh : Yes, it is the note I have lost. I even wrote my name on it. See my name!
Suhas : Yes, your name is on the note. Certainly it is yours only.
Rakesh : Thank you very much, Prabhas. You are really a good boy. You could have bought something about the money you got but you didn’t do that.
Prabhas : But, I wouldn’t have felt good about it. I think that it is not a good thing to do. Wanting others’ money is nothing but stealing. 1 know very well that it is someone else’s and he/she would be upset. I don’t want to make sorrowful anyone. I too had the same bitter experience. I wouldn’t forget how I was disappointed when I lost my money.
Rakesh : I won’t forget your honesty. I am very glad and proud to have a friend like you.
Prabhas : OK, friends. Come, our bus is ready to depart.

Maya Bazaar Summary in English

“Maya Bazaar” is a review published in “The Hindu” on 21st April, 2006 on the^ occasion of its Golden Jubilee. K.V.Reddy’s Maya Bazaar’ has been voted as the ‘Greatest Indian Film” in an online poll conducted by a television news channel. Its director K.V.Reddy and producers Nagireddy and Chakrapani made it both in Telugu and Tamil.

The film became a super hit because of the performances of the star-actors S.V.Ranga Rao, Savitri, NTR, ANR and Gummadi and the efforts of K.V. Reddy. The great persons like Marcus Batley, Ghantasala, M.L. Vasantha Kumari, Leela, Suseela, Madhavapeddi, Gokhale, Pasumarthy and Pitambaram played their roles together in making up of such a landmark movie in Telugu film industry. It shows us Telugu culture, language and customs in every frame. When people saw it, they identified every character of the film with someone they knew in their area. The dialogues written by Pingali Nagendra Rao became immortalized. The songs such as ‘Aha naa pelli anta,” “Vivaha bhojanambu”, etc., have a strong effect on people for a long time. This film made people familiarize with the words such as “Talpam”, “Gilpam”, “Asamadiyulu”, “Tasamadiyulu”, etc. We can’t forget the expressions such as “veyandira veediko veeratadu”, “hai hai sodara” and “hai hai naayaka”.

Its story deals with the love of Sasirekha-Abhimanyu. The director uses a magic box to introduce the theme. It creates a wonderful effect on viewers. The scenes shown on its screen made the audience laugh heartily. The dialogues of Balarama made the women viewers recall their own problems in the hands of such brothers. The director greatly displays all the follies of human beings through all the characters except Ghatothkacha and Krishna. This film is a feast to us with its simile, imagery, adage, sarcasm and wit. Though it is the story of Pandavas and Kauravas, Pandavas are never seen throughout the movie. Even an NRI will know about Telugu culture if he/she happens to watch this Imovie.

Maya Bazaar Glossary

enduring (adj) : continuing for a very long time

christened (v) : gave something or someone a name

cinematography (n) : the skill or study of making films

VFX : visual Effects shortened to Visual FX and then to VFX

unleashing (v) : suddenly letting a strong force, feeling, etc. have its full effect

sterling (adj) : very good

ensemble (n) : a small group of musicians, actors or dancers who perform together regularly

facet (n) : one of several parts of someone’s character, a situation, etc.

the vicinity (n) : the area around a particular place

reverberate (v) : have a strong effect on people for a long time

repertoire (n) : all that a performer can do

advent (n) : arrival

array (n) : an impressive collection of things

indignation (n) : a feeling of anger

sarcasm (n) : a way of using words that are the opposite of what one means to make fun of somebody

laps up (phr. v.) : to enjoy something without worrying about whether it is good, true, etc.

curtly (adv) : abruptly

confronted (v) : dealt with something very difficult or unpleasant in a brave and determined way

tribulation (n) : formal serious trouble or a serious problem

folly (n) : a very stupid thing to do, especially one that is likely to have serious results

simile (n) : an expression that describes something by comparing it with something else

imagery (n) : the use of words or pictures to describe ideas or actions in poems, books, films, etc.

adage (n) : a well-known phrase that says something wise about human experience

wit (n) : the ability to say things that are clever and amusing

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute

10th Class English Chapter 4C A Tribute Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Have you ever seen any of the Aims in which Savitri acted? List them. Which of them do you like most?
Answer:
Yes, I have seen five or six films in which Savitri acted. They are : Kanyasulkam, Missamma, Maya Bazaar, Shantinivasam, Kama, Devadasu, Pandava Vanavasam, Gundamma Katha, Velugu Needalu, Dr. Chakravarthy and Narthanasala. I like her character of Mary in the film Missamma’ most. Her action was brilliant in that movie.

Question 2.
Savitri’s qualities and her acting have been mentioned in the tribute. Which of Savitri’s qualities fascinates you most?
Answer:
I am mostly fascinated by her generosity, great action, charm, expressive eyes, involvement in the role she plays and so on. She was generous to the people who were in need. Once, she donated all the jewellery she was wearing to the Prime Minister’s fund. Along with her magnificent action and charm, she had expressive eyes through which she expressed mischievous look, look of fake anger, look of real anger, look of passion, pain filled look and confident look. We can see an example for her involvement in the roles she plays. Once she played the role of a nurse in a psychiatry ward in the movie, ’Chivaraku Migiledi’. In a particular scene, the nurse has a nervous breakdown and cries uncontrollably. Though the director said, “Cut”, Savitri could not stop crying. All these qualities fascinate not only me but all the Telugu audience most.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute

Question 3.
Why was Savitri taken away from her main role in the him, ‘Samsaaram’?
Answer:
L.V. Prasad, the noted director, offered Savitri the role of a heroine in the film ‘Samsaaram’ (1950). On the sets, she was nervous ; she had to repeat many takes and this proved a setback for her. Hence, the role was given to someone else and she was given a small role. Thus, Savitri was taken away from her main role in ’Samsaaram’.

Question 4.
How do you think Savitri was able to strike back after she was replaced from the main role in ‘Samsaaram’?
Answer:
Although Savitri was replaced from the main role in ‘Samsaaram’, she was able to strike back because of her passion for acting brought her another chance in the film ‘Devadasu’ (1953). She proved her potential’ to the cine-world by her tremendous action and liveliness. In the role of Parvathi with curly hair, a lock of hair straying to her forehead, the large round black berry eyes looking out from an innocent face left an indelible imprint in the minds of all cine lovers. She played the role of a rich man’s wife marvellously. Thus, she was able to strike back and got more chances.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute

Question 5.
The purpose of the tribute is …[ choose the appropriate answer]
a) to sympathize with Savitri.
b) to admire Savitri’s acting and her abilities.
c) to understand Savitri’s acting and qualities.
d) to express different opinions about Savitri.
Answer:
(b) to admire Savitri’s acting and her abilities.

Project Work

Look up on the internet / in the newspapers or magazines and gather the following information about your favourite actor :
Name of the actor :
Physical features :
His/Her debut film :
Good films to his/her credit :
Awards and honours received :
Best movie of his/her career :
Great qualities in him/her :

Any other points you like to mention :
1. ____________________
2. ____________________

Now work in groups and discuss the specific qualities of the actor that make you like him/her the most.
Answer:
Name of the actor : Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao

Physical features : Good physique; Above 6 ft. tall; Broad shouldered body ; Beautiful face.

His/Her debut film : Mana Desam

Good films to his/her credit : Missamma, Gundamma Katha, Pathala Bhairavi, Kanyasulkam, Panduranga Maha-thyam, Maya Bazaar, Bhookailas, Kondaveeti Simham, Bobbilipuli, Justice Chowdari, etc.

Awards and honours received : Three National Film Awards, Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu in 1972; Padma Shri by Government of India in 1968; Honorary Doctorate by Andhra University.

Best movie of his/her career : Missamma/Kanyasulkam

Great qualities in him/her : Determination and dedication for film world;

Any other points you like to mention :
1. His entry to politics.
2. Became the CM of Andhra Pradesh.
3. He tried hard to bring recognition for Telugu language at national level.

Group 1 : We (I) like N.T. Rama Rao because of his great action. He was not only an actor but also a director and producer.

Group 2 : He made his debut as an actor in a Telugu social film Mana Desam directed by L.V. Prasad in 1949. From then, there is no looking back for him. The Telugu film lovers are really proud of Sri N.T. Rama Rao.

Group 3 : Sri N.T. Rama Rao’s dedication, determination, generosity, discipline, etc., are the qualities which are liked by me (us) the most. With great determination and dedication he acted in more than 300 films. Some of them are master-pieces.

Group 4 : I (we) like him as he is a great politician. He founded ‘Telugu Desam’ party and served three tumultuous terms as Chief Minister.

Group 5 : We (I) like him because of his discipline. He was a highly disciplined and punctual person. He used to get up at 3.00 a.m. to do yoga, physical exercises and worship God by 5 a.m. He would always arrive on the film sets one hour in advance.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 4C A Tribute

Sum up:

Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is popularly known as NTR. He was born on 28 May, 1923. He was an Indian film actor, director, producer and politician who also served as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for three terms. He received three National Film Awards for co-producing ‘Thodu Dongalu’ and Seetharama Kalyanam’ and directing ‘Varakatnam’. He received the Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu in 1972. He was awarded ‘Padma Shri’ by Government of India in 1968, for his contribution to Telugu cinema. He was given Honorary Doctorate by Andhra University.

NT Rama Rao made his debut as an actor in a social Telugu film Mana Desam, directed by LV Prasad in 1949. In that film, he played the role of a police officer. He played all kinds of characters in more than 300 films. He became one of the most prominent figures in the history of Telugu cinema. Besides Telugu, NTR also acted in a few Tamil films. After his career in films NTR entered politics. He founded the Telugu Desam Party in 1982 and served three tumultuous terms as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh between 1983 and 1995.

NT Rama Rao had a good physique. He was above 6 ft. tall and had a broad shoul-dered body. He had a charming face. One can’t forget his beautiful smile. Some of his good films are Missamma, Gundamma Katha, Pathala Bhairavi, Kanyasulkam, Panduranga Mahathyam, Maya Bazaar, Bhookailas, Kondaveeti Simham, Bobbilipuli, Justice Chowdary and so on. (I think) The best movie of his career is ‘Missamma’. His qualities such as determination, dedication, generosity, discipline, punctuality, etc. made him a wonderful actor. He will be remembered as long as celluloid lives on.

A Tribute Summary in English

“A Tribute” is the tribute to Savithri, a prestigeous cine-artiste. Telugu audiences are proud of her considerable performance throughout her career which lasted for about 30 years. She developed interest in learning dance since her childhood. She faced difficulty in entering the film field. Though she got a chance in ‘Agnipareeksha”, she was finally dropped as she looked too young for the role. The film makers recognized her potential when she acted in a song in ‘Pathala Bhairavi’. Though she was given a role of heroine in the film ‘Samsaram’, she lost the chance because of her nervousness on the sets. She left an indelible mark in the minds of all cine lovers through her action as Parvathi in the film ‘Devadasu” in 1953. Her action was marvellous in that movie. Her action was exceptionally brilliant in the film ‘Ardhangi’ (1955) in the role of the wife of a mentally retarded person (ANR). She was known for charm and magnificent acting. The audiences who see many emotions and feelings in her eyes can’t forget the magic spell of her eyes.

The film ’Missamma’ shows us Savitri’s amazing talent in the role of Mary. The famous cine-actors Meena Kumari and Amitabh Bacchan praised her acting, timing and unbelievable spontaneity. In the role of Sasirekha in ‘Maya Bazaar’ film, Savitri reminds us of the rich Telugu culture. Her action in the roles of both masculine and feminine manner is unparallel in the film ‘Maya Bazaar’. She gets totally involved in whatever role she plays. In the film ‘Chivaraku Migiledi’, she played the role of a nurse in a psychiatry ward. In a particular scene of that film, even after the shot was over, she couldn’t come out of her role and continued crying uncontrollably.

She received the title ‘Mahanati’ and the Presidential award for her great performance. She also received ‘Kalaimamani’ and Nadigayar Tilakam’ from Tamil film industry. She not only acted in the films but also directed and produced a few films that show her passion for films. She was known for her generosity. Once, she donated all the jewellery she was wearing to the Prime Minister’s Fund. Dasari Narayana Rao says that she will be remembered as long as celluloid lives on. Though she is not physically with us, she is eternal with her tremendous efforts to cinema.

A Tribute Glossary

artiste (n) : a professional singer,dancer, actor, etc. who performs in a show

evinced (v) : showed a feeling or had a quality in a way that people could easily notice

considerable (adjj) : fairly large ; be important

elevated (v) : moved someone or something to a more important rank or level

import (n) : importance or meaning

stray (v) : move away from one place

portrayed (v) : acted the part of a character in a play, film, or television programme

credentials (n) : someone’s education, achievements, experience, etc. that prove they have the ability to do something

conspire (v) : to secretly plan with someone else to do something illegal

mischievous (adjj) : someone who is mischievous likes to have fun, especially by playing tricks on people or doing things to annoy or embarrass them

captivate (v) : to attract someone very much and hold their attention

provoke (v) : to cause a reaction or feeling, especially a sudden one

pierce somebody’s heart (phrase) : to make someone feel a strong emotion

myriad (adj) : very many

adore (v) : to love someone very much and feel very proud of them

spontaneously (n) : doing things without planning and suddenly

16-annas Telugu lass (idiom) : an expression which means a perfect Telugu girl

yesteryear (n) : existing in the past

masculine (adj) : having qualities considered to be typical of men or of what men do

psychiatry (n) : the study and treatment of mental illness

pacify (v) : to make someone calm, quiet, and satisfied after they have been angry or upset

magnum opus (n) : the greatest work

lion’s share (idiom) : major portion/part

zenith (n) : peak

meteor (n) : a piece of rock or metal that travels through space and makes a bright line in the night sky when it falls down towards the earth

legacy (n) : something that happens or exists as a result of things that happened at an earlier time

versatility (n) : having many different skills

celluloid (n) : cinema film

encompass (v) : to include a wide range of ideas, subjects, etc.

eternal (adj) : continuing forever and having no end

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 5A Environment Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

10th Class English Chapter 5A Environment Textbook Questions and Answers

Look at the pictures and answer the questions that follow.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment 1
Question 1.
What do you see in the first picture? Do you like it? If not, why?
Answer:
In the first picture we can see a polluted area which is a dumping yard of garbage near a water body. I don’t like it because garbage should not be dumped near a drinking water source. The garbage should be burnt in an open unused area. If we dump garbage near a water source, it will lead to water pollution which in turn spreads diseases.

Question 2.
How is the second picture different from the first? Do you feel good about it? Give reasons for your view.
Answer:
The first picture represents a polluted area whereas the second picture represents a clean and green village which is the best example of perfect, polluted-free environment. It is a beautiful village with full of lush green vegetation.
Yes, I feel good about it because we can see greenery everywhere which feasts our eyes and also we find cleanliness in this picture. As a responsible human being I wish such an environment might be in my surroundings which fills healthiness both in our body and mind.
These two pictures indicate a best example for biodiversity.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Question 3.
What is meant by Biodiversity? Can you explain it?
Answer:
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life. This can refer to genetic variation, species variation or ecosystem variation.

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
How are people’s basic needs connected with the environment?
Answer:
The forested mountains are the sources of water and the source of rain. So when we deforest we cause a shortage of water and a change of rainfall patterns and therefore people are not able to get food and water. In such a way people’s basic needs are connected with the environment.

Question 2.
Wangari Maathai has described the environment of her childhood in the interview. Is the environment of her childhood different from the environment you live in? If yes, in what ways?
Answer:
Yes, the childhood environment of Wangari Maathai is entirely different from the environment I live in at present. Her childhood environment was very pristine, very beautiful, and very green whereas my environment includes all the human made things, and the natural things like plants and trees are scarcely found. Her environment is pollution free one with fresh air whereas mine is damaged because of comfortable means of living and indiscriminate destruction of forests.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Question 3.
According to Maathai, how are women responsible for the protection of the environment?
Answer:
As per the view of Maathai, women are responsible for the protection of environment because women are in need of food, clean drinking water, and fodder for their animals. Women work on farms, they plant, they cultivate, they produce food and they manage the environment.

Question 4.
What is the specific message of Wangari Maathai?
Answer:
The specific message of Wangari Maathai is, “When we plant a tree, we plant hope.” Plant a tree that will last, long after we are gone to rehabilitate environment in order to save the environment and to obtain a good environment.

Question 5.
List the transformations that Wangari Maathai was able to bring about over the years. Which one of them is the biggest in your opinion?
Answer:
The transformations that Wangari Maathai was able to bring about over the years are

  1. The ability of an ordinary illiterate woman to get to understand to be able to plant trees
  2. Transformation of the landscape
  3. Willingness of people to fight for their rights
    In my opinion all these three transformations are important.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Question 6.
Maathai said, “When we plant a tree we plant hope.” What does she mean by this?
Answer:
She meant that a tree is a wonderful symbol for the environment and when we plant a tree, we plant the future for ourselves, for our children, for the birds. We plant something that will last, long after we are gone.

Question 7.
Wangari Maathai in her interview with NHK Radio often repeats phrases/sentences probably to emphasize her point.
For example : referring to women-groups she says:
They’re the ones who plant.
They’re the ones who cultivate.
They’re the ones who produce food.
Pick out from the text (of her interview) such repetitions and write them down and find out what she is emphasizing in each context.
Answer:
‘What is happening in Somalia’
‘What is happening in the Sudan’
‘What is happening in West Africa’
The above repetitions emphasize Wangari Maathai’s hope in creating a peaceful environment.
‘We plant a tree, we plant a hope.’
‘We plant the future for ourselves, for our children, for the birds.’
’We plant something that will last, long after we are gone.’
The above repetitions emphasize Wangari Maathai’s message to people insisting the importance of rehabilitation of a peaceful environment.

II. Pick out the correct choice in each of the following :

1. We have allowed some people, especially those in power, to acquire a lot at the expense of the majority.
The underlined phrase means :
a) with a loss or damage to the majority
b) by spending money on the majority
Answer:
(a) with a loss or damage to the majority

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

2. What was the implication of the growth of exotic trees, such as the pines and the eucalyptus for the environment?
a) It increases timber business.
b) Forests were not able to contain water.
Answer:
(b) Forests were not able to contain water.

3. When women started working with Maathai, they learnt _____________.
a) to become very competent foresters.
b) to grow and transplant seedlings.
Answer:
a) to become very competent foresters.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

4. Maathai’s efforts will inspire the people _______________ .
a) to stop wasting their resources.
b) to use their resources miserly.
Answer:
(a) to stop wasting their resources.

Vocabulary

I. Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with the words from the box that have the same meaning.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment 2
1. The government is trying to bring back normalcy in the riot-hit areas of the city.
2. Wangari Maathai fought for the same privileges for men and women in Africa.
3. I cannot hold my attention on any subject for a long time.
4. The poster is offensive and disrespects women.
5. Some people argue that the wealth in this world should be distributed fairly and reasonably among all.
6. After certain amount of growth the seedlings have to be taken out and shifted elsewhere for further growth.
7. She travels to all kinds of exciting locations all over the world.
8. The Tirumala hills are covered by lush green plants.
9. The judge advised the disputing parties to settle through discussion.
10. The alcohol addict has to be put in a recovery centre for becoming a normal person.
Answer:

  1. restore
  2. equal rights
  3. sustain
  4. degrades
  5. equitably
  6. transplanted
  7. exotic
  8. vegetation
  9. negotiation
  10. rehabilitation

II. Read the following sentence and notice the underlined words.

Wangari Maathai is an environmentalist and has a lot of interest in ecology.
In the above sentence ‘environmentalist’ stands for ‘a person who is concerned . about the natural environment and wants to improve and protect it’. ‘Ecology’ stands for ‘the study of relation of animals and plants to their surroundings. ‘Both the words stand for many words. So they are called ‘one-word substitutes’.

What are the following persons called?
1. A person who studies the human race, especially of its origins
2. A person who studies the remains of buildings and objects found in the ground
3. A scientist who studies the earth, the origin of the history of rocks
4. A person who studies birds scientifically
5. A scientist who studies Physics
6. A doctor who studies and treats heart diseases
7. A person who believes in solving human problems with the help of reason
8. A scientist who studies animals and their behaviour
9. A scientist who studies the mind of a person
10. A person who solves problems in a practical and sensible way
11. A person whose job is to take care of people’s teeth
12. A person who studies languages
Answer:

  1. anthropologist
  2. archaeologist
  3. geologist
  4. ornithologist
  5. physicist
  6. cardiologist
  7. rationalist
  8. zoologist
  9. psychologist
  10. pragmatist
  11. dentist
  12. linguist

III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the underlined words.

1. It is everyone’s duty to keep the environs clean, with the co-operation of the citizens the government can protect the _________ .
2. The government of the day should show its capability by providing good ___________ to people.
3. Wangari Maathai was successful in transforming women of Africa and the ___________ made her happy.
4. We must restore our environment and always try to ensure its ___________ .
5. Natural resources in this world can be sustained if only there is ___________ management of them.
6. Wangari Maathai is an environmental activist. Her ___________ led her to win Nobel Peace Prize.
7. We were trying to respond to the basic needs of the people in the rural areas. Our ___________ was well received by them.
8. In a developed country, the ___________ is balanced.
Answer:

  1. environment
  2. governance
  3. transformation
  4. restoration
  5. sustainable
  6. activities (or) activity
  7. response
  8. development

IV. Tick (✓) the meaning of the word underlined as suggested in the context.

1. ‘For me, my greatest activity is to plant a tree,’ said Wangari Maathai.
a) a living thing with stem, roots, branches and leaves
b) put seeds in the ground to grow
Answer:
(b) put seeds in the ground to grow

2. My uncle wants to build a chemical plant in Hyderabad,
a) a product
b) a factory
Answer:
(b) a factory

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

3. Applicants must have a clean driving licence.
a) complete
b) never done anything wrong
Answer:
(b) never done anything wrong

4. He thinks that he should either resign or come clean,
a) free from dirt
b) as not corrupt
Answer:
(b) as not corrupt

5. Rest your hand on my shoulder.
a) The remaining part
b) Support
Answer:
(b) Support

6. All our hopes rest on you.
a) support
b) depend
Answer:
(b) depend

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

7. A publisher’s note says: all rights reserved,
a) authority
b) interests
Answer:
(a) authority

8. I want this parcel to be sent right away.
a) immediately
b) completely
Answer:
(a) immediately

9. He knew this was his last hope of winning,
a) final
b) most recent
Answer:
(a) final

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

10. The last thing she needed was more and more work.
a) the only remaining part
b) most recent
Answer:
(a) the only remaining part

Grammar

I. Non-finite clauses

In English, we have two types of clauses. They are finite clauses and non-finite clauses. Look at the following examples:
1. Wangari Maathai led the movement. She won the Nobel Prize.
2. Leading the movement, Wangari Maathai won the Nobel Prize.

In.the example (1) there are two sentences. There is a verb in each, sentence and ‘. each verb has. a tense (a tense marker)! We can identify the tense of the verbs by looking at them. Both of them are in the past tense, since they are in the past tense having ‘V2’ forms (‘led’ and ‘won’). These are called ‘finite verbs’ as they have tense. Whereas in example (2), there are two clauses: ‘Leading the movement’ and ‘Wangari Maathai’ won the Nobel Prize’. The verb in the first clause has no tense while the one in the second clause has a tense i.e., the past tense.

The verb with tense is known as ‘finite verb’ and the clause that has a finite verb is known as a ‘finite clause’. In the same way, the verb that has no tense is known as a . ‘non-finite verb’ (leading) and the clause is called a ‘non-finite clause’.

Non-finite clause depends on the finite clause for its tense.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment 3

We should note that a non-finite clause has no subject, and we only can decide the
tense of a non-finite clause from the finite clause.

Explanatory Notes:
Finite Clause :
A typical finite clause consists of a verb together with its object and other dependents (i.e. a verb charge or predicate) along with its subject, (although in certain cases the subject is not expressed)
e.g.:
1. Kids play on computers, (independent clause)
2. I know that kids play on computers, (a dependent subordinate clause but still finite).
3. Play on your computer, (an imperative sentence, an example of finite clause lacking a subject.)

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Non-finite Clauses:
A non-finite clause is similar, except that the verb must be in a non-finite form (such as infinitive, participle, gerund or gerundive) and it is consequently much more likely that there.
e.g.:
1. Kids like to play on computers, (an infinitive clause using the English to +infinitive)
2. It’s easy for kids to play on computers, (an infinitive clause contains periphrastic expression of the subject)
3. Playing on computers, they whiled the day away.
4. The kids playing on their computers, we were able to enjoy some time along, (a participial clause with a subject)
5. Having played on computers all day they were pale and hungry, (a participlial clause using a past participle)
6. Playing on computers is fun. (a gerund clause)

Some types of non-finite clauses have zero in one of the object or complement posi-tions. The gap is usually understood to be filled by a noun from the larger Glause in which the non-zero clause appears, (as is the subject gap in most non-finite clauses)
e.g.:
1) He is the man to beat.
(infinitive clause with zero object, the man is understood as the object)

2) The car wants looking at straight wav.
(gerund clause with zero preposition complement after’at’)

3) The building was given a new lease of life.
( past participle clause with zero indirect object)

A. Underline the non-finite clauses in the following sentences.

1. Born in London, he became the citizen of the U.K.
2. Having done his homework, he went out to play.
3. Recognized by his boss, he got an appreciation letter.
4. Encouraged by his father, Ravi got distinction in his final examination.
5. With the tree grown tall, we get more shade. .
6. We left the room and went home to search for the books.
7. Do we have the money to buy that car?
8. We were not able to get away until now.
9. Having read the book, I returned it to the library.
10. Jumping on his horse, the farmer rode to the market.
Answer:

  1. Born in London, he became the citizen of the U.K.
  2. Having done his homework, he went out to play.
  3. Recognized by his boss, he got an appreciation letter.
  4. Encouraged by his father. Ravi got distinction in his final examination.
  5. With the tree grown tall, we get more shade.
  6. We left the room and went home to search for the books.
  7. Do we have the money to buy that car?
  8. We were not able to get away until now.
  9. Having read the book. I returned it to the library.
  10. Jumping on his horse, the farmer rode to the market.

B. Look at how the following sentences have been rewritten to include non-finite clauses.

1. Vincent Van Gogh, who was born in Holland in 1853, is one of the world’s most famous painters.
Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of the world’s famous painters.

2. Although his talent was unrecognized throughout his life, it was much appreciated after his death.
Despite.being unrecognized throughout his life, his talent was much appreciated after his death.

3. After he had failed in every career he had attempted. Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings.
Having failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong feelings.

Rewrite the following sentences to include non-finite clauses.

1. After he had decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners.
2. During the next few years, which are known as his ‘Dutch period’, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours.
3. In 1886, when he went to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the Impressionist work he saw there. He decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there.
4. He was encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures and his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful.
5. After Van Gogh had moved to Arles in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically.
6. This frenzied activity, which was interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings.
7. One of these, which is called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows Van Gogh. He was wearing a bandage after he had cut off his ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide.
8. A lot is known about Van Gogh’s life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters,which were written by him to his brother Theo and others.
9. His brother always encouraged him in his work because he believed in Van Gogh’s genius. He was the person closest to Van Gogh.
Answer:

  1. Having decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peas-ants and miners.
  2. During the next few years known as his Dutch Period’, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours.
  3. In 1886, after going to Paris to visit his brother Theo, after seeing and immediately getting attracted to the Impressionist work there, he decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there.
  4. Encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures, his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful.
  5. Having moved to Arles in the South France, in 1888, Van Gogh had worked frantically.
  6. This frenzied activity, interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings.
  7. One of these, called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, showing Van Gogh, wearing a bandage after cutting off his ear, committed suicide a year later in 1890.
  8. A lot is known about Van Gogh’s life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters, written by him to his brother Theo and others.
  9. Believing (believed) in Van Gogh’s genius, his brother, the closest person to Van Gogh always encouraged him in his work.
    (or)
    Being the closest person to Van Gogh and believing (believed) in his genius, his brother always encouraged Van Gogh.

II. Reported speech

Apart from the ground rules that are laid down for reporting in traditional grammar books, there are certain other principles that are to be followed to make the speech appealing.

Suppose you want to tell somebody what Ram said. There are two ways of doing this :

You can repeat Ram’s words (direct speech).
Ram said, I am feeling ill.’

Or you can use reported speech :
Ram said that he was feeling ill.

It is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech. If you report something and the situation hasn’t changed, you need not change the verb to the past:
Direct : Neelima said, My new job is very interesting.’
Reported : Neelima said that her new job is very interesting.
(The situation hasn ‘t changed. Her job is still interesting.)
Direct : Ravi said, I want to go to New York next year.’
Reported : Ravi told me that he wants to go to New York next year.
(Ravi still wants to go to New York next year.)

You can also change the verb to the past:
Neelima said that her new job was very interesting.

Ravi told me that he wanted to go to New York the following year.

The past simple (did/saw/knew etc.) can usually remain the same in reported speech, or you can change into past perfect (had done/had seen/had known, etc.).

Direct : Ravi said : 1 woke up feeling ill, so I didn’t go to work.”
Reported : Ravi said (that) he woke up feeling ill, so he didn’t go to work, (or)
Ravi said (that) he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn’t gone to work.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Explanatory Notes:
We may report the words of a speaker in two ways.

1. Direct Speech
We may quote the actual words of the speaker. This method is called Direct Speech.

2. Indirect Speech
We may report what he said without quoting his exact words. This method is called . Indirect Speech or Reported Speech.

Example:
• Direct : Clinton said, “I am very busy now.”
• Indirect : Clinton said that he was very busy then.
• Direct : He said, “ My mother is writing a letter.”
• Indirect : He said that his mother was writing a letter.

How to change Direct to Indirect Speech?

It will be noticed that in Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not use the inverted commas.
It will be further noticed that in changing the above Direct Speech into Indirect speech, certain changes have been made.

Thus:
i) We have used the conjunction ‘that’ before the Indirect Statement.
ii) The pronoun “I” is changed to “HE”. (The Pronoun is changed in Person)
iii) The verb “am” is changed to “was”.
iv) The adverb “now” is changed to “then”.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Rules for changing Direct into Indirect Speech :

A. When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all the Present Tenses in the Direct Speech are changed into Past Tense.
a. A simple present tense becomes simple past tense.
Example :
Direct : He said, “I am unwell.”
Indirect : He said that he was unwell.

b. A present continuous tense becomes a past continuous.
Example :
Direct : He said, “ My mother is writing a letter.”
Indirect : He said that his mother was writing a letter.

c. A present perfect becomes a past perfect.
Example:
Direct : He said, “I have passed the examination.”
Indirect : He said that he had passed the examination.

d. As a rule the simple past tense in the Direct Speech becomes the past perfect tense in Indirect Speech.
Example :
Direct : He said, “His horse died in the night.”

Indirect : He said that his horse had died in the night.

NOTE:
The ‘shall’ of the future is changed into ‘should’.
The ‘will’ of the future is changed into ‘would’.
The ‘can’ and ‘may’ of the future are changed into ‘could’ and ‘might’ respectively.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

B. The tenses will not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth. We can often choose whether to keep the original tenses or change them.

Examples:
Direct : “I know her address,” said John.
Indirect : John said that he knows/knew her address.

In this Indirect Speech, both the past tense and the present tense make the sentence a correct one.
Direct : The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”
Indirect : The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
Direct : She said, “German is easy to learn.”
Indirect : She said that German was/is easy to learn.
The past tense is often used when it is uncertain if the statement is true or when we are reporting objectively.

C. If the reporting verb is in present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. For example, we may rewrite the above examples, putting the reporting verb in the present tense.

Examples :
Direct : He says, “I am unwell.”
Indirect : He says that he is unwell.
Direct : He says, “ My mother is writing a letter.”
Indirect : He says that his mother is writing a letter.
Direct : He says, “I have passed the examination.”
Indirect : He says that he has passed the examination.
Direct : He says, “His horse died in the night.”
Indirect : He says that his horse died in the night.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

D. The pronouns of the Direct Speech are changed where necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker are indicated.

Examples:
Direct : He said to me, “I do not believe you.”
Indirect : He said that he did not believe me.
Direct : She said to him, “I do not believe you.”
Indirect : She said to him that she did not believe him.
Direct : I said to him, “I did not believe you.”
Indirect : I said to him that I did not believe him.
Direct : I said to you, “I do not believe you.”
Indirect : I said to you that I do not believe you.

E. Words expressing nearness in time or places are generally changed into words expressing distance.

Examples:
Direct : He said, “I am glad to be here this evening.”
Indirect : He said that he was glad to be there that evening.
Direct : He said, “I was here yesterday.”
Indirect : He said that he was there the day before.

Now, let us see the words which get changed when the Direct Speech is changed into Indirect Speech.

  • Now becomes then
  • Here becomes there
  • Ago becomes before
  • Thus becomes so
  • Today becomes that day
  • Tomorrow becomes the next day
  • Yesterday becomes the day before
  • Last night becomes the night before
  • This becomes that
  • These becomes those

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

F. How the questions used in the Direct Speech are changed into Indirect Speech? In reporting questions, the Indirect Speech is introduced by such verbs as asked, inquired, etc…

Examples:
Direct : He said to me, “What are you doing?”
Indirect : He asked me what I was doing.
Direct : A stranger asked me, “Where do you live?”
Indirect : A stranger enquired where I lived.
Direct : The Policemen said to us, “Where are you going?”
Indirect : The Policemen asked us where we were going.
Direct : He said, “Will you listen to such a man?”
Indirect : He asked them whether they would listen to such a man.
Indirect : Would they, he asked, listen to such a man.
Direct : His angry mother jeered, “Do you suppose you know better than your father?”
Indirect : His angry mother jeered and asked whether he supposed that he knew better than his father.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

G. How the Commands and the Requests in the Direct Speeches are changed when the Direct Speeches are changed into Indirect Speeches?
In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing commands and requests, and the Imperative Mood is changed into Infinitive Mood.

Examples:
Direct : Raja said to John, “Go away.”
Indirect : Raja ordered John to go away.
Direct : He said to Mary, “Please wait here till I return.”
Indirect : He requested Mary to wait there till he returned.
Direct : “Call the first witness,” said the Judge.
Indirect : The Judge commanded them to call the first witness.
Direct : He shouted, “Let me go.”
Indirect : He shouted to them to let him go.
Direct : He said, “Be quite and listen to my words.”
Indirect : He urged them to be quite and listen to his words.

H. How the Exclamation and the Wishes in the Direct Speeches are changed when the Direct Speeches are changed into Indirect Speeches?
In reporting exclamation and wishes, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing Exclamation and Wishes.

Examples:
Direct : He said, “Alas! I am undone”.
Indirect : He exclaimed sadly that he was undone.
Direct : Alice said, “How clever I am!”
Indirect : Alice exclaimed that he was very clever.
Direct : He said, “Bravo! You have done well.”
Indirect : He applauded him, saying that he had done well.
Direct : “So help me, Heaven!” he cried, “I will never steal again.”
Indirect : He called upon Heaven to witness his resolve never to steal.

Look at the following conversation and notice how it is reported.

NHK Radio : How is peace connected to a good environment?
Wangari
Maathai : Many wars that are fought in the world are fought over natural resources. Some wars are fought because the environment is so degraded that it is not able to support communities and so they fight over the little that is left. Others are fought because some people want to take a lot of the resources, to control them, and to keep many other people out.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5A Environment

Reported speech of the above conversation :

NHK Radio asked Wangari Maathai how peace was connected to a good environ-ment.

She answered that many wars that were fought in the world were fought over natural resources. Some wars were fought because the environment was so degraded that it was not able to support communities and so they fought over the little that was left. Others were fought because some people wanted to fake a lot of the resources, to control them, and to keep many other people out.

A. Write the following in Reported Speech :

NHK Radio : What is the one thing we can do?
Wangari
Maathai : For me, my greatest activity is to plant a tree. I think that a tree is a wonderful symbol for the environment and when we plant a tree we plant hope. We plant the future for ourselves, for our children, for the birds. We plant something that will last, long after we are gone.
Answer:
NHK Radio asked Wangari Maathai what was the one thing that they could do.
She answered that the greatest activity was to plant a tree for her. She thought that tree was a wonderful symbol for the environment and when they planted a tree they planted hope. They planted the future for themselves, for their children, for the birds. They planted something that would last, long after they were gone.

B. Report the following dialogue :

Man : I’m doing a survey on shopping habits.
Woman : OK. As long as it doesn’t take long.
Man : How often do you eat hamburgers?
Woman : Never. I’m a vegetarian. I don’t eat any animal products.
Man : Right! Can I just ask you a personal question? Are you wearing leather shoes?
Woman : Yes, I am.
Man : Don’t you think that’s rather hypocritical?
Woman : No, not really.
Man : Oh, that’s amusing.
Answer:
The man says that he is doing a survey on shopping habits. The woman acknowl-edging that says she will answer the questions if they don’t take much time. The man asks her how often she eats hamburgers. The woman replies that she never eats that as she is a vegetarian and she doesn’t eat any animal products. Then, the man seeks her to permit to ask personal question and enquires if she is wearing leather shoes. The woman says that she is. The man asks her if she doesn’t think that is rather hypocritical. The woman says she really doesn’t. Finally the man says that is only amusing.
(Or)
The man said that he was doing a survey on shopping habits. The woman acknowledging that said she would answer the questions if they didn’t take much time.. The man asked her how often she ate hamburgers. The woman replied that she never ate that as she was a vegetarian and she didn’t eat any animal products. Then, the man sought her to permit to ask personal question and enquires if she is wearing leather shoes. The woman said that she was. The man asked her if she didn’t think that was rather hypocritical. The woman said she really didn’t. Finally the man said that was only amusing.

Writing

I. You have read the interview with Wangari Maathai. You know how and what type of questions have been asked by the interviewer. Imagine that you have decided to interview someone concerned with environment. You may include the following :
1. issues relating to the environment
2. the causes
3. actions that could be taken to save the environment Write down this imaginary interview.
Answer:
Miss Y. Jyothi Reddy is one of the most respected names in environment. She is also a passionate photographer and a well renowned environmentalist. Her photographs, posters and his noble thoughts have inspired me a lot. I decided to further sit with her and take a glance on her efforts for bringing environment awareness and journey of life till now. Below is our conversation with respected Miss Y. Jyothi Reddy.

I : Please tell us something about yourself and your family?

Jyothi Reddy : I was born in Nandyala and did my schooling over there. I pursued my B.Tech from V.R. Siddhartha College, Vijayawada.

I : How were you inspired to be an environmentalist ?

Jyothi Reddy : It was a small incident which changed my life. When my younger sister was in school she participated in poster competition and wanted to make a poster in water pollution. She asked my help. I thought that this time I will do something unique. So 1 took some shots of big drains emptying in our lakes in my camera. I made a collage of all pictures I had taken and gave it to her. She was appreciated in school but that day 1 realised the threat and started working in its direction.

I : According to you, what are the other issues relating to the environment?

Jyothi Reddy : Global warming, deforestation, pollution and all these lead to degradation of environment.

I : According to you, what are the major causes for the pollution in our city?

Jyothi Reddy : Ignorance on the part of local self-government bodies and the citizens plus poverty and illiteracy are main causes. Secondly, we, the citizens and the authorities have started taking lakes for granted, we consider them dumping grounds, sewers of city and many hotels situated near water bodies are opened in them itself.

I : As an environmentalist which area you are more concerned about?

Jyothi Reddy : I believe we should not allow the conservation of environment on cost of human life. It is completely senseless to save water for fishes when people in city are dying of thirst. Rather we should teach them the ways which can have a mutual balancing coexistence.

I : According to you, how can we make people aware or step that can be helpful in environment conservation?

Jyothi Reddy : Poster and photo exhibition. We need to make laws prohibiting dumping of religious or solid waste in lakes, and appropriate fine should be imposed upon.

I : How does your family react upon your passion on environment?

Jyothi Reddy : I am fortunate enough to have full support of them.

Environment Summary in English

This is an interview with Wangari Maathai, Environmental Activist and Nobel Prize winner. Wangari Maathai started the Green Belt Movement and also fought for equal rights for women in Africa. She is the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

From the very beginning Wangari Maathai understood that she has to rehabilitate the environment as the rural people are asking for clean drinking water, for food, for energy, for building material, for fodder for the animals. She thought peace is connected to a good environment because there won’t be any conflicts if natural resources are abundant. She insists that conflicts over natural sources are even at the global level. When she was a child, which was almost more than fifty years ago, the environment was very pristine, very beautiful and very green but as she grew the people destroyed all the local biological diversity. All the flora and fauna disappeared. One thing she noted is that not only did the rain pattern change, became less, but also the rivers started drying up. So she started campaign to restore the vegetation and to restore the land and to rehabilitate the forests.
When she started working with the women she taught them how to plant trees. In the beginning it was difficult, but they soon gained confidence and they became very competent foresters. She called them “Foresters without Diplomas.”

Wangari Maathai thinks that the women responded well to her message because it is a need for them. She has seen three transformations. One of the biggest was that ability of an ordinary illiterate woman to get to understand and to be able to plant trees. The other two transformations are the transformation of the landscape, the willingness of people to fight for their rights.

Wangari Maathai also influenced the rest of Africa by her efforts. She finally concluded that the greatest activity is to plant a tree which is a wonderful symbol for the environment.

Environment Glossary

Green Belt Movement (n) : a movement to protect environment

excerpts (n) : a short piece of writing taken from a larger whole

building material (n) : material used for building houses

fodder (n) : food for farm animals

degraded : became less in quality

rehabilitate (v) : help something to become normal

sustain (v) : provide something in enough quantity to continue for long

livelihoods (n) : means and ways of earning money in order to live

concerned (adj) : have a feeling of worry or belonging

regional (adj) : of a region

discontent (n) : a feeling of dissatisfaction

conflict (n) : clash

equitable (adj) : treating everyone in an equal way

dignity (n) :respect

governance (n) : controlling or governing an organization

sustainable (adj) : that can continue or be continued for a long time

go about (phr. v) : tackle

forested (adj) : covered with forests

pristine (adj) : fresh or clean

indigenous (adj) : native

plantations (n) : crops such as coffee, banana, etc.

exotic (adj) : unusual and exciting

species (n) : a similar group of plants or animals (for the purpose of reproduction)

exotic species (n) : unusual plants

hemisphere (n) : one half of the earth

destroy (v) : annihilate

diversity (n) : a range of people or things that are very different

flora (n) : plants

fauna (n) : animals

downstream (adv) : in the direction of river flow

reservoir (n) : a natural or artificial pool

biological diversity (n) : the variety of plants and animals in a particular place

campaign (n) : movement

vegetation (n) : greenery

illiterate (n) : a person who doesn’t know how to read and write

seedlings (n) : young plants grown out of seeds

nurture (v) : care for or protect when growing

transplant (v) : take a thing and arrange in another place (transplantation of skin)

competent (adj) : skilful

tropics (n) : warmer places

civic education (n) : public education

govern (v) : control

transformations (n) : complete changes

dignity (n) : a manner that deserves respect

empowering (n) : giving authority or power

corrupt (adj) : spoil

influence (n) : the effect or impact

resources (n) : supplies (natural or artificial)

engage (v) : become or make involved

dialogue (n) : conversation

negotiations : formal discussions

fight over (jphr. v.) : argue about something

grazing land (n) : land meant for cattle to graze

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake? Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

10th Class English Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake? Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Why does the poet say that these cubs could be the last ones ever to freely live and to roam and mate?
Answer:
The tigers are in the list of endangered species. Deforestation is vigorous due to indiscriminate efforts of human beings. In this way, the habitat of tigers is reduced and the massive poaching in the past two years has wiped out the entire tiger population.

If it is continued like that, certainly there is a chance of extinction of tigers. Thus, the poet says that these cubs could be the last ones ever to freely live and to roam and mate.

Question 2.
‘She waits for all the life she’s making.’ What does the poet convey through this line?
Answer:
The hazard we are facing nowadays is global warming. Due to this problem, the snow mountains are melting rather than the normal level. The white bear survives in the gleaming snow. But the glaciers are not growing. So the white bear snuffles for its existence. The poet conveys through this line that the white bear is also in the list of endangered species as the environment is degrading and the white bear waits for all the life she’s making for the rehabilitation of the environment.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

Question 3.
Why does the thrush weave her nest?
Answer:
She weaves her nest to hold her clutch.

Question 4.
‘The child could sing the final whale song,’ says the poet. Why does she say so?
Answer:
Wastes from our homes and factories are dumped into rivers, lakes, and seas causing water pollution. This affects the plants and animals living in the water. In this way deep in Ocean South, the whale became one of the endangered species. Their present status is near to extinction. So the poet said that the child could sing the final whale song.

Question 5.
The poet says ‘This could be our last true moment’ (last stanza). Is it true? In what way(s)?
Answer:
Yes, it is true. Unless we approach the poet’s view this may be our last bright new world birthing. This may be our waving as we drown because only few species are in the list of endangered species at present. If this degrading of environment continues, many species will become endangered species and the existing endangered species might have been extinct like dinosaurs.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

Question 6.
What do you think the poem is about?
Answer:
The poem foreshadowed the hazards faced by the fauna of four different habitats like terrestrial, water, air, and polar regions due to humans’ indisciriminate activities in degrading the environment and how some species had come into endangered zone.

Question 7.
What does the grandchild in this poem symbolize?
Answer:
The grandchild in this poem symbolizes the future generation of humans.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

Question 8.
Who is the dreamer here? Who is being referred to?
Answer:
Humans are the dreamers here. They are apathetic and don’t bother about the extinction of endangered species.

Listening

Listen to the talk by an environmentalist on saving the trees and tick (✓) the correct options that will complete the statements.

A Talk by an Environmentalist

As you all know, to the North of India we have snow-covered mountain ranges as boundaries to our country. They are the Himalayas. You know the Himalayas are also affected by the environmental pollution. You must be wondering as to how the Himalayas get affected. The Himalayas are huge, cool ice formations surrounded by beautiful habitation. Do you know what happens if the Himalayas die? The whole of India will turn)into a desert. Can you guess what felling of trees lead to? It leads to deforestation. Specially in the Himalayan region if the trees in the forest are cut down that will give way for warming of the atmosphere and with the result melting of the Himalayas.

Do you know when the movement for the protection of the Himalayas started? It started way back in 1970s and 1980s. The movement was for the resistance to the destruction of forests throughout India. Later it became organized and known as Chipko movement.

The architect of the movement to protect the Himalayas is a renowned person – Sunderlal Bahuguna. He was the follower of Mahatma Gandhi in many ways. He started the movement to resist the destruction of forests in the Himalayan region.

Do you know how the movement got its name? The name (Chipko) came from a word meaning ‘embrace’. In the movement, the villagers hugged the trees and thus saved them
by putting their bodies in the way of the contractors’ axes.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

1. The Himalayas are affected by __________ .
a) environmental pollution
b) melting of snow
Answer:
(a) (✓)

2. The Himalayas are protected __________ .
a) by hugging trees
b) by stopping deforestation
Answer:
(b) (✓)

3. The name of the movement that started in 1970s and 1980s is __________ .
a) the resistance to the destruction of forests
b) Chipko movement
Answer:
(b) (✓)

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake?

4. The person who started the movement is __________ .
a) Sunderlal Bahuguna
b) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
(a) (✓)

5. Chipko means __________ .
a) to embrace
b) putting the bodies in the way of the contractors’ axes.
Answer:
(a) (✓)

Study Skills

Read the following essay and fill the columns in the table given after it with the correct information.

Pollution in India

Pollution in India is very high and thus it is one of the most polluted countries in the world.The reasons for high pollution in India can be attributed to the fact that it is the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Coal powered plants and increased number of vehicles on the roads are also increasing pollution. With the economy of India growing, pollution in India is also growing.

Air. water, environment, sound and soil can all be contaminated. Air contamination leads to air pollution. Similarly water pollution, environment pollution, sound pollution and soil pollution are caused due to the pollutants in them. Each of these pollutions will affect the people in their own ways.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 1
Air Pollution :
If the level of pollutants in the air is in such quantities that are injurious to human, animal, and plant life then we can say air pollution has taken place. Air pollution is caused due to a variety of reasons like increased number of vehicles, smoke from burning fuels and factories. Industriali¬zation and modernization are to be blamed for the present situation of air pollution.

Industries such as thermal power plants, cement, steel, refineries, petrochemicals, and mines emit chemical pollutants into the air causing air pollution. The air pollution is causing reduction of ozone layer which is important to protect earth from ultra violet rays that come from the sun.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 2
Water Pollution :
Water is being contaminated by various foreign matters. Water is thus losing its quality. Water is polluted in various ways. It can be polluted by industrial waste, agricultural waste, and landfills. Nearly 80% of wastages from cities and towns in India are diverted to rivers.

In this way rivers are getting polluted and water is becoming unfit for usage by human beings. Aquatic animals are also dying due to this pollution. Sewerage water is also directed into the rivers which cause development of various bacteria in the water making them not even suitable for bathing.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 3
Noise Pollution :
Noise pollution is mainly caused by transportation and construction system. Noise pollution not only causes damage to the environment but shows negative effect on human health. Human beings who are exposed to noise pollution will develop high BP, stress, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and aggression. Using noise barriers, driving the vehicles slowly, using special tyres, etc. can help lower sound pollution. The problem of noise pollution should be paid more attention. Though noise pollution is a major issue, no laws are existing in many cities of the world to control it.

Noise pollution in seas and oceans is also increasing due to ship traffic and oil drilling. This is affecting the hearing sense of animals.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 4
Soil Pollution :
Soil is being polluted by pesticides, oil and fuel dumping, landfill wastes, industrial wastes, etc. Chemical wastes from factories are being directly dumped on the soil and it is contaminating the soil. Increasing urbanization, decrease in agricultural lands, increase in domestic wastage, agricultural activities, industrial activities are all contributing to soil pollution in India. Plastic factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, animal farms, coal fired power plants, nuclear waste, disposal activities are the mainsburces of soil pollution. Effects of soil pollution are dangerous. They may cause acid rains which can kill trees and other plants. It disrupts the balance of nature. Soil pollution is also dangerous to wild life. Pesticides used more than required can damage the crops and poison birds, animals and fishes.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 5
Answer:
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5B Or will the Dreamer Wake 6

Or will the Dreamer Wake? Summary in English

Medora Chevalier focussed on the present endangered species like tiger, polar bear, thrush bird and whale. She expressed how animals would become extinct if they are not protected. In her approach it is very clear that we know the above mentioned species but for the next generations that species will be dreamer wake species as they are a few in number at present. If we do not protect the endangered species, it will be like our waving as we drown. It will be our last true moment.

Or will the Dreamer Wake? Glossary

plaintive (adj) : sad

growls (v) : makes a low sound in the throat as a sign of anger

snuffle (v) : to breathe noisily

lair (n) : a place where wild animals live

gleaming (adj) : shining softly

glacier (n) : a large mass of ice which usually moves slowly down a mountain

warbles (v) : to sing with a high continuous but quickly changing sound

clutch (v) : grip / hold

birth fills (n) : the process of giving birth to a baby

solemn (adj) : very serious and not happy

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

10th Class English Chapter 6A My Childhood Textbook Questions and Answers

Look at the picture and answer the questions that follow.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 1
Question 1.
What does the picture signify?
Answer:
The picture shows two persons of different religions showing zeal to play together. The unified thought for a common purpose represents the country’s integrity and unity.

For ages people in India have been living with the feelings of fraternity and integrity. Historically India has been a land with people of many religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity, etc. Still all Indians show brotherhood. India is a land of different races, tribes, castes, languages, customs and traditions. But there is oneness in all these things. Our country is a land of great physical and socio-cultural contrasts marked by unity in diversity.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

Question 2.
Do you experience the theme reflected in the picture in your real life? If not, what may be the possible reason for this?
Answer:
Yes. I experience the theme of unity in my real life but sometimes the unity disappears in certain situations. The reason for this can be orthodox feelings of certain people, superstitious and narrow-minded attitude of the people with rigid thoughts. While some people strive continuously to keep up the nation’s strength with verisimilitude, there are others who try to split the nation’s strength with blind beliefs and sunder the foundation.

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What were the disadvantages faced by Kalam in his childhood?
Answer:
Kalam was born in a middle-class Tamil family in the island town of Rameswaram. His parents were poor and had no much formal education.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

Question 2.
“ ……… that forced Samsuddin to look for a helping hand.” What does ‘that’ refer to?
Answer:
When the train halt at Rameswaram station was suspended during the emergency, Samsuddin, the cousin of Kalam needed a helping hand to catch the bundles of newspapers. Then Kalam came forward to do that job. Here, that’ refers to the necessity of a person to help Samsuddin catch the bundles of newspapers.

Question 3.
“I filled the slot.” What does the sentence mean?
Answer:
When Samsuddin, the cousin of Abdul Kalam needed a person to catch the bundles of newspapers thrown from the running train between Rameshwaram and Dhanuskodi, Kalam could do that job successfully. He took up the job willingly and cleared the problem.

Question 4.
If one wants to bring a change in the social system, what qualities should one possess?
Answer:
If one wants to bring a change in the social system, one should have patience, equanimity, perseverance, bravery and determination.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

Question 5.
Events from the Ramayana and from the life of the Prophet were the bedtime stories my mother and grandmother would tell the children in our family.
Choose the most appropriate meaning for the underlined phrase from the options given below.
a) stories told by the bed side
b) stories told on the bed
c) stories told before going to sleep
Answer:
(c) stories told before going to sleep

Question 6.
“ Your children are not your children ….” What does it mean? Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Give reasons.
Answer:
These words were spoken by Kalam’s father, Jainulabdeen in the context of his wife’s hesitation to send Kalam to Ramanathapuram. He told his wife the expression “Your children are not your children” means as children are growing they have their own ideas. I agree with the idea of Kalam’s father because children have every right to form their own thoughts and ideas. The environment in society helps children to develop an individual attitude. Parents should take it easy.

Question 7.
As children, none of us ever felt any difference amongst ourselves because of our religious differences and upbringing.
Choose the most appropriate meaning for the underlined word from the options given below.
a) education
b) cared and trained
c) food and shelter
Answer:
(b) cared and trained

Question 8.
Read the text and attribute the characteristics given in the box to the following women.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 5
a) Subramania Iyer’s wife
b) Ashiamma
Answer:
a) Subramania Iyer’s wife – conservative, adamant, and orthodox
(i) conservative – She could not invite Kalam to her house.
(ii) adamant – She refused to serve meal to Kalam.
(iii) orthodox – She remained in the kitchen when Kalam was served meal by Subramania Iyer.

b) Ashiamma – sociable, kind, secular, generous, simple, tolerant
(i) sociable – She was friendly with all the people who visited her house.
(ii) kind – She was kind with all the guests and family members.
(iii) secular – Irrespective of the religious differences, Ashiamma fed all the people who came to her house.
(iv) generous – She gave a secured emotional and material comforts to her children.
(v) simple – Ashiamma was a good partner to her husband and led a simple and happy life with him.
(vi) tolerant – She was tolerant towards the visitors and her children.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

Question 9.
Identify the features of the text “ My Childhood”.
a) What type of text is it?
b) Reflections on the text
c) Anecdotes in the text
Answer:
a) The text is an autobiographical narrative.

b) The whole text focuses on the secular, national, and emotional feelings that were experienced by Kalam in his childhood. The feeling of Unity in Diversity was best inculcated in the minds of young Kalam and his friends. The image of brotherhood irrespective of caste, creed or religion is highlighted to indulge the joy of unity.

c) i) The situation in which Kalam earned money by selling tamarind seeds and catching paper bundles from the running train
ii) Kalam’s friendship with Brahmin boys
iii) The ill-treatment of the new teacher towards Kalam and the warning given by Lakshmana Sastry to the new teacher not to show any discrimination that would spoil the minds of innocent children
iv) The hospitality of Sivasubramania Iyer

Vocabulary

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words often confused given in brackets.

1. Samsuddin helped me earn my first _________ (wages/income).
2. He received a proportion of his ________ (wages/income) from selling tamarind seeds.
3. He is ________ (innocent/ignorant) about technology.
4. However he was found _________ (innocent/ignorant) of any crime.
5. He lost all the wealth he had _________ (inherited/acquired) from his father because he _________ (acquired/inherited) bad habits.
6. People from different backgrounds could ________ (mix/mingle) easily. _________ (Mixed/Mingled) group of people do not come to an agreement.
7. People in Rameshwaram were very __________ (rigid/adamant) in terms of segregation of different social groups. Subramania Iyer _________ (rigidly/adamantly) opposed it.
8. The car collided with a _________ (stationary/stationery) vehicle when we were going to buy some __________ (stationary/stationery) from the book stall.
9. She was ________ (envelop/envelope) in a huge white towel.
10. We sent an airmail _________ (envelop/envelope) abroad.
11. The floor was _______ (laid/lied) with a newspaper.
12. He _______ (laid/lied) many times.
Answer:

  1. income
  2. wages
  3. ignorant
  4. innocent
  5. inherited, acquired
  6. mingle, mixed
  7. rigid, adamantly
  8. stationary, stationery
  9. enveloped
  10.  envelope
  11. laid
  12. lied

Meanings of the words often confused :

1. a) income : money received for work
b) wages : a fixed regular payment

2. a) innocent : not guilty of any crime
b)ignorant : lacking knowledge

3. a) acquire : buy or get
b) inherit : receive property from someone (esp. parents) when they die

4. a) mingle : mix together
b) mix : go together socially

5. a) adamant : refuse to change mind
b) rigid : inflexible

6. a) stationary : stable; not moving
b) stationery : books, pens, pads, etc.

7. a) envelop : wrap or surround completely
b) envelope : flat paper container for a letter

8. a) laid : placed
b) lied : said untrue statements

II. Tick (✓) the appropriate meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below.

1. Kalam’s father possessed great innate wisdom and a true generosity of spirit,
a) hospitality
b) nobility
c) kindness
Answer:
b) nobility

2. A sudden demand for tamarind seeds erupted in the market.
a) started
b) came up
c) appeared suddenly
Answer:
c) appeared suddenly

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

3. Our family arranged boats for carrying idols of the Lord from the temple to the marriage site, situated in the middle of the pond.
a) place
b) ceremony
c) feast
Answer:
a) place

4. The new teacher could not stomach a Hindu priest’s son sitting with a Muslim boy.
a) imagine
b) permit
c) tolerate
Answer:
c) tolerate

5. He looked utterly downcast as I shifted to my seat in the last row.
a) lonely
b) sad
c) disappointed
Answer:
b) sad

6. Sastry hluntlv asked the teacher to either apologise or quit the school,
a) immediately
b) angrily
c) plainly
Answer:
b) angrily

7. The small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups.
a) strict
b) firm
c) strong
Answer:
a) strict

8. Sivasubramania Iyer was not perturbed, nor did he get angry with his wife,
a) disturbed
b) disappointed
c) pleased
Answer:
b) disappointed

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

9. India’s freedom was imminent.
a) expected
b) necessary
c) certain
Answer:
c) certain

Grammar

I. Read the following paragraph and note the underlined words.

… On the whole, the small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups. However, my science teacher Sivasubramania Iyer, though an orthodox Brahmin with a very conservative wife, was something of a rebel. He did his best to break social barriers so that people from varying backgrounds could mingle easily.
Notice the underlined words or phrases in the above paragraph. They are called linkers or discourse markers. Noticing and understanding discourse markers help learners to understand the logical structure of what they read and listen to, the order of events and the attitude of the speaker or writer and what they refer to.

Think of the following.
1. What makes the writer use the linker ‘ on the whole’ in the above paragraph? Give reasons.
Answer:
The writer used the linker on the whole’ in order to summarise the previous incidents. When Kalam was separated from his close friend and orderd to sit in the last row by the new teacher, Lakshmana Sastry, the priest of the temple told the teacher that he should not spread the poison of social inequality and religious intolerance in the minds of innocent children. He bluntly asked the teacher to either apologize or quit the school and the island.

2. What purpose does the linker ‘however’ serve in the paragraph?
Answer:
‘However’ serves as a linker indicating the result of an action. The science teacher was a broadminded Brahmin while his wife was conventional and adamant of the beliefs.

3. What does the writer emphasize by using the linker ‘ though’?
Answer:
The linker though’ indicates contrast signal of two diversified thoughts. In this context Sivasubramania Iyer did his best to break all the social inequalities and his wife was conservative and orthodox. The linker though’ was used to indicate the inheritance of family culture in Iyer on par with his ideas of breaking social barriers in spite of different backgrounds.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

4. Why did the writer use the linkers?
Answer:
The writer used the linkers in order to bring the unity in the text. The linkers help to keep the ideas together, synchronize them and assiduously arrange them to make the text effective. They are the pivotal words to maintain the logical structure and sequence of the passage.

Explanatory Notes on ‘Linkers’:

Linkers are words or phrases that we use to link (i.e. connect or join) ideas.
It was raining. I stayed at home.
In this example, we can see that the first idea, ‘It was raining’ is the reason for the second idea, ‘I stayed at home’. Or I stayed at home’ is a result of ‘It was raining.’

We can use linkers such as so or therefore to make the relationship between the two ideas clear.

It was raining so I stayed at home.
It was raining. Therefore, I stayed at home.

We could also change the order and put the result before the reason and use a linker such as because.

I stayed at home because it was raining.
The linkers so, because and therefore show a relationship of reason and result or cause and effect.

Let’s look at another example.
It was raining. I went for a walk.

This time there is a different relationship between the two ideas. People don’t usually go for a walk if it is raining. The second idea doesn’t normally follow from the first one. It is unexpected. This relationship where the ideas are different or opposing is called contrast.

We can use linkers such as but, although, and however to show contrast and make the relationship between the ideas clear.

It was raining but I went for a walk.
Although it was raining, I went for a walk.
It was raining. However, I went for a walk.

Sometimes we want to compare two things that are different.
I always go to bed early.
My sister goes to bed very late.

This is also a kind of contrast and we can make the relationship clear using linkers such as while, whereas, but, however or on the other hand.
I always go to bed early, whereas my sister goes to bed very late.
I always go to bed early. My sister, on the other hand, goes to bed very late.

One other common relationship between ideas is addition, when we want to add ideas. I like seafood.
I like spicy food.

We could add these ideas with linkers such as and, also and too.
I like seafood and spicy food.
I like seafood. I also like spicy food.
I like seafood. I like spicy food too.

In written English, we sometimes want to add ideas such as points in an argument. This is common when writing essays and reports.
The cost of relocation would be very high.
There are no suitable premises currently available.
A move would be unpopular with staff.

In formal writing we can join ideas like these with linkers such as furthermore, more-over, in addition and besides.

The cost of relocation would be very high. Furthermore, there are no suitable premises currently available and a move would be unpopular with staff.

You will notice that we can link two ideas in one sentence or two. Your choice will usually depend on how complicated each idea is and whether you are speaking or writing. Simple ideas in spoken English are often joined with simple linkers like and, but, because and so-
I felt tired so I went to bed early.

More complex ideas in written English are often joined in two sentences.
The disadvantages of relocating to a new site on the coast are considerable. Therefore, we recommend retaining the existing premises in London for the time being.

When we link ideas in one sentence, each idea usually has a clause and the linker is usually a conjunction.

The linkers and, but, so, while, whereas and although are conjunctions and join ideas as clauses in one sentence.

The linkers however, on the other hand, therefore, furthermore, etc. are adverbs and link ideas in two sentences.

Some linkers are prepositions. They can link the same kinds of ideas but the grammar is different. They don’t link clauses or sentences. They show a link between a word or phrase, usually a noun or noun phrase and the whole sentence.

We can use the preposition despite and the phrase in spite of (which works in the same way) to show contrast.
I went for a walk despite the rain.
In spite of her heavy cold, she managed to give a brilliant presentation.
We can use due to and because of in the same way.
Due to the terrible weather we have cancelled the picnic.

Besides can be used as a preposition to add ideas (it can also be used as an adverb). Besides the problem with transport, we also had to deal with a financial situation.

A. Here is a list of linkers. Some of them can be used synonymously. Refer to a dictionary and group them in the following table according to the function they perform in a sentence or discourse.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 2 AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 3
Answer:

Function Linkers
1. Indicating addition besides, furthermore, moreover
2. Contrasts on the other hand, on the contrary, yet, still, nevertheless, all the same, however
3. Result as a result, thus, therefore, hence, so, consequently
4. Indicating sequence in time later, suddenly, at the same time, meanwhile, subsequently
5. Indicating a parallel (similarity) equally, in the same way, likewise, similarly
6. Ordering points firstly, to sum up, thirdly, secondly

B. Fill in the blanks with appropriate choices from brackets.

1. I don’t want to go to a restaurant; _______ (besides / as a result), we can’t afford it.
2. A career in IT field is lucrative; _______ (similarly / at the same time), it is stressful and it can even be harmful to one’s health.
3. I understand your problems; _______ (although / however), I can’t help you.
4. Transportation has developed a lot in India; _______ (likewise / whereas), the trade too has improved.
5. Some of the students scored low ranks in the exams; _______ (so that/consequently), the teacher arranged a series of remedial classes.
Answer:

  1. besides
  2. at the same time
  3. however
  4. likewise
  5. consequently

C. Complete the following paragraph by choosing the appropriate linking words.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 4

Linking words help us in many ways in writing. ___(1)___, they help us in presenting our ideas in a meaningful way. ___(2)___, they help us to introduce and develop the main idea of the paragraph ___(3)___, they help us to illustrate and add supporting details ___(4)___, they help us in moving from one idea to another by binding one sentence with another. ___(5)___, they help us to understand the ideas presented in the paragraph ___(6)___, using too many linking words ruins the structure and coherence of the paragraph.
Answer:
1. For example
2. Secondly
3. Thirdly
4. Next
5. Finally
6. However

D. Join the following sentences using the linkers given in brackets.

1. There were freezing temperatures. They trekked for hours, (in spite of)
2. It’s an interesting city. We’re going to visit it again, (such … that)
3. We booked a holiday. We had very little money, (although)
4. The tour guide was informative. We didn’t need to read our guidebook, (so … that)
5. He didn’t like water. He booked a cruise. (In spite of the fact that)
6. Preachers preach many good things. Many of them do not practise what they preach. (however)
7. Jainulabdeen had no formal education and no wealth, (neither….nor)
8. The continental dimensions of the country account for the variations and diversities. There are several religious sects and beliefs, (besides)
Answer:
1. In spite of freezing temperatures, they trekked for hours.
2. It’s such an interesting city that we’re going to visit it again.
3. We booked a holiday although we had very little money.
4. The tour guide was so informative that we didn’t need to read our guidebook.
5. In spite of the fact that he didn’t like water, he booked a cruise.
6. Preachers preach many good things, however, many of them do not practise what they preach.
7. Jainulabdeen had neither formal education nor wealth.
8. The continental dimensions of the country account for the variations and diversities, besides there being several religious sects and beliefs.

II. Passive voice without agent.

Observe the following sentences taken from the text.
I was born.
Emergency was declared.
I was asked to go and sit on the back bench.
You might have learnt in your previous classes about active and passive voice constructions. Though the above sentences are in the passive the agent is not mentioned.
The agents are not mentioned in the following situations.

  • When the agent is obvious
  • When the agent is not known
  • When it is not desirable to reveal the identity of the agent

Examples:
1. A thief was arrested.
2. My watch has been stolen.
3. A surprising gift was presented on my birthday.
4. These new buildings have been occupied.
5. The judgement was given.

Explanatory Notes on ‘Passive Voice without Agent’:
Read the following passage :
Before the telephone was invented, communication was very difficult. The new technology has changed human life very much. With the invention of mobile phones, the number of phone calls has multiplied. Every minute, millions of phone calls are made all over the world. Some offices in developed countries already have videophones which allow caller to see each other as they speak. In the coming years, videophones will be installed in every home and office.

The verb groups was invented, are made, and will be installed are said to be in passive voice because these verbs do not have the doer’ as their subject. The affected, which is supposed to be found as the object, is in the subject position.

For example, in the first sentence, the telephone is the affected and there is no doer expressed in the sentence.

In the active voice, the subject is usually the doer’ and in the passive voice the subject is not the doer’.

The passive voice is mainly expressed by using the be form of the verb along with a past participle of the main verb.

The following table provides passive forms of the verb ‘visit’.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 6

Usually, only a transitive verb (the verb with an object after it) has active and passive forms. Intransitive verbs do not have passive forms. So we cannot change a sentence with an intransitive verb into passive voice. When a sentence is changed from active voice to passive voice, the object of the transitive verb moves to the subject position.

1. Active : She is singing a song.
Passive : A song is being sung by her.

2. Active : Rama killed Ravana.
Passive : Ravana was killed by Rama.

3. Active : He will help me.
Passive : I shall be helped by him.

The subject (agent) of the active verb is made a by-object in the passive sentence.
1. Active : The Chief Minister inaugurated the exhibition.
Passive : The exhibition was inaugurated by the Chief Minister.

2. Active : Alexander Flemming discovered Penicillin.
Passive : Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming.

Ditransitive verbs have two objects (direct and indirect objects) after them. In that case, both objects can be moved to the subject position. So we can form two passive sentences from a sentence with a ditransitive verb ; in one sentence the direct object becomes the subject and in the other, the indirect object becomes the subject.
Active : They gave us nice presents. Ind.obj. Direct obj.
Passive : Nice presents were given to us by them. We were given nice presents by them.
Active : He has taught us grammar. Ind.obj. Direct obj.
Passive : Grammar has been taught to us by him. We have been taught grammar by him.

Now, let’s learn about the passive voice without agent.

Sometimes, a passive voice does not contain an agent. This is because we do not know who or what did the action.
e.g.: Henry’s office was burgled yesterday.

When the agent of an action is unimportant e.g.:
Active : People warned us about the dangerous areas in that city.
Passive : We were warned about the dangerous areas in that city.

We usually leave out the agent in a passive voice if the person or thing that did the action is obvious.
e.g. :
Active : Ellen writes her essays with humour and wit.
Passive : Ellen’s essays are written with humour and wit.

Some more examples :
1. Passive : The watch was stolen.
Here the doer is not known. Hence we take someone as the doer.
Active : Someone stole the watch.

2. Passive : The thief was arrested.
Here we know that Policeman made the arrest. Hence we take POLICEMAN as the doer.
Active : Policeman arrested the thief.

3. Passive : The Chief Minister is expected to come tomorrow.
Here we know that people expect him.
Active : People expect the Chief Minister to come tomorrow.

4. Passive : His purse has been stolen.
Active : Someone has stolen his purse.

5. Passive : Letters are delivered twice a day.
Active : The postman delivers letters twice a day.

6. Passive : The rules should be obeyed.
Active : We should obey the rules.

Pick out from the text some more passive constructions without agents and give reasons why the agent is not mentioned.
1. __________________
2. __________________
3. __________________
4. __________________
5. __________________
Answer:
1. All necessities were provided for, in terms of food, medicine or clothes. Here the agent is obvious that the basic necessities are provided by parents.
2. 1 was asked to go and sit on the back bench. Here the agent is vague but the consequence is more important.
3. Every child is born. Here the agent is obvious.
4. India was forced to join the Allied Forces. Here the agent is not known.
5. A state of emergency was declared. Here the agent is obvious.
6. The house was built in the middle of the nineteenth century. Here the agent is not known.

III. Edit the following paragraph. It has some errors in the areas like punctuation, spelling, tense, prepositions, articles.

he told me as if thinking aloud abul i know you have to go away to grow did the seagull not fly toward the son alone without a nest he quotes Khalil Gibran to my hesitant mother your children are not your children they are sons and daughters of lifes longing to itself they come to you but not from you you may give them love but not your thoughts for they have there own thoughts
Answer:
He told me as if thinking aloud, “Abul! I know you have to go away to grow. Does the seagull not fly across the sun, alone and without a nest ?” He quoted Khalil Gibran to my hesitant mother, “Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of Life’s longing for itself. They come through you but not from you. You may give them vour love but not your thoughts, for they have their own thoughts.”

Writing

I. Diary entry

Imagine that you were one of the students who witnessed the humiliation done to Kalam in the classroom. Reflect on the incident and write your emotions in your diary.

Friday, 9th Nov. 20xx
Time : 8.00 p.m.
Dear Diary,Today was a day of misfortune for Kalam. I was deeply moved when the new teacher ordered him to sit in the last bench. He was so mean to say so. I looked anxiously at Kalam and Sastry. And Kalam was so obedient that he went and sat in the last bench. After all, he obtained the qualities of self-discipline and obedience from his father. I really got angry with the new teacher for his decision in humiliating Kalam. I was surprised to see Ramanadha Sastry feeling even more worse for the teacher’s decision. However, it is not fair to show social inequality in the village. We know pretty well that the communal and religious differences for every individual in his/her childhood has to be erased to develop equality and fraternity among them. Everyone of us are proud of having deep friendship among us. I always admire the close and amiable nature of Kalam and Sastry. I hope they remain as friends for ever.Rajesh

II. In the lesson, Kalam gave a brief description of his heritage.

Kalam says,” I don’t recall the exact number of people she (his mother) fed every day, but I am quite certain that far more outsiders ate with us than all the members of our family put together.”

This shows the heritage of hospitality and kindness.

Kalam says, “Events from the Ramayana and from the life of the Prophet were the bedtime stories my mother and grandmother would tell the children in our family.” This shows the heritage of secular spirit.

Read the entire text and identify the aspects related to the heritage of Kalam and his village.
Answer:
1. I had three close friends in my childhood – Ramanadha Sastry, Aravindan and Siva- prakasan.
– This shows the heritage of universal brotherhood.

2. As children, none of us ever felt any difference amongst ourselves because of our religious differences and upbringing.
– This shows the heritage of unity in diversity.

3. During the annual Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam ceremony, our family used to arrange boats with a special platform for carrying idols of the Lord from the temple to the marriage site.
– This shows the heritage of communal equality.

4. Ramanadha Sastry looked utterly downcast as 1 shifted to my seat in the last row according to the instructions of new teacher.
– This shows the heritage of communal brotherhood.

5. Not only did the teacher regret his behaviour but the strong sense of convicton Lakshmana Sastry conveyed ultimately reformed this young teacher.
– This indicates the heritage of social equality and communal tolerance.

6. Sivasubramania Iyer did his best to break social barriers so that people from varying backgrounds could mingle easily.
– This shows the heritage of social and economic equality and unity in diversity.

III. Here is a letter that Moses wrote to his friend Ravi from the United States of America. Imagine yourself as Ravi and give a reply.

St. John’s Enclave,
5-7/9,
St. Pauls Avenue,
Washington D.C.
June 27, 2013.

Dear Ravi,
I am really excited to write to you after a long time. Hope this letter finds you in a cheerful mood.

Here is some good news for you. That means, I would like to visit India sometime between October and November and stay there at least for a month and would like to visit your place.

Since I am coming to India for the first time, I would like to know about the people, their way of dressing, the food they take, the festivals they celebrate, the music and dance they like, etc. In fact, I have read about Indian culture through books and internet. But I would like to have some authentic information from you.

Hope I can hear from you soon.
Convey my greetings to your family.

Your lovingly,
Moses Bridge

To
Ravi.K,
S/o Bose,
10-92, Church Road,
Nidamanuru,
Krishna District,
A.R, India – 521 104.

Answer:
Reply Letter:

Road No. 12,
10-92, Ashok Enclaves,
Flat No. 201, Church Road,
Nidamanuru,
Krishna District,
A.R, India – 521 104.
July 1, 2013.

Dear Moses,
Very happy to receive a letter from you after a long time. I am longing to see you in person. To visit India in October and November is the right time because the weather would be pleasant and quite comfortable to go around.

I am proud to tell you that India is a country with many historical places and varied cultural heritage. This secular state is well-known to follow ‘Unity in Diversity’. In and around Hyderabad there are many places that represent Indian culture and tradition. Places like the Charminar, the Golkonda fort and Sultan bazar exhibit their historical significance and culture. The N.T.R. Marg. Buddha Statue depict the nationalism and heritage of love and peace.

I hope you will enjoy the trip to India. Places like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai in the north are sophisticated and places like Kerala, Rameshwaram, Kanyakumari and Karnataka in the south are pleasant and known for scenic beauty.

I eagerly wait for your arrival and 1 promise to make your trip a memorable one.
Bye. See you soon !

Yours lovingly,
Ravi

To
Moses Bridge
St. John’s Enclave.
5-7/9, St. Paul’s Avenue,
Washington D.C.
USA.

 

Listening

Listen to an extract from the speech by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam at IIIT Hyderabad on 27th September 2011.

A Speech by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Dear friends,
“I have three visions for India. In 3000 years of our history, people from all over the world have come and invaded us, captured our lands, conquered our minds. From Alexander onwards, the Greeks, the Turks, the Moghuls, the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Dutch, all of them came and looted us, took over what was ours. Yet we have not done this to any other nation. We have not conquered anyone. We have not grabbed their land, their culture, their history and tried to enforce our way of life on them. Why? Because we respect the freedom of others.

That is why my first vision is that of freedom. I believe that India got its first vision of this in 1857, when we started the war of independence. It is this freedom that we must protect and nurture and build on. If we are not free, no one will respect us. My second vision for India is development. For fifty years we have been a developing nation. It is time we saw ourselves as a developed nation. We are among top 5 nations of the world in terms of GDP. We have 10 percent growth rate in most areas. Our poverty levels are falling. Our achievements are being globally recognized today. Yet we lack the self-confidence to see ourselves as a developed nation, self-reliant and selfassured. Isn’t this incorrect?

I have a third vision. India must stand up to the world because I believe that unless India stands up to the world, no one will respect us. Only strength respects strength. We must be strong not only as a military power but also as an economic power. Both must go hand-in-hand. My good fortune was to have worked with three great minds. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai of the Dept, of Space, Prof. Satish Dhawan, who succeeded him, and Dr. Brahm Prakash, father of nuclear material. I was lucky to have worked with all three of them closely and consider this the great opportunity of my life…

Why is the media here so negative? Why are we in India so embarrassed to recognize our own strengths, our achievements? We are such a great nation. We have so many amazing success stories but we refuse to acknowledge them. Why? We are the first in milk production. We are number one in Remote Sensing Satellites. We are the second largest producer of wheat and rice. Look at Dr. Sudarshan, he has transformed the tribal village into a self-sustaining, self driving unit. There are millions of such achievements but our media is only obsessed with failures and disasters…

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

Now answer the following questions.

1. Who were the three great minds with whom the speaker worked?
Answer:
The three great minds with whom the speaker worked were Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, Prof. Satish Dhawan and Dr. Brahm Prakash.

2. What dreams did Kalam talk about?
Answer:
Kalam talked about free India, its development. He also talked about India that it must be strong not only as a military power but also as an economic power.

3. India realised its first vision of freedom in 1857. (True / False )
Answer:
True.

4. We must be strong not only as _______ but also as _______
Answer:
a military power, an economic power

5. Who is the father of nuclear material?
Answer:
Dr. Brahm Prakash is the father of nuclear material.

Oral Activity

I. Role play

Read the episode of ill-treatment meted out to Kalam in paragraphs 6 and 7. Under-stand the characters involved in the episode. Take the roles of the new teacher, Kalam, Ramanadha Shastry, Jainulabdeen and Lakshmana Sastry. Picturize the episode in your mind and create appropriate dialogues and role play it.
Answer:
New Teacher : Ah, you seem to be a Muslim ! And you dare to sit on the first bench next to a Hindu?

Kalam : But Sir ……. I always …….

New Teacher : I don’t want to hear anything from you. Go and sit in the last row.

Ramanadha Sastry : Sir, he is my close friend.

New Teacher : How mean to have a Muslim friend ! From today onwards you are not friends. Right?

Ramanadha Sastry : (with tears) But I want to be friendly with everyone.

New Teacher : No, this is my order. (Kalam gets up silently and sits in the last low) In the evening both Kalam and Sastry go home and explain about the incident to their respective fathers.

(Kalam’s home) Kalam : Father, it was so disgusting that our new teacher threw me to the last bench. I felt insulted !

Jainulabdeen : No my dear son, let us not lose patience. We shall wait and see what happens.

(Ramanadha Sastry’s home) Ramanadha Sastry : (With tears) Father, today our new teacher did not allow Kalam to sit next to me. It was very horrible. I felt sad and lonely in the class.

Lakshmana Sastry : Is it ? Then the teacher was wrong. Let me call him and talk to him. (Lakshmana Sastry summons for the new teacher)

New Teacher : Namaskaram Sir. May I know why I was called here?

Lakshmana Sastry : You should certainly know. I want to know why Kalam was sepa-rated from my son in the class today.

New teacher : But Sir. Kalam is a Muslim and ………

Lakshmana Sastry : Let me make one thing clear to you. We are against the segrega-tion of different social groups. So you either apologize to the boys for spoiling the atmosphere of unity or quit the school.

New Teacher : Sorry Sir. I have been in darkness all these days. Now I realize the religious tolerance and integrity you follow to keep up nationalism. I am ready to apologize to the boys.

Lakshmana Sastry : That’s better. (He calls for Kalam and Ramanadha Sastry) Your unity will not be disturbed hereafter. You can continue your friendship.

II . Group discussion

Conduct a group discussion on how ‘national festivals’ promote national integrity. You may use the following points for discussion.
a) kind of festival
b) nature of celebration
c) secular aspect of celebration
Points to remember

  • Each group will have a moderator to monitor/regulate the discussion.
  • Each member of a group should take his/her turn and speak clearly, briefly, and pinpointedly and use polite language.
  • While speaking make eye contact with others.
  • Give time for the others and listen to them.
  • If a member wants to say or add a point, he/she has to raise his/her hand and politely seek permission of the moderator.
  • The moderator has to connect the ideas expressed by the members and finally sum up.

Answer:
Member of group 1 :
I take the privilege to initiate today’s group discussion about ‘national festivals.’ 1 would like to choose ‘Gandhi Jayanthi.’

Member of group 2:
It is obvious to speak about Gandhiji because he is ‘the father of our nation’ and he played a key role in achieving independence to our country.

Member of group 3 :
And he is responsible for the celebration of the ‘national festivals’ in our country. The nation celebrates his birthday as ‘Gandhi Jayanthi’ to commemorate the great works done by him to make us free from the British rule.

Member of group 2 :
On this occasion, I think we can emphasize his services to secure rights for Indian people staying in South Africa.

Member of group 1:
May I dare to point out that the principles of courage, non-violence, and truth that made him popular and divine.

Member of group 3 :
His non-violence movement in 1922 and Dandi Salt March in 1930 were remarkable events for India’s move towards independence.

Member of group 1 :
He is the man who gave the courage to his Indian people to admonish the British saying ‘Quit India.’

Member of group 2 :
The whole nation should pay tributes to Bapu for the liberation from the British rule in 1947.

Member of group 3 :
But the most sorrowful event was that he was shot dead by Nathuram Godse in 1948. Indians call him ‘Mahatma’ means ‘great soul.’

We all feel proud to remember Gandhi who stirred the millions of Indians to revolt and shook the foundations of the British empire. His philosophy and ideals are for all times. His life and work are beacon light for mankind. He lives for over in the minds of every Indian.

Jai Hind !

Study Skills

The following graph shows the female-male sex ratio in rural and urban areas comparing with the national average. Read the following graph and write a paragraph comparing the female-male sex ratio in rural and urban areas in India comparing with the national average. Comment on the reasons and its consequences.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood 7

Answer:
The ratio of men-women in rural areas is almost consistent in the year 1901 and decreased gradually in the year 1971 but raised and lowered from 1971 to 2011. The ratio of men and women in 2011 is 10:9.5.

The rate of declination in urban areas is more and reduced below 850 for every 1000 men in 1941. For the next two consecutive years there was an increase and decrease in the ratio. But from 1961 there was a gradual and considerable inclination till 2011.

As to All-India level, the female-male sex ratio is consistent with slight increase and decrease from 1901 to 2011. However there is a noticeable decrease in 1971 and 1991 which are equal.

Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males. In India the sex ratio is not in favour of females. The disturbing factor in the sex- ratio is its declining trend.
The problem of declining sex ratio cannot be viewed only in terms of numbers. Studies should be conducted to look at the reasons behind decision to abort and neglect baby girls.

Some of the studies show that juvenile sex-ration (0-6 years) has been dropped from 945 (1991 census) to/896 (2001 census). This juvenile sex-ratio (0-6 years) is the most realistic indicator of trends in female feticide and continuing discrimination against the girl child.

The reasons behind the mistreatment of girls cross the spectrum of Indian regions, economic classes and castes and are due to a complex mix of economic social and cultural factors.

Declining sex ratio is the reflection of the intrinsic flow in our social system, which has to be taken into consideration and addressed. This shows that government has to take measure to curb this decline in sex ratio.

For that, government gives education to the girl child and encourages people not to go for female foeticide. Many state governments have implemented programmes for girl’s child development, to control female feticide.

Even government of India has also introduced the nutritional programmes for both mother and the child.

Government starts programmes to empower the women and takes care of the health of the women and the child.

Women constitute half of the population of the country. If they are discriminated, it will affect on the country’s development. Therefore, if the country starts taking care of women, then it will have affect of social development.

My Childhood Summary in English

Abdul Kalam was born in a middle class family at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen was a common, uneducated but wise and generous man by nature. Kalam’s mother Ashiamma was an ideal partner to her husband and equally generous to maintain hospitality towards guests and family members.

Jainulabdeen had a small ancestral pucca house in his town which was simple but comfortable. Kalam enjoyed a safe and secured childhood with all the basic needs satisfied.

During the Second World War in 1939, Kalam employed himself to earn an anna by collecting and selling tamarind seeds in the market. The effect of war, however, was not much on his town. Later he distributed newspapers and felt the pride of being self-reliant.

Despite being a Muslim, Kalam had three close friends from Brahmin families who equally showed the least concern towards religious differences. The stories of the Ramayana and life of the Prophet were bedtime stories imbibed in the heart of Abdul Kalam. As a token of secular idealism, Kalam’s family served Lord Rama during Sita Rama Kalyanam ceremony.

The feeling of secularism was very strong among every inhabitant of the town. When Kalam was separated from his close friend Ramanadha Sastry by a new teacher, Sastry’s father instructed the teacher to maintain religious tolerance and social equality. Another incident that had a great impact on young Kalam was the change in the behaviour of his science teacher’s wife from rigid orthodoxy to social equality. The science teacher’s firm attitude to confront the problems of inequality and change the social systems impressed Kalam

My Childhood Glossary

erstwhile (adj) : former

possess (v) : own

innate (adj) : natural

generosity (n) : the act of being generous

ideal (adj) : perfect, most suitable

spirit (n) : courage

undistinguished (adj) : not very interesting, successful or attractive

ancestral (adj) : of grandparents/forefathers

austere (adj) : simple and plain

inessential (adj) : not necessary

secure (adj) : safe

princely (adj) : not very large

trace (v) : find signs of proof

demand (n) : desire for having a thing backed by purchasing power

erupted (v) : raised suddenly

attempt (v) : try

isolated (adj) : lonely

emergency (n) : a sudden serious and dangerous event or situation

surge (n) : a sudden increase of a strong feeling

casualty (n) : accidental, sudden happening

suspension (n) : temporary halt, hang up

inherited (adj) : owned, possessed

orthodox (adj) : following closely the traditional beliefs and practices of a religion

upbringing (n) : the way in which a child is cared for and taught how to behave while it is growing

priest (n) : a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies

priesthood (n) : the job or position of being a priest

idol (n) : a statue that is worshipped as a god

the Prophet : Muhammad, who founded the religion of Islam

downcast (adj) : sad or depressed

lasting (adj) : continuing to exist or to have an effect for a long time

summon (v) : to order somebody to come to you

regret (v) : to feel sorry for

conviction (n) : the act of finding somebody guilty of crime; a strong opinion or belief

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6A My Childhood

segregation (n) : the policy/act of separating people

conservative (adj) : opposed to great/sudden social change

rebel (n) : a person who does not obey but fights against established authority

barrier (n) : a wall of separation ; a circumstance separating people

horrified (v) : greatly feared

ritually (adv) : following religious methods and customs

perturb (v) : disturb mentally

hesitation (n) : state of indecisiveness

confront (v) : to deal with a problem/situation

imminent (adj) : about to happen

unprecedented (adj) : never known before

optimism (n) : a feeling that good things will happen

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

10th Class English Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Why were the large empty drums placed outside Mr. Nana’s house?
Answer:
Some chemical factories of Italy unloaded metal drums of poisonous chemical near a stream that the villagers get their drinking water from. There were such large empty metal drums outside Mr. Nana’s house. These drums might have fallen down and rolled or been rolled by playful children.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Question 2.
What harm can the pyramid of identical drums cause to the villagers?
(Or)
What are the evil effects of pyramid of drums?
Answer:
The slimy contents of various colours are leaking out from the drums and flowing down on to the African earth and into the stream which is a source of drinking water to the villagers. They may cause health hazards.

Question 3.
Why was the Chief smiling’ as the lorries drove away?
Answer:
The people who unloaded drums gave the Chief a brown paper bag which might contain money. So he smiled as the lorries drove away.

Question 4.
Was Thomas Agonyo correct in his findings? Justify your opinion.
Answer:
Yes, Thomas Agonyo was correct because 13 people had died with terrible pain and lots of children were sick because of the metal drums that contained poisonous chemicals.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Question 5.
Why didn’t the people move from their place?
Answer:
They had no money to buy land. So they had no choice.

Question 6.
There is a repetition of sentences with ‘some’ in the passage. Read the passage again and write down the sentences and the function of ‘some’ in each one of them. Do you find any other repetitions in the passage? If yes, mention it. .
Answer:
i) Some of them are badly corroded, their slimy contents of various colours — grey, dark green, bright orange, etc. – leaking out, down, onto the baked African earth and into the stream.
ii) Some have fallen down and rolled – or been rolled by playful children – into the bush.
iii) Some are smoking in the midday heat.
iv) Some are swelling, as if their contents are bursting to get out.
v) Some have already burst.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Other repetitions:
i) “They came on a Wednesday”, said Sunday, “Many, many big lorries ”
ii) They took all day unloading them.
iii) They gave the Chief a brown paper bag – I saw him smiling as the lorries drove away.

Other such repetitions:
i) We have asked the government to take the drums away, but they do nothing ….
ii) We have written to Italy, but they do nothing.
iii) We have no money to buy land.
iv) We have no choice.
v) We have to stay here.

II. Choose the correct answer.

1. Nana’s house is __________
a) picturesque, colourful and noisy.
b) with mud walls and a rusting corrugated iron roof.
Answer:
b) with mud walls and a rusting corrugated iron roof.

2. ________ is visible on the empty metal drums.
a) bright red paint flaking away
b) skull and crossbones symbol
Answer:
b) skull and crossbones symbol

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

3. The important conclusion Thomas Agonyo gave is that ________
a) the drums had come from Italy.
b) the drums contained poisonous chemicals.
Answer:
b) the drums contained poisonous chemicals.

III. Write’the adjectives or adjective phrases that describe the happy and gloomy situations in the village.
Answer:
Adjectives or adjective phrases describing the happy situations in the village :
picturesque, colourful, noisy, brightest boy, children, and chickens sharing the compound.

Adjectives or adjective phrases describing the gloomy situations in the village :
a) rusting corrugated iron roof
b) frowning
c) a troubled look
d) terrible pain
e) mountain of death in the clearing

Grammar

Quantifiers as the name implies are a type of determiners which denote imprecise quantity. They differ from numbers or numerals which indicate precise quantity.

Example :
I’ve got some apples in my basket and some water in my bottle.
I haven’t got any apples in my basket, nor any water in my bottle.
Generally quantifiers are used before nouns.
Some, any, all, no, no one, both, each, every, several are some of the quantifiers.
“Some” is usually thought of as the positive counterpart to “any” in many circumstances.
“Any” can be used before countable and uncountable nouns usually in questions and negative sentences.

Example :
1. Are you bringing any friends with you?
2. I am bringing some friends with me.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Quantifiers come before nouns. Some of the quantifiers you find in the text are: some, any, no. You also find numerals. Pick out the nouns along with quantifiers and numerals and write them down and analyze the meaning they convey.
Answer:

  1. Any other African village → like the other African villages
  2. Some of them → a few drums in the heap of drums.
  3. Some of them are badly corroded → a few drums got rusted
  4. Some have fallen down and rolled – or been rolled by playful children → a few drums are rolled down from the enormous pyramid of drums.
  5. Some are smoking in the midday heat → a few drums among the heap of drums are smoking due to chemical reaction.
  6. Some are swelling, as if their contents are bursting to get out → a few drums are bulged and ready to burst.
  7. Some have already burst → a few drums are already burst.

Fill in the blanks appropriately with the following quantifiers: no, any, all, some, each, several, and every.

1. ____(1)____ ordinary person is bothered about climatic changes. If we talk of ____(2)____ changes, people look at us as if we don’t have ____(3)____ work. In fact, it is such a grave problem that ____(4)____ person has to think about. ____(5)____ scientists feel alarmed because the ozone layer is depleting. In addition, ____(6)____ people believe that the global warming is creating climatic problems. But ____(7)____ single individual shows (8) concern for it.
Answer:
1) No
2) any
3) any
4) every
5) All
6) several
7) no
8) any

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

2. ____(1)____ meteorologists predict that the world will get warm between 2 to 4 degrees Celsius by the year 2030. The scientists believe that ____(2)____ year ____(3)____ polar ice will melt and cause rainfall, increase in the sea level and also temperature will be affected. ____(4)____ people disagree with the theory that the human activity is having an effect on the world’s climate. ____(5)____ scientists need to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere and ____(6)____ human beings need to care for the air, water and plant life that influence world’s weather.
Answer:
1) Some
2) every
3) some
4) Several
5) All
6) all

3. People who disagree with the theory that there is a direct relationship between the human activity and climate believe that the world climate has gone through ____(1)____ changes since the earth and its atmosphere first formed. So for ____(2)____ argument there is a counter argument. ____(3)____ individual differs with the other in ____(4)____ way or the other.
Answer:
1) several
2) any
3) Every
4) some

1. Koko Village, Nigeria Summary

Mr. Sunday Nana, his wife and four children live in Koko village, Nigeria. Five years ago the village was like any other African village — picturesque, colourful and noisy. But now in a clearing 200 m away from the village, next to a stream that the villagers get their drinking water from, is an enormous pyramid of identical drums reaching to the sky. The skull and crossbones symbol is clearly visible on each. Later Thomas Agonyo, one of the brightest boys in the village explained to the villagers that the drums contained poisonous chemicals and they had come from Italy. 13 people had died and lots of their children were sick in the last five years because of those poisonous drums.

1. Koko Village, Nigeria Glossary

picturesque (adj) : pretty but old fashioned

rusting (adj) : becoming covered with rust

corrugated (adj) : shaped into a series of regular waves

flaking (v) : breaking as thin small pieces

skull and cross bones (n) : symbol to show that something is dangerous

corroded (adj) : rusted

corroded (v) : destroyed something by chemical action

slimy (adj) : covered with unpleasant thick liquid

swelling (v) : the condition of being larger or rounder than normal

frowning (v) : bringing eyebrows together to show anger

clearing (n) : an open space in a forest

2. Ponnimanthuri Village, India

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
The people in this village were affected by chemical factories. Where, in your opinion, should the factories be built?
Answer:
The factories should be built in open non-fertile lands far from habitats. Eco-friendly industries with minimum use of chemicals can be encouraged even in villages or towns.

Question 2.
If it is necessary to build factories near the villages, what precautions should be taken to keep the villagers safe?
Answer:
The chemicals released from factories would not be dumped in open fields and into rivers. Special ash ponds must be there for the discharged chemicals and they must be far away from the habitations.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Question 3.
The narrator said at the end, ‘There is so much they didn’t tell you, I thought”- What was that so much that was not told, according to you?
Answer:
Vijayasama sighed and reported to the narrator that the leather industry management didn’t tell them that the chemicals would be dumped in open fields and into their rivers. They didn’t tell them that their women would have to walk ten kilometers everyday and they would get ulcer and sores on their bodies.

But the narrator thinks that they don’t know some more hidden hazards till now. They don’t know there won’t be any life in Ponnimanthuri village one day. They will either be died or been forcibly evacuated. By keeping this view the narrator said like that at the end.

Grammar

Write the following sentences in reported speech.

1. “1 can remember the time.” she said wistfully, “when all the fields around this village were green and the harvests good.”
Answer:
She said wistfully that she could remember the time when all the fields around that village were green and the harvests good.

2. “They said that factories need leather to make shoes, handbags and clothes. They . said our men folk would get jobs. They said we would all become rich.”
Answer:
It was reported that they had said that the factories needed leather to make shoes, handbags and clothes, their menfolk would get jobs and they would all become rich.

2. Ponnimanthuri Village, India Summary

Ponnimanthuri village was once a beautiful village with all the green fields around and good harvests. But now it became highly polluted due to leather factory which uses as many as 250 different chemicals including heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and chromium. The villagers hope that the menfolk would get jobs and they would all become rich. But these chemicals poison their fields so that nothing would grow. They got ulcer and sores on their bodies. All are in a state of despair.

2. Ponnimanthuri Village, India Glossary

wistfully (adv) : thinking sadly about that we would love to have

harvests (n) : yields from crop

outstretched (v) : spread out as far as possible; pulled out to full length

monsters (n) : large, frightening imaginary creatures

spluttered (v) : spoke quickly and with difficulty

fist (n) : a tightly closed hand

ominous (adj) : suggesting that something bad to happen in future

horizon (n) : the point where sky appears to meet sea or earth

shroud (n) : thick cover

menfolk (n) : men

tanning (n) : process of making animal skin into leather

chimney (n) : a structure to carry smoke or steam up away

ulcer (n) : a sore area inside the body

trailed off (phr. v.) : became gradually quieter and then stopped

3. Vorobyov Village, Ukraine (formerly USSR)

Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What measures should the government have taken when the nuclear reactor was installed beside the village?
Answer:
The nuclear reactor should not be installed beside the village at any cost. If it is mandatory, the nuclear reactor must be installed 10 miles away from the habitations and must not be installed near a water body. The authorities concerned should give awareness to nearby residents. The government should minimize the use of nuclear power.

Question 2.
What havoc can radioactive dust cause?
Answer:
Radioactive dust can cause nausea, headache, vomitings, all types of cancers especially skin cancer and leukaemia, white blood cells damage and the damage of brain cells, etc. It can cause vomits and hair fall. The people grow thin and sores appear all over their bodies.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages

Question 3.
Pick out the words/expressions/images that describe the tragedy caused by the radioactive dust.
Answer:
a) ………, all three died – all three on the same day.
b) They’re buried over there.
c) Lots of village children are. And adults.
d) It was a ghost town.
e) No one lived there anymore.
f) They had either died or been forcibly evacuated.
g) The fields were barren.
h) Nothing grew.
i) Nothing ever would again.
j) There was no bird-song.
k) No rabbit peered at me.
l) No cow endlessly chewed.
m) No horse neighed.

Writing

Out of the three villages you have read about, choose one village of your choice (you may also choose a completely different one). You are a TV reporter. You need to go to one of the villages and from there you have to report orally to the news channel what all you find there. How would you report?

Write in a spoken discourse the dialogue between you and the TV newsreader.The beginning is given below :

TV Newsreader : Our correspondent reports from Koko village – What is the situation there ? How do you find the village? What are the people around saying?
Answer:
TV Newsreader (Vandana) : Our correspondent reports from Koko village – Abhi! What is the situation there? How do you find the village? What are the people around saying?

Abhi : Vandana ! Here the situation is horrible. We find many people in the beds being sick. The people are in need of help.

TV Newsreader : Is the enormous heap of identical drums there? Where is it located?

Abhi : Yes, the drums are still there. They are in a clearing 200 m away from the village, next to a stream, that the villagers get their drinking water from.

TV Newsreader : Do you find any symbols on those chemical drums?

Abhi : Ya, skull and crossbones symbol is clearly visible on each which indicates danger.

TV Newsreader : How many years ago were the drums unloaded and who unloaded?

Abhi : Here, the people said that they were unloaded five years ago and many many big lorries came and unloaded them.

TV Newsreader : How do they come to know that the drums contain poisonous chemicals?

Abhi : Thomas Agonyo, one of the brightest boys in the village who started university in Lagos found out this problem.

TV Newsreader : Abhi, did you talk to him ?

Abhi : Ya Vandana, I talked to him. He said that they had come from Italy and due to this chemical pollution 13 people have died until now. Lots of children are sick. They have been in pain, terrible pain before death.

TV Newsreader : Abhi, did you inquire anybody else in the village?

Abhi : Yes Vandana, 1 inquired Mr. Sunday Nana whose elder brother died because of this chemical pollution.

TV Newsreader : Did they inform the government about the intensity of pollution?

Abhi : Yes, they informed the government and wrote to Italy also. But they do nothing.

TV Newsreader : What did they want to do now? Is there any chance to vacate the village and to go to another place?

Abhi : They have no choice as they are poor and they have no money to buy land.

TV Newsreader : So what do they want to do?

Abhi : Vandana, they finally concluded that the mounain of death in the clearing is their neighbour.

TV News Reader : OK ! Thank you for your report, Abhi.

Abhi : Thank you, Vandana.

TV News Reader : I request the authorities concerned to respond positively at least now and to find out the solution for their problem.

Project Work

Talk to your grandparents about life fifty years ago. Talk to them as to how the plants, animals and water bodies were cared for or not cared. Seek the views of the elders and fill in the table.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages 1

Based on the information you have gathered in the last column of the table, discuss in groups how best the youngsters can help save/protect the environment. List the specific recommendations.
Answer:
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages 2
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages 3
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 5C A Tale of Three Villages 4

1) List of recommendations that help/save/protect plants:

  1. Afforestation should be encouraged.
  2. Step forming should be encouraged.
  3. Vegetation should be conserved.
  4. Indiscriminate deforestation should be discouraged.

2) List of recommendations that help/save/protect animals:

  1. More and more plants are needed to support animal life.
  2. Awareness on ecological balance should be raised.
  3. Measures should be adopted to check pollution levels.
  4. Awareness on bio-diversity should be received on due attention.
  5. Enforcement of laws should be strengthen for the conservation of wild life.

3) List of recommendations that help/save/protect water bodies:

  1. Making of recharge pits should be increased to replenish ground water.
  2. Global warming and pollution levels should be checked as far as possible.
  3. Increase access to potable water and sanitation facilities.
  4. Promote positive behaviour towards water and sanitation facility utilization and hygiene practices (Behaviour Change Communication).
  5. Strengthen capacities of relevant national, county, district, and community stakeholders to perform their role in community water and sanitation services delivery management.
  6. Improve clean water and sanitation standards, guidelines, procedures, and approaches achieved through regular and productive C00rdination and collaboration with relevant government, NGOs, and donor stakeholders.
  7. Increase access to seed funds to support community generated activities that will complement infrastructural development.
  8. Enhance strategic alliances and partnerships between public and private entities for development.

4) List of recommendations to check air pollution :

  1. Avoid using private vehicles. Use public transport. This will help in reduction of usage of fuel. Encourage walking and bicycling (cycling).
  2. Proper Servicing of Vehicles : We should all do proper timely servicing of vehicles. Do proper pollution check up of the cars, use unleaded petrol whenever possible and lower the consumption of fuel.
  3. The use of public transport is an effective way to prevent consumption of fuel as well as generate some government revenue.
  4. If we use alternative energy sources such as hydroelectric power, solar energy and save energy by switching off fans, air conditioners, lights, this will indirectly help in preventing air pollution.
  5. Proper awareness programs should be made about the consequences and effect of air pollution. Some strict government steps should be taken such as, when a vehicle fails in pollution test it should not be allowed to refuel, use of alternative LPG vehicles should be made.
  6. Everyone should be made aware of the air pollution and its consequences. Some real time experiences needed to be shown.
  7. The vehicles should be tested on every petrol pump before refueling the oils and will not be refueled is it fails in emission test.
  8. Newer vehicles should be made such that it will minimize the consequences of pollution and a proper guideline should be given with respect to this to all manufactures across the country.

Last and the foremost, as I mentioned earlier in order to prevent pollution we the humans should take responsibility. If every individual takes his/her responsibility one day will come when the world can breathe smoothly.

3. Vorobyov Village, Ukraine (formerly USSR) Summary

Natasha Revenko shared her bitter-sweet memories with the narrator. Natasha belongs to Vorobyov village in Ukraine. On April 26th 1986 which was her mother’s birthday a horrible incident happened. A big explosion from a nuclear reactor occurred in the morning, They saw a cloud of white smoke coming from the nuclear reactor. As it was a Saturday, the weekend the children were playing outside, picked up handfuls of the dust and threw it at each other, laughing. On Wednesday they were warned by the authorities not to touch the radioactive dust. But it was too late. A week later the children began to vomit and their hair fell out. Two weeks later her three children died £>n the same day. Lots of village children and adults died.

3. Vorobyov Village, Ukraine (formerly USSR) Glossary

explosion (n) : a sudden violent burst and sound of it

apron (n) : a piece of clothing that covers the front part of the clothes and is tied around your waist

radioactive dust (n) : the dust coming out of a radioactive reaction

slid (v) : moved smoothly over a wet surface

pinched (adj) : pale and thin because of worry or illness

pale (adj) : white because of illness

sores (n) : painful, red places on the body (wound)

broke down (phr. v.) : lost control of feelings and started crying

evacuated (v) : moved people to a safe place

barren (adj) : land not good enough for crops

peer (v) : look closely when we cannot see clearly

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6B A Plea for India

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 6B A Plea for India Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6B A Plea for India

10th Class English Chapter 6B A Plea for India Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What do fights put us in?
Answer:
Fights land us in a difficult situation. They fill hatred against one another, poison our minds, and cause the feeling of segregation. Due to fights, we lack peace and happiness. To sum up, fights result in our sorrow.

Question 2.
Why does the poet use the expressions ‘proud to be a strong nation’ and ‘hang heads in shame’ at the same time?
Answer:
India is a united country with its varied castes, religions, creeds, and communities. We follow ‘unity in diversity’ that makes our nation a ‘strong nation.’ In spite of its unity, there are walls of discrimination that lead to disputes and cause violence. The local and internal disputes that shake the walls of unity ‘hang our heads in shame.’ So the two expressions are used at the same time.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6B A Plea for India

Question 3.
Who are cheats? Who are being cheated?
Answer:
The people who speak/act violently to disturb the foundations of the country’s unity are cheats. The innocent people who strive for the country’s integrity are cheated.

Question 4.
What are the tasks to be finished according to the poet?
Answer:
According to the poet, there are many tasks to be finished. India has to develop eco-nomically to adjoin the developed countries. For this it has to grow technologically, industrially, and socially. We have plenty of resources but lacking self-confidence. The team work and unity will fill this gap and lead towards a successful path.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6B A Plea for India

Question 5.
What is the central idea of the poem?
Answer:
The central idea of the poem is to build a strong united nation with dedication, love, piety, and will power.

A Plea for India Summary

It is a request for Indians to keep their nation strong and not to disturb the nation with internal disputes. In order to symbolise the charm of the nation, we should maintain unity irrespective of caste, region or religion. Instead of creating problems, we should solve the incomplete tasks. Violence leads to sorrow, so let us not lose our lives in hatred. Instead, love one another to make our country sacred. There are still many aspects to be concentrated upon. So let us give a serious, humble thought for the development of the nation. There are people who cheat one another, perform rot and make their life hopeless. The communal riots lead us to shame and disgrace which can be controlled with the wilful nature towards triumphant India. Let us make the saying Unity is Strength’ a truthful proverb and build up a strong nation. This is possible only through commitment, determination, and courage to face challenges.

A Plea for India Glossary

roots (n) : basic source or origin of something

declare (v) : announce

plight (n) : trouble / a difficult or sad situation

irrespective of (prep) : regardless of / without taking account of

charm (n) : the power of quality of attracting others

ignore (v) : neglect / pay no attention to

bickering (v) : backbiting / arguing about things that are not important

task (n) : a work to be completed

indulge (v) : take pleasure in / make a fuss of

anew (adv) : additionally / one more

violence (n) : fighting / cruelty

return (v) : give back

she loves a ton : The mother lover her son a lot.

gather (v) : collect

resided (v) : belonged to a person or a body

miserably (adv) : sadly / in a mean way

on high cloud (idiom) : having strong feelings of happiness or satisfaction

end up (phr.v) : finish / come to an end

rot (n) : bad things

pious (adj) : virtuous / moral

riots (n) : violent disturbance

incite (v) : encourage somebody to be violent by making angry

din (n) : disturbance

dedication (n) : commitment /perseverance

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

AP State Board Syllabus AP SSC 10th Class English Textbook Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India Textbook Questions and Answers.

AP State Syllabus SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

10th Class English Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India Textbook Questions and Answers

Comprehension

I. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What do you understand by the expression ‘Unity in Diversity’?
ANswer:
India is a country of various cultures, traditions and languages. Still it has one heart. Our cultural heritage serves as a bond of unity between the people of different faiths and creeds. People have sought to develop to achieve a desirable goal of unity amidst diversity.

Question 2.
Which aspect is Smith commenting on?
Answer:
Smith is commenting on the distinguished features of India that makes it significant and extraordinary. But the feeling of unity is quite common for every Indian in terms of human, social and intellectual development.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

Question 3.
Pick out the factors that contribute to Unity in Diversity.
Answer:
India’s rich heritage, culture, traditions, conventions, civilization, customs, ethnicity, art and literature contribute to the unity of the nation.

Question 4.
Why did the writer use the statement ‘It is not a mere collection of separate people’. Give reasons.
Answer:
The writer means to say that people of different cultures, traditions, languages, sects, races are synthesized into one unit and absorbed as a whole in this world’s big stage.

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

Question 5.
“Hindi is now understood and recognised as the national language of India.” Do you agree or disagree with the author? Give reasons.
Answer:
Yes, Hindi is considered as the lingua franca of India. From north to south of India, from east to west, Hindi is understood and recognised as the national language of India. Hindi, like English, is understood in almost every part of the country and stands as a symbol of unity and brotherhood in the present civilization.

Vocabulary

I. Read the following words/phrases and find the words/phrases from the text which convey the same meaning.

1. myriad : many, veritable, numerous, several, manifold, composite
2. synthesis : combine, common, unique bonds, composite, aggregate, whole, uniformity, assimilate
3. diversity : difference, disunity, differential, different, varied, separate, contrast
4. dialects : local languages, lingua franca
5. saints : seers , sages, yogis, maharshis, spiritual leaders

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

II. Read the phrases and find the suitable words equivalent to them from the text.
Answer:
a) a part of country : land
b) try to do : desire
c) develop quickly : flourish
d) behave in a particular way : emulate
e) a very sad event : tragedy

Writing

I. Fill in the table with the most appropriate dance form related to each state and the occasion on which it is performed
Answer:

Name of the State Dance form
1. Andhra Pradesh Kuchipudi
2. Punjab Bhangra
3. Karnataka Yakshganam
4. Kerala Kathakali, Mohini Attam
5. Orissa Odissi
6. Tamil Nadu Bharatanatyam

II. Develop a write up on any one of the dance forms of India.

Remember to focus on the following points.
1. The area it belongs to
2. Its importance
3. Description of the dance
Answer:
Kuchipudi:
Kuchipudi is one such unique form of Art which is the tasteful blend of grace and vigour, elevation and sensuality, of control and abandonment. With its roots buried in the soil of Andhra Pradesh in India, Kuchipudi was born in a remote village from which it derived its name. In the early days, the Kuchipudi style of dance was in the form of dance dramas, the main purpose being to inculcate divine ecstasy which invokes immortal bliss and brings one closer to the path of salvation. It is strictly classical in nature incorporating Lasya, Thandava and Abinaya in the interpretation of Slokas. It incorporates Samyutha and Asamyutha Hasthas, Karana, Chari, Angahara, Mandala, Nrutha Hasthas etc. all men-tioned in the Natya Sasthra. Kuchipudi dance is the only dance form where all the four Abhinayas (Angika, Vachika, Aaharya and Satvica) are given equal importance. The use of Vachikabhinayam is a special feature in the Kuchipudi dance style. The Dancer not only merely dances but also acts with gestures as well as words. It takes at least ten years for an ordinary dancer to master this art and be able to express Bhava through eyes and Rhythm through foot work.

There were two parallel schools of dance, Nattuva Mela and Natya Mela. Nattuva Mela developed into Bharathanatyam (performing solo items) and Natya Mela into the Kuchipudi dance in dance drama style. Nattuva mela is basically solo dance performed by women and the nattuvangam is generally done by men. The repertoire of this style of dance consists of both erotic and devotional items, Sringara and Bhakti. This is the form of dance that both the temple dancers and the court dancers used to perform, with God or king as the hero, as the case may be. The second style of dance is Natya mela which is generally performed by both men and women. Their repertoire consists of dance dramas with themes, not necessarily religious, to entertain the audience. This later form of dance is believed to be the forerunner of the present day Kuchipudi dance.

Sidhendra Yogi, an exceptionally gifted scholar and artiste, who lived in the 16th century gave a definite format and purified this ancient art. Sidhendra abstained from training women fearing that they might exaggerate the sentiments expressed and dispel it of its spiritual tone. Kuchipudi became an all male domain. The female roles were also impersonated by men.

All the families residing in Kuchipudi were devoted to either in teaching or performing this austere dance style. Dance was their one and only source of living. Kuchipudi remained confined to the narrow limits of an obscure village with little exposure.

Late Guru Sri Vedantam Lakshmi Narayana Sastry, an unparalleled maestro in the field created a flutter by introducing women to Kuchipudi. He has taken Keertanas, Astapadis, Padams, Sabdams, Tarangams for solo performance.

The major attraction in Kuchipudi dance style is performing ‘Tarangam.’ The source literature is Narayana Teertha’s Srikrishna Leela Tarangini. Dancing with the feet settled on the rims of a brass plate was introduced to make the style more attractive and outshine when in comparison with its kindred styles. This is not a gimmick, nor is it an effort to bring in irrelevant acrobatics. Such sequences reveal the artiste’s mastery over rhythmic complexities. Solo items were choreographed; compositions of eminent poets were taken and set to choreography. These changes lent a glimmer to the art and Kuchipudi. Bhama Kalapam and Golla Kalapam are the two major Kalapams that are practised by the Kuchipudi dancers.

Kuchipudi acquired a wholly new dimension. Padmabhushan Dr. Vempati Chinna Satyam refined Kuchipudi, bringing it completely within the boundaries of Natya Sastra and gave it wholly new perspective. He enlarged and enriched the repertoire both in solo items and dance dramas.Compositions of eminent poets in all regional languages were set to the dance.

Dr. Vempati Chinna Satyam has become a legend to look upon with reverence for all times to come in the annals of Kuchipudi. With his arduous efforts to plant Kuchipudi firmly on the cultural map of India, Kuchipudi has spread its wings all over the globe erasing the boundaries of one country and one continent.

Project Work

I. Collect the data from different families in your area about the festivals they celebrate. You may use the following table to collect the information.
AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India 1

II. Discuss in groups how the data in the Table given above supports the concept of unity in diversity. You may also discuss if there are some other ways that too may help strengthen this unity. Write a report.
Answer:
People of different religions and cultures that live together in the same neighbourhood will have an opportunity to know and understand each others’ customs, traditions and ritual heritage. There will be a development of respecting each others’ religion, caste or creed and mingle with each other. A sense of universal brotherhood prevails in the neighbourhood which is the first step to progress of the country. The policy of ’Unity in Diversity’ is justified. The elders can sow the seeds of friendship, brotherhood and communal tolerance in the minds of children and enrich their minds with secular feelings.

Internal disputes, communal riots and religious differences which are the pests in the fields of unity, fraternity and solidarity can be removed when we celebrate and participate in each others’ festivals, rituals and customary conventions. The national festivals which we celebrate despite the religious discriminations will help strengthen the feelings of nationality and patriotism which is far above all the differences.

Ours is a country of many ethnic groups, over 1,650 spoken languages, dialects, regional variations—a land of myriad tongues—numerous modes of apparel and countless mannerisms. For the most part, the continental size of the country accounts for the variations and diversities.

It is the dynamism and the flexibility that have enabled Indian culture to survive despite its many diversities and heavy odds. Through these diversities runs a common stream, as it were, and the similarity and unity of outlook can be noticed from North to South and East to West. Indian culture is actually a continuous synthesis, and has absorbed many external influences in the course of history.

The real strength of Indian culture lies in basic unity, vigour and the ability to contain an amazing diversity within itself. In this country there are people who belong to different/varied schools of thought and who never seem to agree on anything. And yet, the concepts of one basic culture and one nation have continued.

Another notable characteristic of Indian culture is that it has always been based on moral and religious values; on these values the outlook shows an amazing similarity, almost throughout the country. Of course, there are groups which seem to be always on the war-path, and there are dissidents who question the basic framework on which the Indian polity is based, but they constitute a very small fraction of the total population.

India is a secular State, and the people, with a few exceptions, have reverence for every faith; there is no effort to impose one religion on other. The Constitution itself, framed with the full consent of the people, guarantees the freedom of thought and expression. The Constitution does not recognise distinctions based on religion, sex or caste, or any other factor.

Modernism coexists with orthodoxy, as does progressive thought with conservatism, and even reactionary trends. The broad features of the Hindu culture, (which is not linked to the Hindu religion but is broadly Indian culture). It is not fixed or static but is constantly adapting itself to changed conditions, thus responding favourably to new challenges; tolerance of conflicting beliefs, liberalism and broadmindedness; emphasis on ethical conduct and spiritualism; control of passions and temper; justice and truth, and disdain of wealth and the pleasures of the senses.

Indian culture, in fact, represents a synthesis on many strains. It contains the best features of many traditions of other lands. Undoubtedly, certain corrupt influences and distortions have crept in, but these aberrations have not affected the basis, which is solid, not shaky in any sense. Absorption and assimilation have been responsible for the lasting qualities of Indian culture; the diversities seem to disappear in course of time, leaving behind the basic beliefs very much intact.

Mahatma Gandhi’s view that veneration for other faiths is a part of our own system holds well because of the recognition that each religion has truth and honesty as its basis. Most people have a wide, universal outlook. All these factors account for the unity in diversity that is an outstanding feature of this country.

Unity in Diversity in India Summary in English

India is a country with many races, cultures, languages and modes of apparel. The religions, sects and beliefs are not the obstacles to perturb its unity.

The traditions, conventions, way of living are in no way barriers of its development. The rich culture and heritage justifies the unity in social, intellectual and human development. The Indian civilization is a mixture of Dravidian, Aryan and Hindu cultures bringing North and South to a common stage.

People may speak different languages, may follow different regional habits but they have one common language to bring into one stream and that is Hindi recognised as the national language of India.

India is a land of rich music, fine arts, sculpture, spiritual impact and passionate heritage. The West gets attracted towards India for the way of life we had. The festivals of India depict the unity, love and feeling of universal brotherhood.

The ancestral heritage of sages, maharishis, spiritual leaders stand as a symbol of piety, peace and non-violence. The temples, monuments and caves represent the rich sculpture and architecture of Indian intellectual minds. The music and dance are considered to be the passion from ancient era to the present. The dance and art forms highlight the aesthetic outlook and spirituality. The themes like power, shakti, tragedy and love are performed to show varied aspects in the united India.

The individual in the whole, the simple in composite and one in many can be the divergence in convergence and unity in diversity – a special feature of only our nation.

Unity in Diversity in India Glossary

ethnic (adj) : connected with/belonging to a nation, race or people that shares a cultural tradition

myriad (adj) : an extremely large number of

veritable (adj) : truthful

babel (n) : the sound of many voices talking at a time

apparel (n) : mode of dress

diversities (n) : differences

eminent (adj) : important

superficial (adj) : not deep/apparent

bewildered (v) : confused

AP SSC 10th Class English Solutions Chapter 6C Unity in Diversity in India

astonishing (adj) : surprising

aggregate (n) : sum/whole

interpretation (n) : individual imagination

synthesis (n) : combination

penetrate (v) : go intoAhrough

discern (v) : to know/understand or recognize; judge

civilisation (n) : an advanced stage of social development

assimilated (v) : absorbed into a larger group

convention (n) : the way in which most people do

heir (n) : person entitled to inherit a property

flourished (v) : existed in abundance

creed (n) : a system of religious belief

blend (v) : to mix two or more substances together

dialects (n) : the forms of a language that are spoken in one area

sages (n) : wise people

seers (n) : people who claim that they can see what is going to happen in the future

piety (n) : showing a deep respect for ( esp: for god/religion)

penance (n) : voluntary self-punishment for wrong doing

contemplation (n) : the act of thinking deeply

proficiency (n) : competency